What is THETA Network (THETA) | What is THETA Network token | What is THETA token

What is Theta Network

Theta Network is the leading video delivery network powered by blockchain technology. Theta allows users to simultaneously watch video content and earn token rewards for relaying video to other users who are also watching the same content. In the same vein as other sharing economy models, users opt-in to volunteering their spare bandwidth and computing resources to relay video to other users and earn token rewards for their contributions. Users can contribute to Theta Network on any PC, mobile device, or smart TV.

For video platforms, integrating Theta into their video delivery stack enables them to reduce their video delivery cost, deepen viewer engagement, and drive incremental revenues. By spending less on video delivery infrastructure, and more on rewarding their users, Theta-enabled video platforms can grow their userbase and gain market share.

The Theta Blockchain is a purpose-built blockchain designed from the ground up for video and data relaying launched in March 2019. Theta’s  unique multi-BFT consensus design combines a committee of 20–30  Enterprise Validator Nodes with a second layer of 1000s of community-run Guardian Nodes. Validator Nodes propose and produce new blocks in the chain, while Guardian Nodes seal blocks and act as a check on malicious or otherwise non-functional Validator Nodes. As of December 2020, Enterprise Validator Nodes on Theta are run by Google, Blockchain Ventures, Samsung, Binance, gumi Cryptos, and Theta Labs, with several more major enterprises in the process of joining. After the Theta 2.0 launch in May 2020, Guardian Node counts quickly ramped up. Currently, there are almost 1,500 Guardian nodes run by the Theta community members.

The Theta blockchain mainnet enables the support for Turing-complete smart contracts. Smart contracts open up a whole new set of user experiences and new attribution models for DApps built on the Theta network. For example, leveraging smart contracts on the Theta network could enable fully digitized item ownership, innovative payment-consumption models, transparent royalty distributions, trustless crowdfunding mechanisms, and much more. This provides an additional layer of social and economic interactivity that supplements the core functionality of video and data delivery, and significantly increases the engagement and retention of platform users.

In addition to the Validator and Guardian Nodes, the Theta community members also host the Theta Edge Nodes, which form the Theta Edge Network, a fully decentralized network for data delivery and  more generally edge computing. As of Jan 2021, this edge network has grown over 7,500 nodes, covering all the corners of the world. Following Theta 2.0, the capability of the Theta Edge Node network was significantly enhanced with the release of Theta’s industry-leading peer-to-peer “EdgeCast” technology. This new fully decentralized technology stack adds the ability to capture live video, transcode it in real-time, cache and relay live stream video data to users globally - all through Theta’s P2P edge network run by thousands of community members. Not a single central server or service is used in this pipeline. This is a huge challenge and huge accomplishment.

The Theta Network features a dual token design. The Theta Token (THETA) is the governance token of the Theta protocol. THETA is used to stake as a Validator or Guardian node, contributing to block production and the protocol governance of the Theta Network. By staking and running a node, users will earn a proportional amount of the new TFUEL generated. The supply of THETA is fixed at 1 billion and will never increase. Theta Fuel (TFUEL) is the operational token of the Theta protocol. TFUEL is used for on-chain operations like payments to Edge Node relayers for sharing a video stream, or for deploying or interacting with smart contracts. Relayers earn TFUEL for every video stream they relay to other users on the network. You can think of Theta Fuel as the “gas” of the protocol. There were 5 billion TFUEL at genesis of Theta blockchain, and the supply increases annually at a fixed percentage set at the protocol level. In December 2020, Theta Labs announced Theta 3.0, which introduces a new crypto-economics design for TFuel, in particular, the concept of TFuel staking and burning. This will greatly expand the capacity and use cases of the network and maximize the utility value of TFuel.

For a deeper dive into the Theta technology stack, please read our whitepapers and research papers provided in the next section.

Who Are The Founders of Theta?

Theta was co-founded by Mitch Liu and Jieyi Long in 2018. Liu has a long history in the gaming and video industries, co-founding video advertising firm Tapjoy, mobile social gaming startup Gameview Studios, and THETA.tv, the live streaming platform whose DApp was the first to be built on the Theta protocol.

Long is Theta’s second co-founder and CTO, following similar multi-year experience in design automation, gaming, virtual reality, and large scale distributed systems. He authored multiple peer-reviewed academic papers and holds various patents in video streaming, blockchain and virtual reality.

Theta now has a modest team, and its official website lists strategic corporate investors as Samsung NEXT, Sony Innovation Fund, media investors BDMI Bertelsmann Digital Media Investments, CAA Creative Artists Agency, and traditional Silicon Valley VCs including DCM, Sierra Ventures and the VR Fund.

What Makes Theta Unique?

Theta’s main business concept is to decentralize video streaming, data delivery and edge computing, making it more efficient, cost-effective and fair for industry participants.

The network runs on a native blockchain, with two native tokens, known as Theta (THETA), Theta Fuel (TFUEL), powering the internal economy.

Theta’s appeal is threefold: viewers get rewarded with better quality streaming service, content creators improve their earnings and middlemen — video platforms — save money on building infrastructure and increase advertising and subscription revenues.

Users have an incentive to both watch network content and share network resources, as rewards come in the form of TFUEL tokens.

The platform is open source, and token holders receive governance powers as with many proof-of-stake (PoS)-based blockchain ecosystems.

In addition to video, data and computing, Theta caters to developers looking to launch decentralized applications (DApps) on its fully featured EVM-compatible Smart contract platform.

How Many Theta (THETA) Coins Are There in Circulation?

Theta involves two tokens: THETA and TFUEL. THETA exists only for governance purposes, with 5 TFUEL tokens issued per 1 THETA held at the time of the mainnet launch in 2019.

THETA itself launched in 2018, at which time it was distributed to buyers as an ERC-20 token on Ethereum. Afterwards, all ERC-20 THETA were converted to native THETA on the mainnet.

The total supply of THETA is capped at 1 billion (1,000,000,000) tokens. It is distributed in various proportions among all network participants, as well as the Theta team itself and a reserve pool.

TFUEL is used to power transactions in a similar way to gas on Ethereum (ETH). Its total supply is 5 billion (5,000,000,000) tokens.

How Is the Theta Network Secured?

Theta uses a financial incentive scheme to ensure user participation in governance activities, and hence its network is secured by its own users.

The network relies on proof-of-stake (PoS), and employs a multi-level Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) consensus mechanism to balance security with high transaction throughput.

With the launch of Guardian nodes in June 2019, Theta ensured that no single entity controls the majority of THETA tokens being staked at any one time.

Would you like to earn THETA right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy THETA ?

THETA has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy THETA

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase THETA from the Binance exchange.

Exchange: The top exchanges for trading in THETA are currently Binance, Huobi Global, OKEx, FTX, and Upbit.

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once THETA gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
https://www.bittrex.com
https://www.poloniex.com
https://www.bitfinex.com
https://www.huobi.com
https://www.mxc.ai
https://www.probit.com
https://www.gate.io
https://www.coinbase.com

Find more information THETA

WebsiteExplorerWhitepaperSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Message BoardCoinmarketcap

Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

Read more ☞ What is Theta Fuel (TFUEL) | What is Theta Fuel token | What is TFUEL token

#blockchain #bitcoin #theta network #theta

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What is THETA Network (THETA) | What is THETA Network token | What is THETA token

What is THETA Network (THETA) | What is THETA Network token | What is THETA token

What is Theta Network

Theta Network is the leading video delivery network powered by blockchain technology. Theta allows users to simultaneously watch video content and earn token rewards for relaying video to other users who are also watching the same content. In the same vein as other sharing economy models, users opt-in to volunteering their spare bandwidth and computing resources to relay video to other users and earn token rewards for their contributions. Users can contribute to Theta Network on any PC, mobile device, or smart TV.

For video platforms, integrating Theta into their video delivery stack enables them to reduce their video delivery cost, deepen viewer engagement, and drive incremental revenues. By spending less on video delivery infrastructure, and more on rewarding their users, Theta-enabled video platforms can grow their userbase and gain market share.

The Theta Blockchain is a purpose-built blockchain designed from the ground up for video and data relaying launched in March 2019. Theta’s  unique multi-BFT consensus design combines a committee of 20–30  Enterprise Validator Nodes with a second layer of 1000s of community-run Guardian Nodes. Validator Nodes propose and produce new blocks in the chain, while Guardian Nodes seal blocks and act as a check on malicious or otherwise non-functional Validator Nodes. As of December 2020, Enterprise Validator Nodes on Theta are run by Google, Blockchain Ventures, Samsung, Binance, gumi Cryptos, and Theta Labs, with several more major enterprises in the process of joining. After the Theta 2.0 launch in May 2020, Guardian Node counts quickly ramped up. Currently, there are almost 1,500 Guardian nodes run by the Theta community members.

The Theta blockchain mainnet enables the support for Turing-complete smart contracts. Smart contracts open up a whole new set of user experiences and new attribution models for DApps built on the Theta network. For example, leveraging smart contracts on the Theta network could enable fully digitized item ownership, innovative payment-consumption models, transparent royalty distributions, trustless crowdfunding mechanisms, and much more. This provides an additional layer of social and economic interactivity that supplements the core functionality of video and data delivery, and significantly increases the engagement and retention of platform users.

In addition to the Validator and Guardian Nodes, the Theta community members also host the Theta Edge Nodes, which form the Theta Edge Network, a fully decentralized network for data delivery and  more generally edge computing. As of Jan 2021, this edge network has grown over 7,500 nodes, covering all the corners of the world. Following Theta 2.0, the capability of the Theta Edge Node network was significantly enhanced with the release of Theta’s industry-leading peer-to-peer “EdgeCast” technology. This new fully decentralized technology stack adds the ability to capture live video, transcode it in real-time, cache and relay live stream video data to users globally - all through Theta’s P2P edge network run by thousands of community members. Not a single central server or service is used in this pipeline. This is a huge challenge and huge accomplishment.

The Theta Network features a dual token design. The Theta Token (THETA) is the governance token of the Theta protocol. THETA is used to stake as a Validator or Guardian node, contributing to block production and the protocol governance of the Theta Network. By staking and running a node, users will earn a proportional amount of the new TFUEL generated. The supply of THETA is fixed at 1 billion and will never increase. Theta Fuel (TFUEL) is the operational token of the Theta protocol. TFUEL is used for on-chain operations like payments to Edge Node relayers for sharing a video stream, or for deploying or interacting with smart contracts. Relayers earn TFUEL for every video stream they relay to other users on the network. You can think of Theta Fuel as the “gas” of the protocol. There were 5 billion TFUEL at genesis of Theta blockchain, and the supply increases annually at a fixed percentage set at the protocol level. In December 2020, Theta Labs announced Theta 3.0, which introduces a new crypto-economics design for TFuel, in particular, the concept of TFuel staking and burning. This will greatly expand the capacity and use cases of the network and maximize the utility value of TFuel.

For a deeper dive into the Theta technology stack, please read our whitepapers and research papers provided in the next section.

Who Are The Founders of Theta?

Theta was co-founded by Mitch Liu and Jieyi Long in 2018. Liu has a long history in the gaming and video industries, co-founding video advertising firm Tapjoy, mobile social gaming startup Gameview Studios, and THETA.tv, the live streaming platform whose DApp was the first to be built on the Theta protocol.

Long is Theta’s second co-founder and CTO, following similar multi-year experience in design automation, gaming, virtual reality, and large scale distributed systems. He authored multiple peer-reviewed academic papers and holds various patents in video streaming, blockchain and virtual reality.

Theta now has a modest team, and its official website lists strategic corporate investors as Samsung NEXT, Sony Innovation Fund, media investors BDMI Bertelsmann Digital Media Investments, CAA Creative Artists Agency, and traditional Silicon Valley VCs including DCM, Sierra Ventures and the VR Fund.

What Makes Theta Unique?

Theta’s main business concept is to decentralize video streaming, data delivery and edge computing, making it more efficient, cost-effective and fair for industry participants.

The network runs on a native blockchain, with two native tokens, known as Theta (THETA), Theta Fuel (TFUEL), powering the internal economy.

Theta’s appeal is threefold: viewers get rewarded with better quality streaming service, content creators improve their earnings and middlemen — video platforms — save money on building infrastructure and increase advertising and subscription revenues.

Users have an incentive to both watch network content and share network resources, as rewards come in the form of TFUEL tokens.

The platform is open source, and token holders receive governance powers as with many proof-of-stake (PoS)-based blockchain ecosystems.

In addition to video, data and computing, Theta caters to developers looking to launch decentralized applications (DApps) on its fully featured EVM-compatible Smart contract platform.

How Many Theta (THETA) Coins Are There in Circulation?

Theta involves two tokens: THETA and TFUEL. THETA exists only for governance purposes, with 5 TFUEL tokens issued per 1 THETA held at the time of the mainnet launch in 2019.

THETA itself launched in 2018, at which time it was distributed to buyers as an ERC-20 token on Ethereum. Afterwards, all ERC-20 THETA were converted to native THETA on the mainnet.

The total supply of THETA is capped at 1 billion (1,000,000,000) tokens. It is distributed in various proportions among all network participants, as well as the Theta team itself and a reserve pool.

TFUEL is used to power transactions in a similar way to gas on Ethereum (ETH). Its total supply is 5 billion (5,000,000,000) tokens.

How Is the Theta Network Secured?

Theta uses a financial incentive scheme to ensure user participation in governance activities, and hence its network is secured by its own users.

The network relies on proof-of-stake (PoS), and employs a multi-level Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) consensus mechanism to balance security with high transaction throughput.

With the launch of Guardian nodes in June 2019, Theta ensured that no single entity controls the majority of THETA tokens being staked at any one time.

Would you like to earn THETA right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy THETA ?

THETA has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy THETA

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase THETA from the Binance exchange.

Exchange: The top exchanges for trading in THETA are currently Binance, Huobi Global, OKEx, FTX, and Upbit.

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once THETA gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
https://www.bittrex.com
https://www.poloniex.com
https://www.bitfinex.com
https://www.huobi.com
https://www.mxc.ai
https://www.probit.com
https://www.gate.io
https://www.coinbase.com

Find more information THETA

WebsiteExplorerWhitepaperSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Message BoardCoinmarketcap

Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

Read more ☞ What is Theta Fuel (TFUEL) | What is Theta Fuel token | What is TFUEL token

#blockchain #bitcoin #theta network #theta

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

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PAID NETWORK Review, Is it worth Investing in? Token Sale Coming Soon !!

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