Overview of Java web application frameworks in 2021

Overview of Java web application frameworks in 2021

According to the TIOBE programming community, Java will still be the most popular programming language in 2021. Given the robustness of the language and the fact that it has a vast ecosystem, Java-based applications can be one of the best...

According to the TIOBE programming community, Java will still be the most popular programming language in 2021. Given the robustness of the language and the fact that it has a vast ecosystem, Java-based applications can be one of the best solutions for any web development.

Despite the enormous flexibility offered by the Java ecosystem, problems with monolithic architectures are not uncommon. Monoliths mean that the business logic, various tests, and web resources, including templates, images, etc., are centralized in a single entity and hosted on a server. This approach's main challenges are the complexity of understanding, extending functionality, supporting and anticipating side effects when changing existing code. Today, microservices architecture is a popular alternative to monoliths. This post will give an overview of Java web application frameworks used in a microservices architecture and their main advantages.

Why is the choice of Java web application framework important?

One of the main issues in development projects when moving to a new stack is the project architecture framework's choice. Must standardized Technology packages to create a robust platform and increase efficiency. According to "Java Trends," you will see a list of Java web application frameworks that will be the most popular for web application development in 2021. In this article, we will look at the latest and most popular implementations using Java. Most popular Java web application frameworks in 2021

| Spring Boot and Spring Framework

Spring Framework is an open-source Java application framework with a large ecosystem. Spring focuses on a single layer of business logic without unnecessary connections to deployment environments.

It is base on modern object-oriented programming ideas such as dependency injection (DI), inversion of control (IoC), and aspect-oriented programming (AOP). DI is a programming model that allows developers to create more decoupled architectures; means that Spring includes different Java annotations that designate other classes. Besides, Spring uses reflection for made, merged, configured, and managed objects throughout their lifecycle, so the IoC takes control of the course within the Spring container. Spring is a large ecosystem that encompasses many modules and projects such as integration, security, cloud, MVC, DataFlow, etc.

Spring Boot is an IO (Runtime) project. Spring Boot is the next step to simplify customization and application development. Creating, configuring, packaging, and deploying Spring Boot applications is radically simplified. Web applications can take advantage of the flexibility offered by using and configuring built-in servlet container environments (tomcat, jetty, or undertow). Besides, CLI applications can take advantage of all the Spring ecosystem features to write complex tasks. Similarly, Spring Boot supports several build systems such as Maven or Gradle.

Spring Boot supports dependency management and can consume artifacts published in the central repository. Dependency management helps avoid version conflicts between dependencies. In practice, Spring Boot uses the BOM to check the version of each dependency. The BOM is a particular type of POM that provides a central place to define and update these versions.

Advantages of Spring Boot and Spring Framework:

  • Support for declarative programming
  • Support for different configuration methods
  • Provides support for declarative programming
  • Allows direct integration of a servlet container (Tomcat, Jetty, or Undertow) into an application
  • Easy configuration and administration

| Micronaut

Micronaut is a modern foundation designed to quickly and easily create microservices programs. It supports popular JVM-based languages (Java, Kotlin, Groovy). Micronaut contains similar functionality to other existing frameworks but introduces new ideas that can define its distinguishing features. One of these features is dependency injection (DI) during compilation.

The result is a faster start of the program with less memory consumption. Other features of the framework include support for reactive programming (Rx Java and Project Reactor) and cloud-native development. Besides, reactive programming support allows you to quickly set up non-blocking endpoints by simply replacing object types with non-blocking reactive types. In the reactive approach, Netty is the base server used to process HTTP requests.

Besides, Micronaut can create serverless function applications for AWS Lambda, Azure Functions, etc. Micronaut itself provides support for GraalVM and compiles the functions or services into native images. To use GraalVM properly, you should read the documentation in more detail, which contains examples to get started.

Advantages of Micronaut:

  • Cloud functions are support by default
  • Fast startup time
  • Efficient dependency injection container implementation at build time
  • Easy unit testing
  • Reduced memory footprint

| Quarks

Quark is a new conceptual framework for cloud-native development. The main goal of this project is to create a Java platform for Kubernetes or serverless environments. Besides, it combines reactive and imperative programming models in a single runtime so that developers can flexibly vary their approach to working with a wide range of distributed application architectures.

Quercus is base on Vert.x, Netty, and several extensions used to support the developer.

As Quarks is adapting to OpenJDK, HotSpot, and GraalVM, it provides an ecosystem that creates native packaging as a native executor with a small VM packaged at build time. Thus, using Java, you can create native binaries and avoid the expense of using a JVM program inside the container.

The benefits of Quarks :

  • Improved memory usage and startup time
  • Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) runtime
  • Live coding "works" from the start.
  • Early detection of dependency injection errors
  • Support for traditional imperative models, reactive models, or both in the same application.

| MicroProfile

MicroProfile is a specification that can implement by different vendors and has several implementations. The main objective is to define standard APIs for building microservices by leveraging the MicroProfile runtime environments' other deployments. To date, there are several popular implementations, including Payara Micro, Helidon MP, Eclipse MicroProfile, and enterprise solutions on cloud platforms, which you can read about here.

The benefits of MicroProfile:

  • А simpler standardized alternative to Jakarta EE.
  • All specifications are community-driven, accessible, and open, which has encouraged and resulted in multiple implementations.

| Vert. X

Vert. X is a framework that runs on a JVM and allows you to write in several programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Groovy, Ruby, Scala, and Kotlin. Its event-driven architecture will enable you to create applications that scale well, even with minimal hardware resources. Vert. X provides idiomatic APIs for each supported programming language.

Because of Vert. X is event-driven and non-blocking. It is possible to handle high concurrency using a minimal number of threads. Vert. X is also very lightweight, with the base framework weighing only about 650 kb. Besides, its modular architecture allows you to use only the modules you need to keep your application running optimally.

The advantages of Vert. x :

  • Fast, lightweight, and modular structure
  • Allows you to create powerful applications easily.
  • The ideal choice for building lightweight, high-performance microservices
  • It scales well with minimal hardware.

| Summary:

In this article, we have reviewed the main frameworks used in different areas of web development. At present, we can see how fast Java is developing and how many new frameworks are emerging to solve business-oriented problems. Besides, we have examined the benefits of each of the frameworks when used with different architectures. We hope this article will help you easily choose a framework for your project or startup you can also contact top java development companies in India.

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