1603461600

# Polarization in the Senate

Polarization is increasing. How does this play out in the Senate?

_Code for this project can be found on _GithubIn our last article, we showed empirically that polarization in the American Congress in increasing. In this article, we dive deeper and explore these trends in the Senate specifically. We specify another metric, party loyalty, as a proxy value to polarization. This metric helps us further confirm our empirical findings on the trend of polarization and to answer the question: are individual Senators becoming more loyal to their party? Do Senators who are more loyal to their party stay in power longer than those who reach across the aisle?Party loyalty is defined as the percentage of Senators of a given party which votes in line with the majority of the party. To illustrate the concept we take the vote for the Affordable Care Act as an example. In this vote all Democrats voted for it, while all Republicans voted against it. The party loyalty is therefore 100% for both parties.As can be seen from the screenshot below, which shows this result of the vote for the Affordable Care Act, we can also see the name and state of each Senator. That allows us to investigate the party loyalty for each Senator and state. The website provides us with all bills voted on in the Senate between 1989 and 2020. Having data for over 30 years gives us the possibility to investigate the dynamics over time.

In order to calculate the average party loyalty for a given year, we proceed as follows: for every bill a Senator faces, we assign them the value1 if the voted with party majority, and a zero if they did not. Afterwards we average all these values a Senator accumulated over a years time. With that we obtain the average party loyalty of an individual Senator. If we now average the values of all Senators within a party, we get the average party loyalty of the entire party within a year. Below, a mathematical notation for this concept is given.

Furthermore, it is important to talk about what the numerical boundaries of our concept of party loyalty are. From our Affordable Care Act example, it should be clear that the maximum average party loyalty across all Senators of one party is equal to 100% or 1. That is because everybody voted in line with the majority of the party.The lower boundary of the average party loyalty across all Senators of one party, though, cannot be any lower than 0.5. That is because how we define a party’s majority. A majority is defined as having more people voting for it than against it.Assuming a positive even amount of Senators, N, within one party, and given the discrete nature of votes, the minimum amount of votes needed for a majority is equal to (N/2 + 1). All these Senators will, following our definition, be assigned a value of one, whereas the rest (N/2 - 1) gets assigned the zero. If we now calculate the average across all Senators we get the following equation which shows that the average value is always going to be strictly above 0.5. The mathematical notation below also shows that this holds for an uneven number of Senators within a party.

Of course we also have to address the case of an even amount of Senators where exactly half of the Senate votes one way, and the rest votes the otherway. In that case we manually set the party loyalty to 0.5.

Average Party Loyalty across all Senators and Parties over TimeBefore looking into how the average party loyalty developed within each party, we start by looking into the development average party loyalty across Senators and parties. This figure is obtained by averaging the party loyalty figure of each Senator over both parties for a given year.

#data-visualization #politics #statistics #america

1617157528

## What is Polaris DeFi (POLAR) | What is Polaris DeFi token | What is POLAR token

Polaris is a fairly distributed competitive farming protocol and launchpad platform on Binance Smart Chain.

### Polaris Mission Statement

Issues In Yield Farming

Although BSC is the ideal chain for yield farming because of cheap tx fees, current yield farming solutions (including Goose and its numerous forks) are not optimal.

For example, these platforms will invariably insist on users depositing liquidity tokens to their platform, when there is no need for it given they are simply routing via PancakeSwap.

The majority of these tokens also have zero utility, rendering the entire farming process valueless from the outset.

BSC: A Booming Ecosystem

In recent months, a plethora of projects have chosen to broaden their horizons to BSC. Naturally, an equal number of “launchpads” have sprung up to accommodate their liquidity bootstrapping.

However, these current launchpads offer no meaningful incentives for other teams to make use of their platform. Invariably, these platforms make the team fund reward tokens without giving anything in return, which simply serves to dilute the circulating supply and prejudices both the team and the community.

Enter Polaris

Polaris aims to take the competitive farming model pioneered by GYSR, enhance the model using the best elements of popular DeFi protocols, and apply the whole package to the gas-optimized ecosystem of BSC.

In short — Polaris will allow users to farm a fairly distributed token — POLAR. In time, users will be able to spend \$POLAR in Polaris “Supernovas” to increase harvested rewards

As a result, the POLAR token will provide an ongoing incentive for:

• Projects to launch yield farms on Polaris — POLAR spent in the partner pools is transferred to the launchpad partner. Teams can use the POLAR to buy/burn their tokens, or keep the revenue to develop their project (e.g. implementing \$POLAR into their own farming strategies).
• Users to farm POLAR — Users can spend POLAR to earn multiplier rewards and earn more rewards in partner token yield farms.

In addition, all non-native POLAR pools utilize single-asset staking, protecting users from exposure to impermanent loss.

### How do I use Polaris?

POLAR can be farmed via a selection of major and minor pools.

A 4% deposit fee is charged on all non-native pools, which is used to fund BNB rewards and ongoing development costs.

#### Single Asset Staking

A downside of many yield farming protocols is their reliance on LP pairings during the initial liquidity bootstrapping phase. This brings with it associated risks of impermanent loss.

However, given that Polaris is an experimental protocol, we feel that users should be able to participate in the platform without exposing themselves to the risks associated with liquidity provision.

As such, POLAR will predominantly be farmed via single asset staking. For a detailed breakdown of all pools, please see the graphic below.

1. Launch major and minor pools (available on TGE)
• Earn POLAR rewards by staking POLAR-BNB, POLAR-BUSD, and POLAR with no fees.
• Earn POLAR rewards by staking single assets with no risk of impermanent loss and a 4% deposit fee.

2. Launch BNB Supernova Geyser (1–2 weeks)

• 50% of the deposit fees from pools will be converted to BNB.
• The BNB can be earned by staking POLAR-BNB LP.

3. Integrate Launchpad Partner tokens into Partner Supernova Geysers (1–2 weeks)

• Earn launchpad partner tokens by staking TOKEN-BNB LP.
• Spend POLAR during harvests to earn bonus multipliers on rewards.

4. Upgrade Supernova and Partner Supernovas to Integrate Competitive Farming (1–2 weeks)

• Earn BNB rewards by staking POLAR-BNB LP.
• Spend POLAR during harvests to earn bonus multipliers on BNB rewards

These objectives are broken down in more detail below.

### Polaris Supernova Geyser — Earn BNB by Staking POLAR/BNB

Unlike other farming protocols, Polaris will allow users to earn BNB for providing POLAR/BNB liquidity into a geyser contract referred to as the Polaris Supernova (this is not to be confused with the basic BNB-POLAR farm).

In a similar manner to AMPL on Ethereum, the Polaris Supernova Geyser will calculate users’ farming rate based on a multiplier that starts at 1x and increases over time for as long as the user remains staked in the pool.

Instead of rewards per block, users will own a % of the pool based on (i) time staked and (ii) total staked amount.

Users can top up their stake without impacting their multiplier, but to claim rewards the user needs to unstake. This resets their multiplier for the portion of tokens that were unstaked.

The Polaris Supernova offer various advantages when compared to traditional yield farming strategies:

• User benefits from bonus multipliers for longer, uninterrupted farming;
• If other people drop out of the pool — you get more pool share; and
• Incentivizing long term staking is more beneficial for partner pools and therefore encourages other BSC projects to utilize the Polaris platform.

### Launchpad Pools and Partner Supernovas

A unique feature of Polaris is the ability of any BSC project to leverage our competitive farming model to bootstrap their own protocol’s liquidity. This is an entirely novel feature in the BSC ecosystem.

As mentioned above, POLAR tokens are spendable during the reward claiming process in order to increase your reward multiplier.

What other BSC projects can then do is launch their own Supernovas.

This is similar to when PancakeSwap launched and allowed its users to stake CAKE to earn TWT and ALPHA. The difference here is that, on Polaris, users can also spend POLAR to increase their rewards.

Crucially, project teams will then receive any POLAR spent by users when claiming their rewards from Partner Supernovas. This functions as an ongoing incentive for partners to utilize Polaris Launchpad.

The final goal of Polaris will be to upgrade the Supernovas to enable users to spend POLAR to enhance their farming multipliers at the point of claiming rewards.

This will function in a similar manner to GYSR on Ethereum, and encourages active management of deposits in order to earn a competitive edge over other stakers.

For example:

• User A deposits into a Supernova for 30 days without unstaking.
• After a period of time, taking into account users A’s time in the pool, Polaris allocates User A a default 1.5 bonus multiplier on their pending rewards.
• When claiming these rewards, User A chooses to spend POLAR to increase this default multiplier.
• In this example (taking into account the price of POLAR), User A is able to spend 100 POLAR to triple their pending rewards.
• In return for paying the 100 POLAR, User A would then receive a 4.5x multiplier when they unstake and harvest rewards.

The number of POLAR tokens required to get a specific bonus multiplier is calculated algorithmically, based on the average amount of POLAR used.

Further details on this will follow, but the basic model is outlined below:

### POLAR Tokenomics

Due to a deployment error, POLAR and the farming contracts were redeployed and migrated. The updated tokenomics are as follows"

Initial supply: 75,000 (airdropped to v1 holders at a 10:1 ratio)

Total max supply: 500,000

Emission rate:

• 0.1 POLAR/block for first 100 days
• ~2,880 POLAR/day
• 0.05 POLAR/block afterwards until max supply has been hit
• 5% of each mint will be automatically sent to the developer’s address to fund ongoing developments.

Fees:

There is a 4% deposit fee on all non-POLAR staking pools.

• 2% will be converted to wBNB and will fund the initial Supernova geyser on a rolling basis
• 2% will be sent to the developer wallets as compensation to the team

Launch:

• The initial supply of 100,000 POLAR will be launched on PCS with 200 BNB in liquidity.

### How To Buy And Farm POLAR: A Step-By-Step Tutorial

A big shout out to Polaris community member @worldpeas for creating this incredibly helpful guide!

Polaris DeFi is one of the latest out-of-this-world DeFi projects on the Binance Smart Chain universe. We know you can’t wait to get started, so get in your spaceship, strap on your seatbelts tightly and we’ll teach you how to blast off to yields beyond our galaxy.

Follow the instructions in the app to set up your wallet. Click on “Create a Wallet” to create a new wallet. You will have to enter a password, and you’ll be given a backup seed phrase. Save the backup seed phrase somewhere safe in your spaceship so that no other crewmates or aliens can access it.

After you have confirmed the seed phrase on the next screen, you should now be able to access your wallet and will be able to send and receive funds.

#### 2. Configuring your wallet to work with Binance Smart Chain

Once your wallet is all set up, one thing to note is that it is still on the Ethereum network. We want to make sure we are on the Binance Smart Chain so that we can take advantage of the lower fees.

Click on the circle in the top right, then click on Settings at the bottom.

On the settings page, click on “Networks”.

Click on Add Network in the top right corner to manually add the Binance Smart Chain network and fill in the following details to access the Binance Smart Chain Mainnet

Network Name: Binance Smart Chain

New RPC URL:  https://bsc-dataseed.binance.org/

ChainID: 56

Symbol: BNB

Block Explorer URL:  https://bscscan.com

Click on Save and you’ll return to the main view. Your wallet now shows that you are connected to Binance Smart Chain and units are now denominated in BNB, the default coin on the Binance Smart Chain network.

Now your wallet is all set up, you’ll need to get some BNB in order to interact with smart contracts on the Binance Smart Chain network.

You can purchase BNB on  Binance.com or FTX.com, then send that BNB to your new wallet address. Make sure to send your BNB via Binance Smart Chain (BEP20) when sending from the exchange to your wallet or you may lose your funds! Purchase the amount in BNB that you’d like to invest in POLAR, plus some extra for gas fees. We recommend getting at least another US\$20 worth of BNB for gas fees to get started.

For example, if you wish to buy \$1,000 worth of POLAR, you should buy about \$1,020 worth of BNB.

Gas fees on Binance Smart Chain usually cost less than \$0.50 but may sometimes go up to \$2 for complex transactions. (Yes, you read that right! You no longer have to pay gas fees amounting to tens of dollars in this brave new world!)

To purchase POLAR, we recommend using BNB or BUSD as your base currency, but we will use BNB for purposes of this tutorial since you have already purchased BNB.

Go to  https://exchange.polarisdefi.io/ or directly to  https://exchange.polarisdefi.io/#/swap?outputCurrency=0x3a5325f0e5ee4da06a285e988f052d4e45aa64b4 to swap your BNB for POLAR. You can see the exchange rate when you enter in the amounts you wish to swap for.

**⚠️ **If you wish to participate in the liquidity pool farming, convert only half of your BNB into POLAR as you will need to pair the other half to create a liquidity pool token (LP Token). Otherwise, you can stake your POLAR tokens in the single POLAR pool.

Click on Swap, and a screen will pop up asking you to confirm the swap. You can also see more information about the price of POLAR, the price impact and the liquidity provider fees. Click on Confirm Swap to complete the swap.

A MetaMask window will pop up asking you to confirm the swap, with estimated gas fees. Click on Confirm to proceed with the swap.

After clicking on Confirm in the MetaMask window, you should see this pop up in the Polaris screen.

When the transaction has been completed, you can see that your POLAR balance has increased.

#### 4. Creating and staking Liquidity Pool (LP) Tokens

To create an LP token, you will need to pair your POLAR token with either BNB or BUSD in the ratio of about 50:50. That means if you want to farm \$2000 worth of LP tokens, you’ll need \$1000 in either BNB or BUSD, and \$1000 in POLAR tokens.

Go to  https://exchange.polarisdefi.io/#/add/0x3a5325f0e5ee4da06a285e988f052d4e45aa64b4 and choose either BNB or BUSD to pair with your POLAR tokens. For purposes of this tutorial, I will be pairing POLAR with BUSD.

You can try clicking on Max for either BUSD or POLAR to see which value will allow you to form the maximum amount of LP tokens. In this case, we can use the maximum BUSD I have and still have some POLAR tokens leftover. This is normal as often we are not able to get exactly 50:50 for both tokens.

Click on Approve POLAR and confirm the transaction in the MetaMask pop up. After POLAR has been approved, the Supply button will be active and you can click on Supply. Click on Confirm Supply in the pop up.

After the transaction has been confirmed, you can see the LP tokens now in your wallet.

#### 5. LP farming

To farm your new LP tokens, you will need to stake them in the Major Pool.

Go to  https://app.polarisdefi.io/farms where you will see all the farms available to farm POLAR. On this page, you will find the different farms with the yield (APR) you can get from each farm as well as the deposit fee, if any.

We created the POLAR-BUSD LP token in the previous step, so we will be farming in the POLAR-BUSD farm.

Click on Approve Contract then confirm the transaction in the MetaMask pop up.

After the contract has been approved, click on Stake then Max to stake all the LP tokens you have.

Click on** Confirm**, then** Confirm **again in the MetaMask wallet pop up.

You can now see the amount of LP you have staked, and how much POLAR you have earned.

If you do not want to stake any LPs, you can stake in the single POLAR pool. The steps are the same as staking an LP: Approve ContractStake, then Confirm.

#### 6. Harvesting your POLAR rewards

To harvest your POLAR rewards, just click on the Harvest button and then confirm the transaction in the MetaMask pop up.

The POLAR tokens will now be in your wallet.

#### How and Where to Buy Polaris DeFi (POLAR)?

POLAR has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy POLAR

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since POLAR is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that POLAR can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade POLAR in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase POLAR from the exchange: PancakeSwap

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once POLAR gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

https://www.binance.com
https://www.bittrex.com
https://www.poloniex.com
https://www.bitfinex.com
https://www.huobi.com
https://www.mxc.ai
https://www.probit.com
https://www.gate.io
https://www.coinbase.com

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner

⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!

☞ **-----https://geekcash.org-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#bitcoin #crypto #polaris defi #polar

1619596908

## What is Polars (POL) | What is Polars token | What is POL token

The new DeFi platform for creating secure polar tokens, the price of which depends on the results of specific external events. Within the POLARS platform, users can buy, sell and exchange polar tokens, as well as participate in the distribution of the platform’s commission income. The first polar token pair available for trading on the POLARS platform are the BLACK and WHITE polar tokens.

#### Base Concept

The price of polar tokens depends on the results of specific external events

Let’s summarize the basic concept of Polars as simply as possible in 10 points:

1. There are two polar tokens.
2. The first polar tokens created on the Polars platform are BLACK and WHITE tokens. For the convenience of perceiving information, below we will use these polar tokens (BLACK and WHITE) as an example.
3. These two polar tokens exist exclusively in pairs and have a specific aggregate value.
4. If the WHITE token rises in price, then the BLACK token will fall in price by the same amount. Conversely, if the BLACK token rises in price, then the WHITE token will fall in price by the same amount. But it is important to note that their aggregate price will remain unchanged.
5. No matter how the price of polar tokens changes to each other, their aggregate price always remains unchanged. Therefore, if a user owns the same amount of two polar tokens at once, the value of his assets remains unchanged. But if a user owns one of the two polar tokens, the value of his assets can either rise or fall.
6. Which token will fall in price and which token will rise in price is influenced by the results of specific events from the real world. For example sports competitions, political confrontations, or exchange rates.
7. Buying one of the polar tokens, the user makes a kind of bet on the victory of one of the warring parties.
8. For ease of perception, and to increase the competitive spirit, we have introduced the concept of 2 polar opposing teams: White Team and Black Team. Within the framework of a specific competition, one of the opposing sides falls on the side of the White Team, and the second on the side of the Black Team.
9. As part of a specific event that affects the price of polar tokens BLACK and WHITE, the standard volatility of tokens fluctuates within 5%. That is, if the White Team wins, the price of the WHITE token will increase by about 5%, and the price of the BLACK token will fall by the same amount.
10. Every day, the price of specific polar tokens can be consistently influenced by from 5 to 15 events from the outside world, therefore, the price of polar tokens can change more than 10 times per day.
11. Each subsequent event uses the prices of the polar tokens of the previous event as initial ones. Consequently, several consecutive victories by one of the teams will have a cumulative effect on the price of polar tokens, but their total value will remain unchanged.

Consequently, users buy, sell, exchange and hold polar tokens based on the predictions they make in relation to those events that affect the price of polar tokens.

#### Example

For a maximum understanding of the mechanics of polar tokens, we propose to consider an illustrative example:

• Initial price of WHITE token: \$0.56
• Initial price of BLACK token: \$0.44
• Total price of polar tokens: \$1
• Upcoming competition: Football, Champions League, Barcelona — Real Madrid.
• White Team — Barcelona, ​​Black Team — Real Madrid.
• The assumed volatility is 5%.
• Let’s assume that the user predicts the victory of Real Madrid, the Black Team. The user buys BLACK tokens at the current price of \$0.44.
• The event is happening, and indeed, the Real Madrid (the black team) won in this competition. The price of the Black token has grown by 5% to the level of \$0.462, while the price of the White token has fallen by the same amount. But their aggregate price has remained unchanged.
• New WHITE price: \$0.538
• BLACK new price: \$0.462
• Aggregate price of polar tokens: \$1

As we can see, the asset value of the user who bought BLACK tokens has grown and now he has several options for further actions:

• Sell ​​BLACK tokens and fix the profit.
• Leave BLACK tokens if the user predicts the Black Team will win in the next event.
• Exchange existing BLACK tokens for WHITE tokens if the user predicts the White Team will win in the upcoming event.
• Buy cheaper WHITE tokens in addition to the existing BLACK tokens and become a market maker of the Polars platform on more favorable terms, earning from swap fees and income from farming

In fact, there are many more options for action and various strategies to increase efficiency than described above, but we will talk about them in our next articles.

As you can see, this polar tokens model solves one of the main problems of the prediction market — the lack of liquidity and trading volume. Within the framework of one pair of polar tokens, the interests of many user groups intersect at each moment of time, so the liquidity for buying and selling should presumably be more than enough to carry out impressive trading volumes on the platform.

Additionally, as part of the Polars concept, we have implemented quite a few mechanics that expand the opportunities for earning various groups of users. In addition to making money on forecasts, users will be able to earn as liquidity providers. Thanks to the unique secondary pool design, there are many profitable arbitrage opportunities due to the absence of slippage, and the risk of Impermanent Losses is eliminated for liquidity providers.

Users will be able to receive additional rewards in management tokens for carrying out various activities on the Polars platform: making a trading volume, making a trading volume by referrals, participating in voting on the platform, providing liquidity of polar tokens.

30% of all commission fees of the Polars platform are distributed among the holders of management tokens. 20% of the fees are sent to the base pool, increasing the security of polar tokens, which increases their total value. The remaining 50% of commission fees are shared by liquidity providers. We will write about how the Polars platform is technically arranged in subsequent articles, within the framework of this article, our task is to analyse the basic concept of polar tokens.

Multichain Platform Development

Another important feature of Polars is multi-chain development. To begin with, we are launching the platform on the Ethereum network and Binance Smart Chain. Further, according to the plan, the platform is being deployed in the Polkadot network, as well as in other networks compatible with Ethereum EVM. This will allow users to choose a network in order to optimize commission fees and allocate liquidity according to the number of users and their activity in different networks.

Clear horizons, access limitless cross-chain liquidity. Fast transactions, low fees, growing community. Coming soon.

The classic traditional implementation of the reliable Defi protocol. Suitable for those users for whom tradition is more important and they are willing to put up with high network fees. Available.

Implementation of the main POLARS protocol within the BSC network for users who care about their money. High transaction speed, low fees, growing liquidity and trading volume. Ideal for today’s POLARS users. Available.

### Polars liquidity distribution program has several stages:

1. Private Sale [150mln POL] — April-May 2021
2. **Pre-sale for testers **[34.1mln] — May 2021
3. Public sale [5.8mln POL] — end of May 2021
4. _- _Phase 1. IDO Platforms [2.5mln POL]
• Phase 2. Balancer LPB [3.33mln POL]
5. Liquidity farming program [2,5mln POL] — June-August 2021
6. Testers airdrop [5mln POL] — TBA

Let’s take a closer look at each of the stages.

### Governance  Token

POL is used in the Polars ecosystem to manage the platform, vote, revenue share, increase yield farming APY, and create new polar tokens.

100%: Total emission - 2,000,000,000 POL
70%: Yield Farming - 1,400,000,000 POL
20%: Team - 400,000,000 POL
7.5%: Private Sale - 150,000,000 POL
2.5%: Public Sale - 50,000,000 POL

Release Information

Team: locked for 9 month, then 25% per quarter
Private Sale: locked for 6 month, then 25% per quarter
Marketing: locked for 6 month, then 25% per quarter
Public Sale: fully unlocked and 1-6 month lockup for testers

#### Private Sale

We receive many requests from users with an offer to participate in a private sale, but our main task at the current stage is to get powerful and competent backers in the face of venture funds and institutional investors. In the ranks of the Private Sale participants, we would like to see successful venture funds, influencers and opinion leaders, infrastructure players and other institutional investors. These categories will be given the opportunity to acquire most of the Private Sale allocations. We are interested in getting investors and partners on board who see potential in our idea and intend to help in the development of the platform for a long time.

[7.5%] 150,000,000 POL for Private Sale investors.

Minimum investment: \$50,000

Lock-up: 6 month, then unlock 25% per quarter

Date: April-May 2021

#### Pre-sale for testers

Users who will actively participate in the beta testing of the platform, beginning in April, will have access to the closed pre-sale stage. To do this, the user needs to be added to the white list of testers and follow the instructions for testing the platform. We want active users to become owners of governance tokens on the best terms, which is why we have singled out this stage of the token sale separately. The maximum allocation for one Ethereum address is \$ 1000.

[1.68%] 34,165,000 POL for pre-sale for testers
Option 1: \$0.15, lockup 6 month
Option 2: \$0.20, lockup 3 month
Option 3: \$0.25, lockup 1 month
Date: May 2021

#### Public Sale

Phase 1

IDO Platforms

At the moment, we are negotiating with several IDO platforms and determine with them the final conditions and timing of the token sale. List of platforms to be announced.

[0.125%] 2,500,000 POL for IDO Platforms
Price \$0.2
Date: end of May 2021

Phase 2

Balancer LPB

We endorse the token sale model by creating smart pools on Balancer. This eliminates annoying bots that buy faster than human users and drive up the price very high before regular users can buy tokens at the normal price. On Balancer it is possible to wait until the price reaches an equilibrium value within the framework of the current supply and demand. This is true for users.

[0.16%] 3,333,333 POL for Balancer LPB
Start Price \$0.3
End price \$0.2
Date: end of May 2021

#### Liquidity farming program

Immediately after listing on Uniswap and Pancake Swap, the Liquidity farming program starts. Users can add liquidity to POL-ETH, POL-USDC pairs on Uniswap and add liquidity to Pancake swap and receive POL token farming within a month after listing.

[0.125%] 2,500,000 POL for Liquidity farming program
Terms: 3 month after listing on Uniswap
Date: June 2021

#### Testers airdrop

Sometime after listing on Uniswap, we plan an airdrop of POL tokens among all users who participated in the beta testing of the Polars Platform. We have allocated a specific number of tokens, which will be evenly distributed among all testers who are on the whitelist and have met all the necessary testing conditions.

[0.25%] 5,000,000 POL for Testers airdrop
Terms: TBA
Date: TBA

This is where the liquidity distribution program ends. After that, POL tokens can only be obtained as a result of activity on the Polars platform. We suggest studying the article about mechanisms of farming. In order to learn about the benefits and benefits of owning POL tokens, we advise you to read the article on POL Governance tokens.

#### Final key metrics

• Hardcap: \$14.9M
• Initial marketcap at TGE: ~\$2.5M

Prices:

• Private: \$0.05
• Pre-sale: \$0.15 — \$0.25
• IDO: \$0.2
• Balancer: \$0.3 — \$0.2
• Uniswap: end price of Balancer

#### How and Where to Buy Polars (POL) ?

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT/BNB deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase POL from the website: https://polars.io/pol-token

The top exchange for trading in POL token is currently

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once POL gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

https://www.binance.com
☞ https://www.bittrex.com
☞ https://www.poloniex.com
☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
☞ https://www.huobi.com

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#bitcoin #cryptocurrency #pol #polars

1622844000

## Upcoming Polkadot Gems: Relite, Polars And X Predict Market

Upcoming Polkadot Gems: Relite, Polars And X Predict Market

I love your feedback so don’t forget to leave a Like & Comment on this video if you enjoyed it and subscribe for more bitcoin, alt coin and any other cryptocurrency news! Thanks for watching!

📺 The video in this post was made by EverythingAltcoin
️ The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qF9p897rkc

🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
(There is no limit to the amount of credit you can earn through referrals)
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #polkadot gems #relite #polars

1603461600

## Polarization in the Senate

Polarization is increasing. How does this play out in the Senate?

_Code for this project can be found on _GithubIn our last article, we showed empirically that polarization in the American Congress in increasing. In this article, we dive deeper and explore these trends in the Senate specifically. We specify another metric, party loyalty, as a proxy value to polarization. This metric helps us further confirm our empirical findings on the trend of polarization and to answer the question: are individual Senators becoming more loyal to their party? Do Senators who are more loyal to their party stay in power longer than those who reach across the aisle?Party loyalty is defined as the percentage of Senators of a given party which votes in line with the majority of the party. To illustrate the concept we take the vote for the Affordable Care Act as an example. In this vote all Democrats voted for it, while all Republicans voted against it. The party loyalty is therefore 100% for both parties.As can be seen from the screenshot below, which shows this result of the vote for the Affordable Care Act, we can also see the name and state of each Senator. That allows us to investigate the party loyalty for each Senator and state. The website provides us with all bills voted on in the Senate between 1989 and 2020. Having data for over 30 years gives us the possibility to investigate the dynamics over time.

In order to calculate the average party loyalty for a given year, we proceed as follows: for every bill a Senator faces, we assign them the value1 if the voted with party majority, and a zero if they did not. Afterwards we average all these values a Senator accumulated over a years time. With that we obtain the average party loyalty of an individual Senator. If we now average the values of all Senators within a party, we get the average party loyalty of the entire party within a year. Below, a mathematical notation for this concept is given.

Furthermore, it is important to talk about what the numerical boundaries of our concept of party loyalty are. From our Affordable Care Act example, it should be clear that the maximum average party loyalty across all Senators of one party is equal to 100% or 1. That is because everybody voted in line with the majority of the party.The lower boundary of the average party loyalty across all Senators of one party, though, cannot be any lower than 0.5. That is because how we define a party’s majority. A majority is defined as having more people voting for it than against it.Assuming a positive even amount of Senators, N, within one party, and given the discrete nature of votes, the minimum amount of votes needed for a majority is equal to (N/2 + 1). All these Senators will, following our definition, be assigned a value of one, whereas the rest (N/2 - 1) gets assigned the zero. If we now calculate the average across all Senators we get the following equation which shows that the average value is always going to be strictly above 0.5. The mathematical notation below also shows that this holds for an uneven number of Senators within a party.

Of course we also have to address the case of an even amount of Senators where exactly half of the Senate votes one way, and the rest votes the otherway. In that case we manually set the party loyalty to 0.5.

Average Party Loyalty across all Senators and Parties over TimeBefore looking into how the average party loyalty developed within each party, we start by looking into the development average party loyalty across Senators and parties. This figure is obtained by averaging the party loyalty figure of each Senator over both parties for a given year.

#data-visualization #politics #statistics #america

1632902527

## What is Polar Sync (POLAR) | What is POLAR token

Polar Sync aims to provide backend API solutions for applications to quickly and easily query data in real time from blockchains such as Binance Smart Chain, Ethereum, and more.

### How it works

Hyper Fast - GraphQL API

Polar Sync looks to provide superior hosted API solutions on multiple blockchains for users to query data in a reliable and predictable manner via GraphQL.

Developers are building custom servers that require expert level engineering and configuration setups that significantly increase development time of their applications and lead to inflated overall costs.

Backend infrastructures are essential to any cryptocurrency project.  In 2021, fast, reliable APIs are now more important than ever for continued growth of the ecosystem.

Access to full nodes via an API, like Infura, have seen amazing success

Clients ranging from Metamask, Coinbase, Uniswap, and others all rely on these services. Likewise with solutions such as The Graph providing data for a wide range of applications while securing a \$2B market cap for its service.

Total Supply: 1,000,000,000 token

How and Where to Buy POLAR token?

POLAR has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT, BNB from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy POLAR token.

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since POLAR is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that POLAR can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade POLAR in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT/BNB deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase POLAR from the exchange.

The top exchange for trading in POLAR token is currently:  BKEX, PancakeSwap (V2), and ApeSwap (BSC)

BNB Contract: 0xc64c9b30c981fc2ee4e13d0ca3f08258e725fd24