What is Hxro Network (HXRO) | What is Hxro Network token | What is HXRO token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the Hxro Network project and HXRO token

Introduction

Hxro Network is a decentralised liquidity network for risk-based applications built on the Solana blockchain. Through a series of native protocols, Hxro Network will provide the framework and infrastructure for a robust, fully-functional decentralized exchange for vanilla, exotic, and parimutuel options markets.

Network value will largely derive from transaction fees generated within the network. One hundred percent of the network’s value will accrue to staked HXRO token holders, specialized node operators, network treasury and developer pools vital to the network ecosystem and functionality.

The network will be made up of the following elements which will either be built natively to the Hxro Network or composed through tangential Solana projects:

  • HXRO Token - Network governance will vest into staked HXRO token holders. Additionally, HXRO will have the following utility within the network:
  • Governance
  • Reduced transaction fee payments
  • Volume tier-incentive rebate rewards
  • Staking Rewards
  • Builder Rewards
  • SAMM Protocol - A “smart” automated market maker built native to Hxro Network that provides on-chain liquidity to a simplified dual-outcome parimutuel market.
  • THEO Protocol - A self-sustaining, risk-managed automated market maker native to Hxro Network that provides on-chain liquidity specifically in a decentralised market for both vanilla and exotic options.

Hxro network will compose with Project Serum to integrate its order books, spot and perpetual markets (used for liquidity protocol hedging) and other needs vital to the network’s functionality.

Market Protocols

Hxro Network will consist of market protocols that specify the necessary functionalities to facilitate the trading and risk management of multiple financial product types. The network will focus its efforts on three types of options markets:

  • Vanilla Options - Standardised, Cash-Settled European call and put options. These are options that you most commonly see on a traditional options exchange.
  • Exotic Options - Non-standard options that vary in their payoff structure, exercise terms and other contract components. Examples of exotics are 1-touch, Knock-Out, Barrier, Range and Bermudian options.
  • Parimutuel Markets - peer to peer, dual-outcome event markets where all positions are pooled together with the in-the-money (or winning) side sharing the pool pro-rata.

Vanilla and Exotic Options

Hxro Network will build a permissionless, fully-functional decentralized options exchange protocol that will support both standardised and exotic options on-chain. Liquidity will be built through the introduction of traditional market makers and THEO protocol - a network native automated market making system capable of competitively pricing both standardised and exotic options while dynamically managing inventory risk.

Options are one of the most powerful tools used for hedging risk and speculating on price movement in financial markets. In recent years, options volumes on both equities and non-equities have grown explosively. According to the Options Clearing Corporation, more than 7.4 billion cleared equity and non-equity options traded on centralized exchanges in 2020. This was more than a 52% increase in volume from the previous year. Through April 2021, total volume has already reached 2.4 billion with average daily volumes of 41.9 million - a 42% increase in ADV from 2020.

Crypto options markets have seen exponential growth in volume. Deribit has seen volume over $2B of BTC options per day in the first quarter of 2021. While these volumes continue to grow at a staggering rate, a viable decentralised options trading solution has yet to materialise. This has largely been due to the following:

  • Prohibitive trading costs due to high network fees
  • Options are extremely data intensive and require the ability for liquidity providers to mass quote a chain of options
  • lack of on-chain orderbooks
  • The protocol AMM is incapable of dynamically managing its liquidity while offering market takers competitive pricing and fees.

To date there have been multiple attempts at a viable options offering, with all projects at some point running into one of the issues stated above. This has resulted in many projects offering workaround solutions that while interesting, do not offer a comparable liquidity source to a standard centralised market system.

By introducing an Automated Market Making Protocol capable of solving for dynamic pricing and liquidity risk management issues currently present in other defi option protocols and coupling this with traditional market making participants, Hxro Network will be capable of presenting a commercial-grade liquidity solution that allows anybody to participate in provisioning liquidity to the network.

Parimutuel Markets

Parimutuel describes a payoff system in which all positions (or wagers) are placed together in a common pool. Consider an N outcome event, in this case the total pool will be the sum of all individual outcome pools. The house-take or fee is then deducted, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the total pool net of fees amongst all winning entries.

Historically parimutuel-style wagering is most commonly identified in horse racing. However, this system has powerful application in a market context across other arenas including trading, prediction markets and sports wagering. In these contexts, parimutuel markets are generally dual-outcome. A trader takes a position on an event’s outcome and if correct, he will be distributed the payoff from the money lost by the traders who took a position on the losing side (plus his initial position).

For traders, parimutuel markets offer a simplified way to trade risk. Since the outcome of a trade is generally binary (in the money or out of the money), a parimutuel market can remove many of the complexities associated with execution and position management in a traditional trading market. Additionally, because of the pooled nature of parimutuel markets, an imbalance in the distribution of assets to each outcome creates implied payoff odds. This creates the potential for asymmetric payoffs in cases where the imbalance becomes significant.

Hxro Network will introduce a parimutuel protocol designed to support fully on-chain, peer to peer liquidity and market functions for a simplified dual-outcome parimutuel market. The protocol is designed to solve for the liquidity consistency problem typically faced in nascent markets and will support applications specializing in market segments including trading, prediction markets and sports wagering.

Network Liquidity Protocols

THEO

Smart Automated Market Maker (THEO) provides the network legacy exchange grade liquidity to standardized vanilla and exotic on-chain options markets. Using such an AMM with external market context being provided by independent theoretical pricing nodes can allow a system to efficiently build liquidity across the volatility surface of any digital asset. This result has the potential to solve the liquidity consistency problem typically faced by on-chain options markets whilst being efficient enough to keep fees to participants low. Ongoing governance is then required for parameter calibration to keep the system in a state of equilibrium.

More information on THEO protocol can be found here

SAMM

Smart automated market maker (SAMM) provides on-chain liquidity to a simplified binary-outcome parimutuel market. Using such a SAMM with external market context being provided by independent probability nodes can allow a system to bootstrap liquidity efficiently. This result has the potential to solve the liquidity consistency problem typically faced by parimutuels whilst being efficient enough to keep fees to parimutuel participants low. Ongoing governance is then required for parameter calibration to keep the system in a state of equilibrium.

More information on SAMM protocol can be found here

Staking and Governance

Any HXRO tokenholder will be eligible to stake their tokens to the Hxro Network. Staked tokenholders will also become eligible to participate in network governance. In exchange for their staking and governance participation, staked tokenholders will receive a pro-rata share of network transaction fees allocated to the staking pool. Rewards are funded by network transaction fees, not perpetual inflation and issuance. 100% of network transaction fees will be shared between stakers, network treasury, specialized network nodes (i.e. probability providers in SAMM, surface providers in THEO and liquidity pool stakers), and a builders reward pool. The exact breakdown of how fees will be shared has not been finalized and is currently under discussion with current community members.

Stakers will have the option to lock their stake for up to 3 years. Those doing so will earn a 3x multiplier on their share of the rewards. Naturally, those who lock their stake longer should have a higher stake weight and thus a higher portion of network rewards. This multiplier will also double as governance weight, where staked token holders can express their view and participate in the direction of vital network decisions with more voting power vesting into longer term stakers.

Staking rewards will vest in an opposite fashion. Those who lock for the minimum period (daily) will have their rewards vest over 1 year (max), while those who lock for the maximum amount of time (3 years) will receive fully vested rewards daily. Between the min and max time periods is a sliding scale.

Fees will be distributed to stakers based on their weighted stake on each distribution period as a basket of the tokens users used to pay fees on the network. Initially this will be comprised of USDC and HXRO. This allows users to stake HXRO, and earn USDC or whichever tokens are deemed valuable and used to pay fees on the platform, keeping HXRO’s fee form dynamic based on what users determine are valuable (HXRO, USDC, etc), and eventually likely transition to fully HXRO over time as the token gains continued acceptance.

Liquidity Incentives

It is proposed that a 75M HXRO (7.5% of supply) liquidity incentives pool will be created to incentivize new and existing users. To insure liquidity incentives are not wasted by granting them arbitrarily, rewards are dependent on the daily notional gross volume transacted on the Hxro Network in any given day. The number of HXRO granted per day will scale depending on total platform volume in USD and max out at 102,740k HXRO per day if gross volume is over $1B. A sliding scale will cover rewards between these amounts. Users will earn a pro-rata portion of these fees depending on their pro-rata volume on the platform. Rewards will be time-locked for 90 days, and vested linearly for simplicity. A sliding scale of rewards ensures the platform isn’t over rewarding is usage drops or is limited.

How and Where to Buy Hxro Network (HXRO) token?

HXRO has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT, BNB from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy HXRO token

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since HXRO is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that HXRO can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade HXRO in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT/BNB deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase HXRO from the exchange: …

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once HXRO gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
 ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
 ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
 ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
 ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information HXRO

WebsiteSource CodeSocial ChannelMessage BoardDocumentation

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #hxro #hxro network

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What is Hxro Network (HXRO) | What is Hxro Network token | What is HXRO token

What is Hxro Network (HXRO) | What is Hxro Network token | What is HXRO token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the Hxro Network project and HXRO token

Introduction

Hxro Network is a decentralised liquidity network for risk-based applications built on the Solana blockchain. Through a series of native protocols, Hxro Network will provide the framework and infrastructure for a robust, fully-functional decentralized exchange for vanilla, exotic, and parimutuel options markets.

Network value will largely derive from transaction fees generated within the network. One hundred percent of the network’s value will accrue to staked HXRO token holders, specialized node operators, network treasury and developer pools vital to the network ecosystem and functionality.

The network will be made up of the following elements which will either be built natively to the Hxro Network or composed through tangential Solana projects:

  • HXRO Token - Network governance will vest into staked HXRO token holders. Additionally, HXRO will have the following utility within the network:
  • Governance
  • Reduced transaction fee payments
  • Volume tier-incentive rebate rewards
  • Staking Rewards
  • Builder Rewards
  • SAMM Protocol - A “smart” automated market maker built native to Hxro Network that provides on-chain liquidity to a simplified dual-outcome parimutuel market.
  • THEO Protocol - A self-sustaining, risk-managed automated market maker native to Hxro Network that provides on-chain liquidity specifically in a decentralised market for both vanilla and exotic options.

Hxro network will compose with Project Serum to integrate its order books, spot and perpetual markets (used for liquidity protocol hedging) and other needs vital to the network’s functionality.

Market Protocols

Hxro Network will consist of market protocols that specify the necessary functionalities to facilitate the trading and risk management of multiple financial product types. The network will focus its efforts on three types of options markets:

  • Vanilla Options - Standardised, Cash-Settled European call and put options. These are options that you most commonly see on a traditional options exchange.
  • Exotic Options - Non-standard options that vary in their payoff structure, exercise terms and other contract components. Examples of exotics are 1-touch, Knock-Out, Barrier, Range and Bermudian options.
  • Parimutuel Markets - peer to peer, dual-outcome event markets where all positions are pooled together with the in-the-money (or winning) side sharing the pool pro-rata.

Vanilla and Exotic Options

Hxro Network will build a permissionless, fully-functional decentralized options exchange protocol that will support both standardised and exotic options on-chain. Liquidity will be built through the introduction of traditional market makers and THEO protocol - a network native automated market making system capable of competitively pricing both standardised and exotic options while dynamically managing inventory risk.

Options are one of the most powerful tools used for hedging risk and speculating on price movement in financial markets. In recent years, options volumes on both equities and non-equities have grown explosively. According to the Options Clearing Corporation, more than 7.4 billion cleared equity and non-equity options traded on centralized exchanges in 2020. This was more than a 52% increase in volume from the previous year. Through April 2021, total volume has already reached 2.4 billion with average daily volumes of 41.9 million - a 42% increase in ADV from 2020.

Crypto options markets have seen exponential growth in volume. Deribit has seen volume over $2B of BTC options per day in the first quarter of 2021. While these volumes continue to grow at a staggering rate, a viable decentralised options trading solution has yet to materialise. This has largely been due to the following:

  • Prohibitive trading costs due to high network fees
  • Options are extremely data intensive and require the ability for liquidity providers to mass quote a chain of options
  • lack of on-chain orderbooks
  • The protocol AMM is incapable of dynamically managing its liquidity while offering market takers competitive pricing and fees.

To date there have been multiple attempts at a viable options offering, with all projects at some point running into one of the issues stated above. This has resulted in many projects offering workaround solutions that while interesting, do not offer a comparable liquidity source to a standard centralised market system.

By introducing an Automated Market Making Protocol capable of solving for dynamic pricing and liquidity risk management issues currently present in other defi option protocols and coupling this with traditional market making participants, Hxro Network will be capable of presenting a commercial-grade liquidity solution that allows anybody to participate in provisioning liquidity to the network.

Parimutuel Markets

Parimutuel describes a payoff system in which all positions (or wagers) are placed together in a common pool. Consider an N outcome event, in this case the total pool will be the sum of all individual outcome pools. The house-take or fee is then deducted, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the total pool net of fees amongst all winning entries.

Historically parimutuel-style wagering is most commonly identified in horse racing. However, this system has powerful application in a market context across other arenas including trading, prediction markets and sports wagering. In these contexts, parimutuel markets are generally dual-outcome. A trader takes a position on an event’s outcome and if correct, he will be distributed the payoff from the money lost by the traders who took a position on the losing side (plus his initial position).

For traders, parimutuel markets offer a simplified way to trade risk. Since the outcome of a trade is generally binary (in the money or out of the money), a parimutuel market can remove many of the complexities associated with execution and position management in a traditional trading market. Additionally, because of the pooled nature of parimutuel markets, an imbalance in the distribution of assets to each outcome creates implied payoff odds. This creates the potential for asymmetric payoffs in cases where the imbalance becomes significant.

Hxro Network will introduce a parimutuel protocol designed to support fully on-chain, peer to peer liquidity and market functions for a simplified dual-outcome parimutuel market. The protocol is designed to solve for the liquidity consistency problem typically faced in nascent markets and will support applications specializing in market segments including trading, prediction markets and sports wagering.

Network Liquidity Protocols

THEO

Smart Automated Market Maker (THEO) provides the network legacy exchange grade liquidity to standardized vanilla and exotic on-chain options markets. Using such an AMM with external market context being provided by independent theoretical pricing nodes can allow a system to efficiently build liquidity across the volatility surface of any digital asset. This result has the potential to solve the liquidity consistency problem typically faced by on-chain options markets whilst being efficient enough to keep fees to participants low. Ongoing governance is then required for parameter calibration to keep the system in a state of equilibrium.

More information on THEO protocol can be found here

SAMM

Smart automated market maker (SAMM) provides on-chain liquidity to a simplified binary-outcome parimutuel market. Using such a SAMM with external market context being provided by independent probability nodes can allow a system to bootstrap liquidity efficiently. This result has the potential to solve the liquidity consistency problem typically faced by parimutuels whilst being efficient enough to keep fees to parimutuel participants low. Ongoing governance is then required for parameter calibration to keep the system in a state of equilibrium.

More information on SAMM protocol can be found here

Staking and Governance

Any HXRO tokenholder will be eligible to stake their tokens to the Hxro Network. Staked tokenholders will also become eligible to participate in network governance. In exchange for their staking and governance participation, staked tokenholders will receive a pro-rata share of network transaction fees allocated to the staking pool. Rewards are funded by network transaction fees, not perpetual inflation and issuance. 100% of network transaction fees will be shared between stakers, network treasury, specialized network nodes (i.e. probability providers in SAMM, surface providers in THEO and liquidity pool stakers), and a builders reward pool. The exact breakdown of how fees will be shared has not been finalized and is currently under discussion with current community members.

Stakers will have the option to lock their stake for up to 3 years. Those doing so will earn a 3x multiplier on their share of the rewards. Naturally, those who lock their stake longer should have a higher stake weight and thus a higher portion of network rewards. This multiplier will also double as governance weight, where staked token holders can express their view and participate in the direction of vital network decisions with more voting power vesting into longer term stakers.

Staking rewards will vest in an opposite fashion. Those who lock for the minimum period (daily) will have their rewards vest over 1 year (max), while those who lock for the maximum amount of time (3 years) will receive fully vested rewards daily. Between the min and max time periods is a sliding scale.

Fees will be distributed to stakers based on their weighted stake on each distribution period as a basket of the tokens users used to pay fees on the network. Initially this will be comprised of USDC and HXRO. This allows users to stake HXRO, and earn USDC or whichever tokens are deemed valuable and used to pay fees on the platform, keeping HXRO’s fee form dynamic based on what users determine are valuable (HXRO, USDC, etc), and eventually likely transition to fully HXRO over time as the token gains continued acceptance.

Liquidity Incentives

It is proposed that a 75M HXRO (7.5% of supply) liquidity incentives pool will be created to incentivize new and existing users. To insure liquidity incentives are not wasted by granting them arbitrarily, rewards are dependent on the daily notional gross volume transacted on the Hxro Network in any given day. The number of HXRO granted per day will scale depending on total platform volume in USD and max out at 102,740k HXRO per day if gross volume is over $1B. A sliding scale will cover rewards between these amounts. Users will earn a pro-rata portion of these fees depending on their pro-rata volume on the platform. Rewards will be time-locked for 90 days, and vested linearly for simplicity. A sliding scale of rewards ensures the platform isn’t over rewarding is usage drops or is limited.

How and Where to Buy Hxro Network (HXRO) token?

HXRO has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT, BNB from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy HXRO token

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since HXRO is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that HXRO can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade HXRO in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT/BNB deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase HXRO from the exchange: …

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once HXRO gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
 ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
 ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
 ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
 ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information HXRO

WebsiteSource CodeSocial ChannelMessage BoardDocumentation

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #hxro #hxro network

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

Lisa joly

Lisa joly

1624658400

PAID NETWORK Review, Is it worth Investing in? Token Sale Coming Soon !!

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#bitcoin #blockchain #paid network #paid network review #token sale #paid network review, is it worth investing in? token sale coming soon !!

aaron silva

aaron silva

1622197808

SafeMoon Clone | Create A DeFi Token Like SafeMoon | DeFi token like SafeMoon

SafeMoon is a decentralized finance (DeFi) token. This token consists of RFI tokenomics and auto-liquidity generating protocol. A DeFi token like SafeMoon has reached the mainstream standards under the Binance Smart Chain. Its success and popularity have been immense, thus, making the majority of the business firms adopt this style of cryptocurrency as an alternative.

A DeFi token like SafeMoon is almost similar to the other crypto-token, but the only difference being that it charges a 10% transaction fee from the users who sell their tokens, in which 5% of the fee is distributed to the remaining SafeMoon owners. This feature rewards the owners for holding onto their tokens.

Read More @ https://bit.ly/3oFbJoJ

#create a defi token like safemoon #defi token like safemoon #safemoon token #safemoon token clone #defi token