A Fast Distributed Storage System for Blobs For Billions Of Files!

SeaweedFS


Quick Start for S3 API on Docker

docker run -p 8333:8333 chrislusf/seaweedfs server -s3

Quick Start with Single Binary

  • Download the latest binary from https://github.com/chrislusf/seaweedfs/releases and unzip a single binary file weed or weed.exe
  • Run weed server -dir=/some/data/dir -s3 to start one master, one volume server, one filer, and one S3 gateway.

Also, to increase capacity, just add more volume servers by running weed volume -dir="/some/data/dir2" -mserver="<master_host>:9333" -port=8081 locally, or on a different machine, or on thousands of machines. That is it!

Quick Start SeaweedFS S3 on AWS

Introduction

SeaweedFS is a simple and highly scalable distributed file system. There are two objectives:

  1. to store billions of files!
  2. to serve the files fast!

SeaweedFS started as an Object Store to handle small files efficiently. Instead of managing all file metadata in a central master, the central master only manages volumes on volume servers, and these volume servers manage files and their metadata. This relieves concurrency pressure from the central master and spreads file metadata into volume servers, allowing faster file access (O(1), usually just one disk read operation).

There is only 40 bytes of disk storage overhead for each file's metadata. It is so simple with O(1) disk reads that you are welcome to challenge the performance with your actual use cases.

SeaweedFS started by implementing Facebook's Haystack design paper. Also, SeaweedFS implements erasure coding with ideas from f4: Facebook’s Warm BLOB Storage System, and has a lot of similarities with Facebook’s Tectonic Filesystem

On top of the object store, optional Filer can support directories and POSIX attributes. Filer is a separate linearly-scalable stateless server with customizable metadata stores, e.g., MySql, Postgres, Redis, Cassandra, HBase, Mongodb, Elastic Search, LevelDB, RocksDB, Sqlite, MemSql, TiDB, Etcd, CockroachDB, YDB, etc.

For any distributed key value stores, the large values can be offloaded to SeaweedFS. With the fast access speed and linearly scalable capacity, SeaweedFS can work as a distributed Key-Large-Value store.

SeaweedFS can transparently integrate with the cloud. With hot data on local cluster, and warm data on the cloud with O(1) access time, SeaweedFS can achieve both fast local access time and elastic cloud storage capacity. What's more, the cloud storage access API cost is minimized. Faster and Cheaper than direct cloud storage!

Additional Features

  • Can choose no replication or different replication levels, rack and data center aware.
  • Automatic master servers failover - no single point of failure (SPOF).
  • Automatic Gzip compression depending on file MIME type.
  • Automatic compaction to reclaim disk space after deletion or update.
  • Automatic entry TTL expiration.
  • Any server with some disk spaces can add to the total storage space.
  • Adding/Removing servers does not cause any data re-balancing unless triggered by admin commands.
  • Optional picture resizing.
  • Support ETag, Accept-Range, Last-Modified, etc.
  • Support in-memory/leveldb/readonly mode tuning for memory/performance balance.
  • Support rebalancing the writable and readonly volumes.
  • Customizable Multiple Storage Tiers: Customizable storage disk types to balance performance and cost.
  • Transparent cloud integration: unlimited capacity via tiered cloud storage for warm data.
  • Erasure Coding for warm storage Rack-Aware 10.4 erasure coding reduces storage cost and increases availability.

Back to TOC

Filer Features

Kubernetes

Example: Using Seaweed Object Store

By default, the master node runs on port 9333, and the volume nodes run on port 8080. Let's start one master node, and two volume nodes on port 8080 and 8081. Ideally, they should be started from different machines. We'll use localhost as an example.

SeaweedFS uses HTTP REST operations to read, write, and delete. The responses are in JSON or JSONP format.

Start Master Server

> ./weed master

Start Volume Servers

> weed volume -dir="/tmp/data1" -max=5  -mserver="localhost:9333" -port=8080 &
> weed volume -dir="/tmp/data2" -max=10 -mserver="localhost:9333" -port=8081 &

Write File

To upload a file: first, send a HTTP POST, PUT, or GET request to /dir/assign to get an fid and a volume server URL:

> curl http://localhost:9333/dir/assign
{"count":1,"fid":"3,01637037d6","url":"127.0.0.1:8080","publicUrl":"localhost:8080"}

Second, to store the file content, send a HTTP multi-part POST request to url + '/' + fid from the response:

> curl -F file=@/home/chris/myphoto.jpg http://127.0.0.1:8080/3,01637037d6
{"name":"myphoto.jpg","size":43234,"eTag":"1cc0118e"}

To update, send another POST request with updated file content.

For deletion, send an HTTP DELETE request to the same url + '/' + fid URL:

> curl -X DELETE http://127.0.0.1:8080/3,01637037d6

Save File Id

Now, you can save the fid, 3,01637037d6 in this case, to a database field.

The number 3 at the start represents a volume id. After the comma, it's one file key, 01, and a file cookie, 637037d6.

The volume id is an unsigned 32-bit integer. The file key is an unsigned 64-bit integer. The file cookie is an unsigned 32-bit integer, used to prevent URL guessing.

The file key and file cookie are both coded in hex. You can store the <volume id, file key, file cookie> tuple in your own format, or simply store the fid as a string.

If stored as a string, in theory, you would need 8+1+16+8=33 bytes. A char(33) would be enough, if not more than enough, since most uses will not need 2^32 volumes.

If space is really a concern, you can store the file id in your own format. You would need one 4-byte integer for volume id, 8-byte long number for file key, and a 4-byte integer for the file cookie. So 16 bytes are more than enough.

Read File

Here is an example of how to render the URL.

First look up the volume server's URLs by the file's volumeId:

> curl http://localhost:9333/dir/lookup?volumeId=3
{"volumeId":"3","locations":[{"publicUrl":"localhost:8080","url":"localhost:8080"}]}

Since (usually) there are not too many volume servers, and volumes don't move often, you can cache the results most of the time. Depending on the replication type, one volume can have multiple replica locations. Just randomly pick one location to read.

Now you can take the public URL, render the URL or directly read from the volume server via URL:

 http://localhost:8080/3,01637037d6.jpg

Notice we add a file extension ".jpg" here. It's optional and just one way for the client to specify the file content type.

If you want a nicer URL, you can use one of these alternative URL formats:

 http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6/my_preferred_name.jpg
 http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6.jpg
 http://localhost:8080/3,01637037d6.jpg
 http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6
 http://localhost:8080/3,01637037d6

If you want to get a scaled version of an image, you can add some params:

http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6.jpg?height=200&width=200
http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6.jpg?height=200&width=200&mode=fit
http://localhost:8080/3/01637037d6.jpg?height=200&width=200&mode=fill

Rack-Aware and Data Center-Aware Replication

SeaweedFS applies the replication strategy at a volume level. So, when you are getting a file id, you can specify the replication strategy. For example:

curl http://localhost:9333/dir/assign?replication=001

The replication parameter options are:

000: no replication
001: replicate once on the same rack
010: replicate once on a different rack, but same data center
100: replicate once on a different data center
200: replicate twice on two different data center
110: replicate once on a different rack, and once on a different data center

More details about replication can be found on the wiki.

You can also set the default replication strategy when starting the master server.

Allocate File Key on Specific Data Center

Volume servers can be started with a specific data center name:

 weed volume -dir=/tmp/1 -port=8080 -dataCenter=dc1
 weed volume -dir=/tmp/2 -port=8081 -dataCenter=dc2

When requesting a file key, an optional "dataCenter" parameter can limit the assigned volume to the specific data center. For example, this specifies that the assigned volume should be limited to 'dc1':

 http://localhost:9333/dir/assign?dataCenter=dc1

Other Features

Back to TOC

Object Store Architecture

Usually distributed file systems split each file into chunks, a central master keeps a mapping of filenames, chunk indices to chunk handles, and also which chunks each chunk server has.

The main drawback is that the central master can't handle many small files efficiently, and since all read requests need to go through the chunk master, so it might not scale well for many concurrent users.

Instead of managing chunks, SeaweedFS manages data volumes in the master server. Each data volume is 32GB in size, and can hold a lot of files. And each storage node can have many data volumes. So the master node only needs to store the metadata about the volumes, which is a fairly small amount of data and is generally stable.

The actual file metadata is stored in each volume on volume servers. Since each volume server only manages metadata of files on its own disk, with only 16 bytes for each file, all file access can read file metadata just from memory and only needs one disk operation to actually read file data.

For comparison, consider that an xfs inode structure in Linux is 536 bytes.

Master Server and Volume Server

The architecture is fairly simple. The actual data is stored in volumes on storage nodes. One volume server can have multiple volumes, and can both support read and write access with basic authentication.

All volumes are managed by a master server. The master server contains the volume id to volume server mapping. This is fairly static information, and can be easily cached.

On each write request, the master server also generates a file key, which is a growing 64-bit unsigned integer. Since write requests are not generally as frequent as read requests, one master server should be able to handle the concurrency well.

Write and Read files

When a client sends a write request, the master server returns (volume id, file key, file cookie, volume node URL) for the file. The client then contacts the volume node and POSTs the file content.

When a client needs to read a file based on (volume id, file key, file cookie), it asks the master server by the volume id for the (volume node URL, volume node public URL), or retrieves this from a cache. Then the client can GET the content, or just render the URL on web pages and let browsers fetch the content.

Please see the example for details on the write-read process.

Storage Size

In the current implementation, each volume can hold 32 gibibytes (32GiB or 8x2^32 bytes). This is because we align content to 8 bytes. We can easily increase this to 64GiB, or 128GiB, or more, by changing 2 lines of code, at the cost of some wasted padding space due to alignment.

There can be 4 gibibytes (4GiB or 2^32 bytes) of volumes. So the total system size is 8 x 4GiB x 4GiB which is 128 exbibytes (128EiB or 2^67 bytes).

Each individual file size is limited to the volume size.

Saving memory

All file meta information stored on an volume server is readable from memory without disk access. Each file takes just a 16-byte map entry of <64bit key, 32bit offset, 32bit size>. Of course, each map entry has its own space cost for the map. But usually the disk space runs out before the memory does.

Tiered Storage to the cloud

The local volume servers are much faster, while cloud storages have elastic capacity and are actually more cost-efficient if not accessed often (usually free to upload, but relatively costly to access). With the append-only structure and O(1) access time, SeaweedFS can take advantage of both local and cloud storage by offloading the warm data to the cloud.

Usually hot data are fresh and warm data are old. SeaweedFS puts the newly created volumes on local servers, and optionally upload the older volumes on the cloud. If the older data are accessed less often, this literally gives you unlimited capacity with limited local servers, and still fast for new data.

With the O(1) access time, the network latency cost is kept at minimum.

If the hot/warm data is split as 20/80, with 20 servers, you can achieve storage capacity of 100 servers. That's a cost saving of 80%! Or you can repurpose the 80 servers to store new data also, and get 5X storage throughput.

Back to TOC

Compared to Other File Systems

Most other distributed file systems seem more complicated than necessary.

SeaweedFS is meant to be fast and simple, in both setup and operation. If you do not understand how it works when you reach here, we've failed! Please raise an issue with any questions or update this file with clarifications.

SeaweedFS is constantly moving forward. Same with other systems. These comparisons can be outdated quickly. Please help to keep them updated.

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Compared to HDFS

HDFS uses the chunk approach for each file, and is ideal for storing large files.

SeaweedFS is ideal for serving relatively smaller files quickly and concurrently.

SeaweedFS can also store extra large files by splitting them into manageable data chunks, and store the file ids of the data chunks into a meta chunk. This is managed by "weed upload/download" tool, and the weed master or volume servers are agnostic about it.

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Compared to GlusterFS, Ceph

The architectures are mostly the same. SeaweedFS aims to store and read files fast, with a simple and flat architecture. The main differences are

  • SeaweedFS optimizes for small files, ensuring O(1) disk seek operation, and can also handle large files.
  • SeaweedFS statically assigns a volume id for a file. Locating file content becomes just a lookup of the volume id, which can be easily cached.
  • SeaweedFS Filer metadata store can be any well-known and proven data store, e.g., Redis, Cassandra, HBase, Mongodb, Elastic Search, MySql, Postgres, Sqlite, MemSql, TiDB, CockroachDB, Etcd, YDB etc, and is easy to customize.
  • SeaweedFS Volume server also communicates directly with clients via HTTP, supporting range queries, direct uploads, etc.
SystemFile MetadataFile Content ReadPOSIXREST APIOptimized for large number of small files
SeaweedFSlookup volume id, cacheableO(1) disk seek YesYes
SeaweedFS FilerLinearly Scalable, CustomizableO(1) disk seekFUSEYesYes
GlusterFShashing FUSE, NFS  
Cephhashing + rules FUSEYes 
MooseFSin memory FUSE No
MinIOseparate meta file for each file  YesNo

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Compared to GlusterFS

GlusterFS stores files, both directories and content, in configurable volumes called "bricks".

GlusterFS hashes the path and filename into ids, and assigned to virtual volumes, and then mapped to "bricks".

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Compared to MooseFS

MooseFS chooses to neglect small file issue. From moosefs 3.0 manual, "even a small file will occupy 64KiB plus additionally 4KiB of checksums and 1KiB for the header", because it "was initially designed for keeping large amounts (like several thousands) of very big files"

MooseFS Master Server keeps all meta data in memory. Same issue as HDFS namenode.

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Compared to Ceph

Ceph can be setup similar to SeaweedFS as a key->blob store. It is much more complicated, with the need to support layers on top of it. Here is a more detailed comparison

SeaweedFS has a centralized master group to look up free volumes, while Ceph uses hashing and metadata servers to locate its objects. Having a centralized master makes it easy to code and manage.

Ceph, like SeaweedFS, is based on the object store RADOS. Ceph is rather complicated with mixed reviews.

Ceph uses CRUSH hashing to automatically manage data placement, which is efficient to locate the data. But the data has to be placed according to the CRUSH algorithm. Any wrong configuration would cause data loss. Topology changes, such as adding new servers to increase capacity, will cause data migration with high IO cost to fit the CRUSH algorithm. SeaweedFS places data by assigning them to any writable volumes. If writes to one volume failed, just pick another volume to write. Adding more volumes is also as simple as it can be.

SeaweedFS is optimized for small files. Small files are stored as one continuous block of content, with at most 8 unused bytes between files. Small file access is O(1) disk read.

SeaweedFS Filer uses off-the-shelf stores, such as MySql, Postgres, Sqlite, Mongodb, Redis, Elastic Search, Cassandra, HBase, MemSql, TiDB, CockroachCB, Etcd, YDB, to manage file directories. These stores are proven, scalable, and easier to manage.

SeaweedFScomparable to Cephadvantage
MasterMDSsimpler
VolumeOSDoptimized for small files
FilerCeph FSlinearly scalable, Customizable, O(1) or O(logN)

Back to TOC

Compared to MinIO

MinIO follows AWS S3 closely and is ideal for testing for S3 API. It has good UI, policies, versionings, etc. SeaweedFS is trying to catch up here. It is also possible to put MinIO as a gateway in front of SeaweedFS later.

MinIO metadata are in simple files. Each file write will incur extra writes to corresponding meta file.

MinIO does not have optimization for lots of small files. The files are simply stored as is to local disks. Plus the extra meta file and shards for erasure coding, it only amplifies the LOSF problem.

MinIO has multiple disk IO to read one file. SeaweedFS has O(1) disk reads, even for erasure coded files.

MinIO has full-time erasure coding. SeaweedFS uses replication on hot data for faster speed and optionally applies erasure coding on warm data.

MinIO does not have POSIX-like API support.

MinIO has specific requirements on storage layout. It is not flexible to adjust capacity. In SeaweedFS, just start one volume server pointing to the master. That's all.

Dev Plan

  • More tools and documentation, on how to manage and scale the system.
  • Read and write stream data.
  • Support structured data.

This is a super exciting project! And we need helpers and support!

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Installation Guide

Installation guide for users who are not familiar with golang

Step 1: install go on your machine and setup the environment by following the instructions at:

https://golang.org/doc/install

make sure to define your $GOPATH

Step 2: checkout this repo:

git clone https://github.com/chrislusf/seaweedfs.git

Step 3: download, compile, and install the project by executing the following command

cd seaweedfs/weed && make install

Once this is done, you will find the executable "weed" in your $GOPATH/bin directory

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Disk Related Topics

Hard Drive Performance

When testing read performance on SeaweedFS, it basically becomes a performance test of your hard drive's random read speed. Hard drives usually get 100MB/s~200MB/s.

Solid State Disk

To modify or delete small files, SSD must delete a whole block at a time, and move content in existing blocks to a new block. SSD is fast when brand new, but will get fragmented over time and you have to garbage collect, compacting blocks. SeaweedFS is friendly to SSD since it is append-only. Deletion and compaction are done on volume level in the background, not slowing reading and not causing fragmentation.

Back to TOC

Benchmark

My Own Unscientific Single Machine Results on Mac Book with Solid State Disk, CPU: 1 Intel Core i7 2.6GHz.

Write 1 million 1KB file:

Concurrency Level:      16
Time taken for tests:   66.753 seconds
Completed requests:      1048576
Failed requests:        0
Total transferred:      1106789009 bytes
Requests per second:    15708.23 [#/sec]
Transfer rate:          16191.69 [Kbytes/sec]

Connection Times (ms)
              min      avg        max      std
Total:        0.3      1.0       84.3      0.9

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
   50%      0.8 ms
   66%      1.0 ms
   75%      1.1 ms
   80%      1.2 ms
   90%      1.4 ms
   95%      1.7 ms
   98%      2.1 ms
   99%      2.6 ms
  100%     84.3 ms

Randomly read 1 million files:

Concurrency Level:      16
Time taken for tests:   22.301 seconds
Completed requests:      1048576
Failed requests:        0
Total transferred:      1106812873 bytes
Requests per second:    47019.38 [#/sec]
Transfer rate:          48467.57 [Kbytes/sec]

Connection Times (ms)
              min      avg        max      std
Total:        0.0      0.3       54.1      0.2

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
   50%      0.3 ms
   90%      0.4 ms
   98%      0.6 ms
   99%      0.7 ms
  100%     54.1 ms

Stargazers over time

Stargazers over time

Sponsor SeaweedFS via Patreon

SeaweedFS is an independent Apache-licensed open source project with its ongoing development made possible entirely thanks to the support of these awesome backers. If you'd like to grow SeaweedFS even stronger, please consider joining our sponsors on Patreon.

Your support will be really appreciated by me and other supporters!

Gold Sponsors

Author: Chrislusf
Source Code: https://github.com/chrislusf/seaweedfs 
License: Apache-2.0 license

#go #golang #kubernetes 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

A Fast Distributed Storage System for Blobs For Billions Of Files!
Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya

1620633584

System Databases in SQL Server

Introduction

In SSMS, we many of may noticed System Databases under the Database Folder. But how many of us knows its purpose?. In this article lets discuss about the System Databases in SQL Server.

System Database

Fig. 1 System Databases

There are five system databases, these databases are created while installing SQL Server.

  • Master
  • Model
  • MSDB
  • Tempdb
  • Resource
Master
  • This database contains all the System level Information in SQL Server. The Information in form of Meta data.
  • Because of this master database, we are able to access the SQL Server (On premise SQL Server)
Model
  • This database is used as a template for new databases.
  • Whenever a new database is created, initially a copy of model database is what created as new database.
MSDB
  • This database is where a service called SQL Server Agent stores its data.
  • SQL server Agent is in charge of automation, which includes entities such as jobs, schedules, and alerts.
TempDB
  • The Tempdb is where SQL Server stores temporary data such as work tables, sort space, row versioning information and etc.
  • User can create their own version of temporary tables and those are stored in Tempdb.
  • But this database is destroyed and recreated every time when we restart the instance of SQL Server.
Resource
  • The resource database is a hidden, read only database that holds the definitions of all system objects.
  • When we query system object in a database, they appear to reside in the sys schema of the local database, but in actually their definitions reside in the resource db.

#sql server #master system database #model system database #msdb system database #sql server system databases #ssms #system database #system databases in sql server #tempdb system database

Deion  Hilpert

Deion Hilpert

1597509000

File Upload/Download with BLOB Storage System in ASP.NET Core & ABP Framewo

This step-by-step article describes how to upload a file to a Web server and also download by client with using ASP.NET Core & ABP Framework. By following this article, you will create a web project and its related code to upload and download files.

#file-upload #aspnetcore #blob-storage #.net

Maddy Bris

Maddy Bris

1599132316

5Kw Solar System in Brisbane

1 August 2020, Sunny Sky solarannounced you to launch a residential solar power system in Queensland, Australia. There are different sizes of houses with different energy requirements so one solar power system cannot fulfill every type of electricity need.

Whether energy need is low or higher they have announced a wide range of solar power system in Brisbane that includes 5KW solar panel system, 6Kw solar panel system, 10Kw solar panel system, and many more so that everyone can enjoy the benefits of solar energy.

Residential Solar Power System needs to be flexible because of the changing requirement of energy. As we know our energy needs hikes up in the summers more than winters because we use air conditioners, refrigerators (also used in winters but less than summers), fans. In winter we drop down these usages so the energy needs to go up and down according to the weather changing.

Some households have a high energy need, some have low, and mostly have the normal or average of high and low. Sunny Sky Solar offers expert’s advice to all the customers on call or personally because it is important to analyze the energy need, budget, location, and many other things before buying a solar power system for your home sweet home.

Their professionals analyze all these things and suggest you the best residential solar power system in Brisbane to reduce the energy costs and clean the environment as solar energy is green & clean energy.

At this time of announcing the residential solar panel system, the representative of Sunny Sky Solar has talked about some advantages of a residential solar power system. He said “get update yourself by the time is important because the latest technology will save you lots of money and time. The solar power system is the best technology in this era that can give you lots of benefits. Don’t get upset with the initial cost because after installing a solar power system at your house it will repay you the initial cost in two to three years. So, you are going to invest in a great deal if you are purchasing a solar panel system in Brisbane.”

He also added “Residential solar power system can save your pocket from getting loose every month for heavy electricity bills. You will earn money by producing solar energy and feeding your power supply grid as government, and mostly all the power suppliers give benefits to producing solar energy. You can easily earn money by feeding the power grid with your excess produced solar energy. You will use solar energy and save the excess by feeding the power grid this way.”

Sunny Sky Solar offering an efficient range of residential and commercial solar power system that includes 5KW solar panel system, 6.6Kw solar panel system, 10Kw solar panel system, and there are many more that you can select according to your energy needs and budget.
They provide expert assistance that will help you in choosing the best solar system for your house. Their experienced professionals work under the guidance of experts who ensures the perfections and safety at the time of installing and after the installation.

Installing a solar power system at your place will be more convenient with them because they work under the expert’s supervision that makes them perfect and faster. They ensure safety first at the time of installing because at that time family members are around the installing site and accidents can happen.

They also ensure the quality of products they used in installing and other solar products. If the products will be durable and efficient, the system will produce more electricity with higher efficiency for a longer period.
The main thing that matters while installing a solar power system at a residence is the roof situation, Sunny Sky Solar doesn’t work for doing business only. They first check the place or analyze from your information that your location is safe for installing a solar power system or not. If the find any problem they will suggest repairing it first because if you will put the solar power system at a less secure place and the solar system’s weight can damage it then repairing that place first should your main priority.
This shows their loyalty and caring behavior towards the customers.

#solar panel system #solar panel system in brisbane #5kw solar panel system #5kw solar panel system #10kw solar panel system #10kw solar panel system in brisbane

Ian  Robinson

Ian Robinson

1623263280

Data Distribution in Apache Ignite

This blog is an abridged version of the talk that I gave at the Apache Ignite community meetup. You can download the slides that I presented at the meetup here. In the talk, I explain how data in Apache Ignite is distributed.

Why Do You Need to Distribute Anything at all?

Inevitably, the evolution of a system that requires data storage and processing reaches a threshold. Either too much data is accumulated, so the data simply does not fit into the storage device, or the load increases so rapidly that a single server cannot manage the number of queries. Both scenarios happen frequently.

Usually, in such situations, two solutions come in handy—sharding the data storage or migrating to a distributed database. The solutions have features in common. The most frequently used feature uses a set of nodes to manage data. Throughout this post, I will refer to the set of nodes as “topology.”

The problem of data distribution among the nodes of the topology can be described in regard to the set of requirements that the distribution must comply with:

  1. Algorithm. The algorithm allows the topology nodes and front-end applications to discover unambiguously on which node or nodes an object (or key) is located.
  2. Distribution uniformity. The more uniform the data distribution is among the nodes, the more uniform the workloads on the nodes is. Here, I assume that the nodes have approximately equal resources.
  3. Minimal disruption. If the topology is changed because of a node failure, the changes in distribution should affect only the data that is on the failed node. It should also be noted that, if a node is added to the topology, no data swap should occur among the nodes that are already present in the topology.

#tutorial #big data #distributed systems #apache ignite #distributed storage #data distribution #consistent hashing

Secret Email System Review - Recommended or Not?

Matt Bacak’s secret email system is one of the most successful products in the WarriorPlus marketplace in recent memory. My secret email system review will not try to hard sell you on the product – I mean, it’s pretty cheap, so if you’re going to buy it, you’re going to buy it. Instead, I’ll concentrate on explaining the benefits of email marketing and how to get the most out of Matt’s system.

Nowadays, digital marketing is essential for every business. But what is the best strategy? There are many different points of view, but one thing is certain: emails are essential. Email marketing is one of the most efficient and cost-effective ways to promote a business online, and it is simple and inexpensive to get started. The most important thing is to understand your audience and deliver content and offers that are truly relevant to them.

The PDF Download of an Honest Secret Email System Review
The front-end product
What Matt Bacak is selling, which has been promoted by such capable affiliates as Curt Maly, is a PDF ebook that you can download immediately after purchasing. However, there are a number of bonuses included to sweeten the deal. You get access to Mr. Bacak’s private Facebook group, and instead of a simple PDF download, you get a massive zip file full of useful files and videos.
Now that we know what we’re up against, let’s get into this secret email system review!

What is Included in the Secret Email System Download?
Here is a list of everything you get inside the zip file sold at the front end of the Secret Email System:

Matt Bacak’s 3x Formula Calculator (plus a video explaining how to use it)
1000 email swipe files in text format (swipe files or “swipes” are like templates you can repurpose in a variety of ways).
A 1.5-hour video session

Free access to Matt’s high-converting leadpages lead generation template
A massive book of swipe files (in PDF format)
A copy of Matt’s book, Secrets of the Internet Millionaire Mind,
A video tutorial on how to select “irresistible offers” from affiliate marketplaces.

The PDF version of The Secret Email System
The Checklist for the Secret Email System PDF
Text files containing instructions for joining the Facebook group and other bonuses
Matt was charging less than $6 for all of that value last time I checked. He is demonstrating his many years of experience in internet marketing by creating an irresistible offer that people will want to buy and affiliates will want to promote. As a result, the Secret Email System has sold more copies on Warrior Plus than any other product in recent memory.

Examine everything included in the secret email system
Who is Matt Bacak, and why should I listen to him?
Many consider Matt Bacak to be an internet marketing legend, and email marketing is his primary focus. My first encounter with Matt came in the form of some Facebook ads he ran. Matt explained who he was in the video ad (which featured a little guy dancing in the background) and invited me to visit his blog, which I did. He demonstrated a thorough understanding of online business, so it’s no surprise that he put together the ultimate email marketing package.
headshot of Matt Bacak

Overall, Matt’s ad was one of the strangest Facebook ads I’ve ever seen. It was also one of the most effective and memorable. I didn’t buy whatever Matt was selling that day, but I read his blog and remembered his name and who he was. When I saw Curt Maly running ads for Matt Bacak’s Secret Email System months later, it made a big difference.

When I saw that the price was under $6 and that the bonuses were included, I knew I had to buy the product. I didn’t buy it right away because I was too busy, but it stayed in the back of my mind until I had the opportunity to do so.
If it isn’t obvious, I’ll explain: the reason you should listen to Matt Bacak is that he knows how to get inside people’s heads and stay there, both as a marketer and as a public figure.

Is the Secret Email System Training of Good Quality?
At first glance, the training does not appear to be groundbreaking, but this is because the creator is unconcerned about flashy packaging. You literally get a zip file full of stuff that most people would put on a membership website. I can see how this would irritate some people who are used to flashy ClickFunnels and Kajabi courses.

If that describes you, you’re missing out. Matt’s training isn’t flashy, but it describes a solid system that most businesses can implement in some way. As the name implies, it all revolves around building a list and emailing it on a regular basis. Did I ruin the surprise?
Front end offer and upsells from a secret email system
Bonuses from the Secret Email System (and a Bonus From Me)
I’ve already outlined everything you get in the zip file that serves as the funnel’s front-end offer. Everything else, other than the Secret Email System PDF itself, is considered a bonus, and the total value could easily be in the hundreds of dollars.

That’s why purchasing this product was such a no-brainer for me. I already knew how to write good marketing emails, but I really wanted to look inside Matt’s system.
In addition to everything else, you’ll get lifetime access to Matt’s private Facebook community. He answers questions from people here on a daily basis, and it can be a great place to learn.

The truth is that you get so much value and stuff from purchasing this product that adding another bonus is almost pointless. But I’m a bonus machine, so be prepared.
In 2020, I published my first book on email marketing, How to Build Your First Money Making Email List. You’re already getting a lot of reading material, but if you purchase Matt’s product through my link, I’ll add it to the stack. Most of the books I write sell for $27, so this just adds to the ridiculous valuation of this sub-six-dollar product.
Bonuses Bonuses for Matt Bacak’s Secret Email System
Will This Product Really Help You Make Money Online?

It all depends on whether or not you use the secret email system. According to multiple sources, Matt Bacak is in charge of millions of dollars in sales for both himself and his clients. And the best thing about this guy is that he’s upfront and honest, and he puts his money where his mouth is. What I mean is that he doesn’t hold anything back in the books he writes. That is another reason he has amassed such a large and devoted fan base.

Finally, if your business can profit from email marketing or if you want to use email marketing to become an influential public figure, I believe this ebook can assist you. It helped me improve my understanding of the business side of being an affiliate marketer and is far more valuable than the price tag. This product will be especially useful if you want to get started in affiliate marketing with a small investment.

matt bacak’s business model
Going Beyond My Review – Secret Email System
The book itself goes beyond email marketing, but I don’t want to give too much away. Instead, I’ll go over some of the finer points of lead generation quickly so you can get started building your email list as soon as possible.

Now, I’m guessing that roughly 90% of people reading this review are affiliate marketers or are interested in affiliate marketing. As a result, I’m going to focus on lead generation strategies used by many successful affiliates. If you want to learn more about my favorite affiliate marketing strategies, click on that link to read my in-depth guide.

The Most Effective Methods for Building an Email List
Here’s a rundown of some of the best (and quickest) ways to build an email list. First, you’ll need a way to collect emails, and it must be a high-converting method. My favorite lead generation tools are:
ConvertBox (on-site messaging software/advanced popup builder)
ConversioBot (website chatbot platform)

You may have noticed that the majority of them are chatbots. Chatbots, on the other hand, are one of the best ways to not only capture an email address, but also to obtain additional customer information and even directly sell products.
The following are the most effective ways to drive traffic to these tools:
Facebook ads (particularly effective when paired with ConvertBox)
Google Ads and YouTube Ads (a killer combination with ConvertBox or Conversiobot)

Influencer Marketing
Facebook organic marketing
Search Engine Optimization
Secret Email System sales page Matt Bacak

If you can master even one of those traffic methods and use it to drive people to a high-converting optin or sales funnel, you’ll be well on your way to creating a recurring income.
Whether or not you choose to purchase this product through my link, I wish you the best of luck with your online business. If you do purchase the system, I hope to see you in the Facebook community! Please feel free to contact me via message or email at any time.

And if you do get the ebook through my link, please let me know so I can send you a copy of my book as a bonus!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About The Secret Email System
Here are some frequently asked product-related questions.
Is the secret email system bonus worth it?

In my opinion, the front end product and the majority of the bonuses are worth the price. I would have paid more just to gain access to Matt’s Facebook group!
What are the benefits of a hidden email system?
The main benefit is that you will learn one of the highest ROI business practices (email marketing) from someone who has built a seven-figure online business.

What do you call email marketing?
Email marketing is an important component of digital marketing for many businesses. Email marketing software is frequently referred to as an autoresponder, but a good email marketing platform will have more functionality.

Is this a legitimate way to make money online?
My secret email system review says it’s a great way to make money online as long as your online business uses marketing emails. It does require a list, but Matt teaches several methods for creating one.

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