Crypto Like

Crypto Like


What is Uniswap | Beginner's Guide on How to Use Uniswap

The burgeoning decentralized finance ( DeFi) ecosystem aims to use decentralized, non-custodial financial products to replace centralized middlemen in financial applications such as loans, insurance and derivatives.

Uniswap is an example of one of the core products in the DeFi ecosystem, the decentralized crypto exchange, or DEX. DEXs aim to solve many of the problems of their centralized counterparts, including the risk of hacking, mismanagement, and arbitrary fees. However,  decentralized exchanges have their own problems, mainly lack of liquidity—which means a lack of amount of money sloshing around an exchange that makes trading faster and more efficient.

Uniswap is trying to solve decentralized exchanges’ liquidity problem, by allowing the exchange to swap tokens without relying on buyers and sellers creating that liquidity.

Below we explore how Uniswap works—and how it became one of the leading decentralized exchanges built on Ethereum.

What is Uniswap?

Uniswap is a protocol on Ethereum for swapping  ERC20 tokens. Unlike most exchanges, which are designed to take fees, Uniswap is designed to function as a public good—a tool for the community to trade tokens without platform fees or middlemen. Also unlike most exchanges, which match buyers and sellers to determine prices and execute trades, Uniswap uses a simple math equation and pools of tokens and ETH to do the same job.

What’s so special about Uniswap?

Uniswap’s main distinction from other decentralized exchanges is the use of a pricing mechanism called the “Constant Product Market Maker Model.”

Any token can be added to Uniswap by funding it with an equivalent value of ETH and the ERC20 token being traded. For example, if you wanted to make an exchange for an altcoin called Durian Token, you would launch a new Uniswap  smart contract for Durian Token and create a liquidity pool with–for example–$10 worth of Durian Token and $10 worth of ETH.

Where Uniswap differs is that instead of connecting buyers and sellers to determine the price of Durian Token, Uniswap uses a constant equation :  x * y = k.

Source :

In the equation, x and y represent the quantity of ETH and ERC20 tokens available in a liquidity pool and k is a constant value. This equation uses the balance between the ETH and ERC20 tokens–and supply and demand–to determine the price of a particular token. Whenever someone buys Durian Token with ETH, the supply of Durian Token decreases while the supply of ETH increases–the price of Durian Token goes up.

As a result, the price of tokens on Uniswap can only change if trades occur. Essentially what Uniswap is doing is  balancing out the value of tokens, and the swapping of them based on how much people want to buy and sell them.

What else is different about Uniswap?

Absolutely any ERC20 token can be listed on Uniswap–no permission required. Each token has its own  smart contract and liquidity pool–if one doesn’t exist, it can be created easily.

Once a token has its own exchange smart contract and liquidity pool, anyone can trade the token or contribute to the liquidity pool while earning a liquidity provider fee of 0.3%. To contribute to a liquidity pool, you need an equal value of ETH and ERC20 tokens.

How are Uniswap tokens produced?

Whenever new ETH/ERC20 tokens are contributed to a Uniswap liquidity pool, the contributor receives a “pool token”, which is also an ERC20 token.

Pool tokens are created whenever funds are deposited into the pool and as an ERC20 token, pool tokens can be freely exchanged, moved, and used in other dapps. When funds are reclaimed, the pool tokens are burned or destroyed. Each pool token represents a user’s share of the pool’s total assets and share of the pool’s 0.3% trading fee.

What Are UNI Tokens?

In mid-September 2020, Uniswap announced it was creating a brand-new cryptocurrency called UNI. This is designed to serve as a governance token which gives owners a say in the future of the protocol — and at launch, every single person who had used Uniswap was awarded with 400 UNI tokens. At one point following launch, this airdrop would have been worth over $3,350!

A total of 1 billion UNI were minted at genesis — 15% of which were allocated to past and present users. Meanwhile, 40% has been split among employees, investors and advisors.

It is believed that the token launch was in response to SushiSwap’s decision to migrate $1 billion of funds away from Uniswap to its own DEX platform in what was described at the time as a “vampire mining” attack — affecting overall levels of liquidity.

Would you like to earn UNI right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How to Use DeFi Crypto Exchange Uniswap:

Through Uniswap, you’re able to purchase ether (ETH) and any of the thousands of ERC20 tokens supported by the platform.

To do this, you’re going to need some ETH in your balance to pay for any transaction fees, as well as something to trade for the ERC20 token you want. This might be ETH, or another ERC20 token. For example, if you’re looking to trade USD Coin (USDC) for UNI, you’re going to need to hold USDC in your wallet plus some ether to cover the transaction fee.

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)


Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2022)


1. Go to Uniswap

Install the Metamask wallet and purchase Ethereum if you haven’t done so already.

Read more: What is Metamask wallet | How to Create a wallet and Use

Then, visit Uniswap’s  home page and click on “Launch App.” Though other Uniswap  apps and frontends exist, beginners should first use the Uniswap official website.

2. Enter Swap Details

In the Uniswap app, enter the details of the trade that you want to make.

Enter the amount of cryptocurrency that you want to sell (1), the coin that you want to sell (2), and the coin that you want to buy (3).

Then, click “Swap” (4).

You can also configure other settings. If you set slippage tolerance and transaction deadlines, your transaction will be reversed under certain conditions.

Expert mode allows higher slippage limits.

3. Confirm the Trade on Uniswap

Confirm that the details of the swap are correct.

Next, confirm the details of the swap in your Metamask wallet. Enter a gas price and gas limit (1). Higher values will make your transaction go faster.

Then, click “Confirm” (2).

When the transaction has been submitted, close the window.

4. Check Your Transaction Status

You do not need to leave this window open for the transaction to continue. You can inspect it again in Metamask’s transaction history on a block explorer like Etherscan.

The fastest way to check your transaction is to click on your address in Uniswap’s toolbar (1) and then click on “View on Etherscan” (2).

5. Check Your Wallet

Once the transaction is complete, a new balance will show up in your Metamask wallet.

In this example, we traded ETH for DAI, which is shown at the bottom of the list as 115.348 DAI.

### Creating a Pool

1. Go to the Pool Page on Uniswap

As noted earlier, you can earn interest by depositing cryptocurrency in Uniswap’s liquidity pools. To do so, click on “Pool” in Uniswap’s main toolbar (1), then click on “Add Liquidity” (2).

2. Enter Pool Details

Enter the amount of cryptocurrency you want to deposit (1) and choose the coin you want to deposit (2). Then, choose a second coin for the other half of the trading pair you want to create (3).

In this example, we have created an ETH-to-DAI liquidity pool.

3. Approve the Transaction

Confirm the transaction in Metamask. You may need to reconnect your Metamask wallet if you have been offline for some time.

4. Wait For Your Deposit to Complete

Wait for Uniswap to approve your transaction. When other traders use your pool, you will earn interest. You can check the status of your pool on the Pool page.

If it does not show up, restore it by clicking on “Import” on Uniswap’s Pool page.

Remove Your Stake

1. Go to the Pool Page on Uniswap

If you want to stop staking in a pool, you can withdraw your funds. First, go to the Pool page, find your pool, then click “Manage.”

Click “Remove” to proceed with the withdrawal. (Alternatively, you can add more funds to generate more income.)

2. Choose Withdrawal Amount

Choose the amount of funds that you want to remove by sliding the bar (1). In this example, we’ll remove all of the DAI we staked earlier.

Click “Approve” to continue (2).

(You can also withdraw your funds as a different cryptocurrency: click “Detailed” and choose another coin.)

In your Metamask wallet, sign the transaction.

3. Finalize the Withdrawal

Click “Remove” in Uniswap.

Click “Confirm” to finalize the withdrawal.

In Metamask, set your transaction fees (1) and click “Confirm.” (2)

4. Check Your Wallet

Your funds will arrive in your wallet.

Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Uniswap

Source :

Learn More About Uniswap

You can learn more about Uniswap by reading our  introduction to the platform. You’ll learn about its history, its features, the UNI token—and why it has become the most popular DEX on Ethereum.

🔺DISCLAIMER: Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure that you understand these risks if you are a beginner. The Information in the post is my OPINION and not financial advice. You are responsible for what you do with your funds

Learn about Cryptocurrency in this article ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner

Read more:

☞ What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)
☞ What is Metamask wallet | How to Create a wallet and Use
What is Trust Wallet | How to Create a wallet and Use
☞ What is Pancakeswap | Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Pancakeswap

Thank for visiting and reading this article!

#blockchain #bitcoin #uniswap

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

What is Uniswap | Beginner's Guide on How to Use Uniswap
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


Oral  Brekke

Oral Brekke


How to Use Of Not Equal To The Operator in Bash

Many types of operators exist in Bash to check the equality or inequality of two strings or numbers. The “-ne” and “!=” operators are used to check the inequality of two values in Bash. The single third brackets ([ ]) are used in the “if” condition when the “!=” operator is used to check the inequality. The double third brackets ([[ ]]) are used in the “if” condition when the “-ne” operator is used to check the inequality. The methods of comparing the string and numeric values using these operators are shown in this tutorial.

Using the “!=” Operator

The “!=” operator can be used to check the inequality between two numeric values or two string values. Two uses of this operator are shown in the following examples.

Example 1: Checking the Inequality Between Numbers
Create a Bash file with the following script that takes a number input and check whether the input value is equal to 10 or not using the “!=” operator. The single third brackets ([ ]) are used in the “if” condition here.

#Take a number
echo -n "Enter a number:"
read number

#Use '!=' operator to check the number value
if [ $number != 10 ]; then
    echo "The number is not equal to 10."
    echo "The number is equal to 10."

The script is executed twice in the following output. Twelve (12) is taken as input in the first execution and “The number is not equal to 10” is printed. Ten (10) is taken as input in the second execution and “The number is equal to 10” is printed:

Example 2:
Create a Bash file with the following script that takes two string values and check whether the input values are equal or not using the “!=” operator. The single third brackets ([ ]) are used in the “if” condition here.

#Take a number
echo -n "Enter the first string value: "
read str1
echo -n "Enter the second string value: "
read str2

#Use '!=' operator to check the string values
if [ "$str1" != "$str2" ]; then
    echo "The strings are not equal."
    echo "The strings are equal."

The script is executed twice in the following output. The “Hello” and “hello” string values are taken as inputs in the first execution and these values are not equal because the string values are compared case-sensitively. In the next execution, the “hello” and “hello” string values are taken as equal inputs:

Using the “-ne” Operator

The “-ne” operator can be used to check the inequality between two numeric values but not can be used to compare the string values. Two uses of this operator to compare the numeric and string values are shown in the following examples.

Example 1:
Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the username as input. Next, the length of the input value is counted after removing the newline(\n) character. Whether the length of the username is equal to 8 or not is checked using the “-ne” operator. The double third brackets ([[ ]]) are used in the “if” condition here.

#Take the username
echo -n "Enter username: "
read username

#Remove newline from the input value
username=`echo $username | tr -d '\n'`
#Count the total character

#Use the '-ne' operator to check the number value
if [[ $len -ne 8 ]]; then
    echo "Username must be 8 characters long."
    echo "Username: $username"

The script is executed twice in the following output. The “admin” is taken as input in the first execution and the “Username must be 8 characters long” is printed. The “durjoy23” is taken as input in the second execution and the “Username: durjoy23” is printed:

Example 2:
Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the username as input. Next, whether the input value is equal to “admin” or not is checked using the “-ne” operator. The double third brackets ([[ ]]) are used in the “if” condition here. The “-ne” operator does not work to compare two string values.

#Take the username and password
echo -n "Enter username: "
read username

#Remove newline from the input value
username=`echo $username | tr -d '\n'`

#Use '-ne' operator to check the string values
if [[ "$username" -ne "admin" ]]; then
    echo "Invalid user."
    echo "Valid user."

The script is executed twice in the following output. The “if” condition is returned true in both executions for the valid and invalid outputs which is a “wrong” output:


The method of comparing two values using the “!=” and “-ne” operators are shown in this tutorial using multiple examples to know the uses of these operators properly.

Original article source at:

#bash #equal #operator 

Abigail betty

Abigail betty


What is Uniswap - A Beginner's Guide (2021 Updated) DO NOT MISS!!!

🦄Uniswap is a decentralized permissionless exchange that allows users to trade ERC-20 tokens directly.
Here is what’s discussed in the video:
0:57 What is Uniswap?
1:13 How Traditional Crypto Exchanges Work
1:57 Orders on Traditional Exchanges
2:28 Decentralized Exchanges (DEX)
3:40 Traditional Crypto Exchange Trades
4:47 DEX Trades
4:55 Liquidity Pools
5:28 Traditional Price Discovery
5:47 DEX Price Discovery
6:06 Uniswap AMM
6:32 Constant Product Market Maker Model
8:07 Uniswap
8:41 Uniswap Versions
9:28 Using Uniswap
9:52 Price Slippage
10:25 Beware of Scams
11:04 UNI Token
12:18 Conclusion
12:53 Bloopers

📺 The video in this post was made by 99Bitcoins
The origin of the article:
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
☞ **-----CLICK HERE-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #uniswap #what is uniswap #beginner's

Why Use WordPress? What Can You Do With WordPress?

Can you use WordPress for anything other than blogging? To your surprise, yes. WordPress is more than just a blogging tool, and it has helped thousands of websites and web applications to thrive. The use of WordPress powers around 40% of online projects, and today in our blog, we would visit some amazing uses of WordPress other than blogging.
What Is The Use Of WordPress?

WordPress is the most popular website platform in the world. It is the first choice of businesses that want to set a feature-rich and dynamic Content Management System. So, if you ask what WordPress is used for, the answer is – everything. It is a super-flexible, feature-rich and secure platform that offers everything to build unique websites and applications. Let’s start knowing them:

1. Multiple Websites Under A Single Installation
WordPress Multisite allows you to develop multiple sites from a single WordPress installation. You can download WordPress and start building websites you want to launch under a single server. Literally speaking, you can handle hundreds of sites from one single dashboard, which now needs applause.
It is a highly efficient platform that allows you to easily run several websites under the same login credentials. One of the best things about WordPress is the themes it has to offer. You can simply download them and plugin for various sites and save space on sites without losing their speed.

2. WordPress Social Network
WordPress can be used for high-end projects such as Social Media Network. If you don’t have the money and patience to hire a coder and invest months in building a feature-rich social media site, go for WordPress. It is one of the most amazing uses of WordPress. Its stunning CMS is unbeatable. And you can build sites as good as Facebook or Reddit etc. It can just make the process a lot easier.
To set up a social media network, you would have to download a WordPress Plugin called BuddyPress. It would allow you to connect a community page with ease and would provide all the necessary features of a community or social media. It has direct messaging, activity stream, user groups, extended profiles, and so much more. You just have to download and configure it.
If BuddyPress doesn’t meet all your needs, don’t give up on your dreams. You can try out WP Symposium or PeepSo. There are also several themes you can use to build a social network.

3. Create A Forum For Your Brand’s Community
Communities are very important for your business. They help you stay in constant connection with your users and consumers. And allow you to turn them into a loyal customer base. Meanwhile, there are many good technologies that can be used for building a community page – the good old WordPress is still the best.
It is the best community development technology. If you want to build your online community, you need to consider all the amazing features you get with WordPress. Plugins such as BB Press is an open-source, template-driven PHP/ MySQL forum software. It is very simple and doesn’t hamper the experience of the website.
Other tools such as wpFoRo and Asgaros Forum are equally good for creating a community blog. They are lightweight tools that are easy to manage and integrate with your WordPress site easily. However, there is only one tiny problem; you need to have some technical knowledge to build a WordPress Community blog page.

4. Shortcodes
Since we gave you a problem in the previous section, we would also give you a perfect solution for it. You might not know to code, but you have shortcodes. Shortcodes help you execute functions without having to code. It is an easy way to build an amazing website, add new features, customize plugins easily. They are short lines of code, and rather than memorizing multiple lines; you can have zero technical knowledge and start building a feature-rich website or application.
There are also plugins like Shortcoder, Shortcodes Ultimate, and the Basics available on WordPress that can be used, and you would not even have to remember the shortcodes.

5. Build Online Stores
If you still think about why to use WordPress, use it to build an online store. You can start selling your goods online and start selling. It is an affordable technology that helps you build a feature-rich eCommerce store with WordPress.
WooCommerce is an extension of WordPress and is one of the most used eCommerce solutions. WooCommerce holds a 28% share of the global market and is one of the best ways to set up an online store. It allows you to build user-friendly and professional online stores and has thousands of free and paid extensions. Moreover as an open-source platform, and you don’t have to pay for the license.
Apart from WooCommerce, there are Easy Digital Downloads, iThemes Exchange, Shopify eCommerce plugin, and so much more available.

6. Security Features
WordPress takes security very seriously. It offers tons of external solutions that help you in safeguarding your WordPress site. While there is no way to ensure 100% security, it provides regular updates with security patches and provides several plugins to help with backups, two-factor authorization, and more.
By choosing hosting providers like WP Engine, you can improve the security of the website. It helps in threat detection, manage patching and updates, and internal security audits for the customers, and so much more.

Read More

#use of wordpress #use wordpress for business website #use wordpress for website #what is use of wordpress #why use wordpress #why use wordpress to build a website

Using Singular Value Separation in Python and Numpy (linalg.svd)

In this pythonn - Numpy tutorial we will learn about Numpy linalg.svd: Singular Value Decomposition in Python. In mathematics, a singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix refers to the factorization of a matrix into three separate matrices. It is a more generalized version of an eigenvalue decomposition of matrices. It is further related to the polar decompositions.

In Python, it is easy to calculate the singular decomposition of a complex or a real matrix using the numerical python or the numpy library. The numpy library consists of various linear algebraic functions including one for calculating the singular value decomposition of a matrix.

In machine learning models, singular value decomposition is widely used to train models and in neural networks. It helps in improving accuracy and in reducing the noise in data. Singular value decomposition transforms one vector into another without them necessarily having the same dimension. Hence, it makes matrix manipulation in vector spaces easier and efficient. It is also used in regression analysis.

Syntax of Numpy linalg.svd() function

The function that calculates the singular value decomposition of a matrix in python belongs to the numpy module, named linalg.svd() .

The syntax of the numpy linalg.svd () is as follows:

numpy.linalg.svd(A, full_matrices=True, compute_uv=True, hermitian=False)

You can customize the true and false boolean values based on your requirements.

The parameters of the function are given below:

  • A->array_like: This is the required matrix whose singular value decomposition is being calculated. It can be real or complex as required. It’s dimension should be >= 2.
  • full_matrices->boolean value(optional): If set to true, then the Hermitian transpose of the given matrix is a square, if it’s false then it isn’t.
  • compute_uv->boolen value(optional): It determines whether the Hermitian transpose is to be calculated or not in addition to the singular value decomposition.
  • hermitian->boolean value(optional): The given matrix is considered hermitian(that is symmetric, with real values) which might provide a more efficient method for computation.

The function returns three types of matrices based on the parameters mentioned above:

  • S->array_like: The vector containing the singular values in the descending order with dimensions same as the original matrix.
  • u->array_like: This is an optional solution that is returned when compute_uv is set to True. It is a set of vectors with singular values.
  • v-> array_like: Set of unitary arrays only returned when compute_uv is set to True.

It raises a LinALgError when the singular values diverse.

Prerequisites for setup

Before we dive into the examples, make sure you have the numpy module installed in your local system. This is required for using linear algebraic functions like the one discussed in this article. Run the following command in your terminal.

pip install numpy

That’s all you need right now, let’s look at how we will implement the code in the next section.

To calculate Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in Python, use the NumPy library’s linalg.svd() function. Its syntax is numpy.linalg.svd(A, full_matrices=True, compute_uv=True, hermitian=False), where A is the matrix for which SVD is being calculated. It returns three matrices: S, U, and V.

Example 1: Calculating the Singular Value Decomposition of a 3×3 Matrix

In this first example we will take a 3X3 matrix and compute its singular value decomposition in the following way:

#importing the numpy module
import numpy as np
#using the numpy.array() function to create an array
#calculatin all three matrices for the output
#using the numpy linalg.svd function
u,s,v=np.linalg.svd(A, compute_uv=True)
#displaying the result
print("the output is=")
print('s(the singular value) = ',s)
print('u = ',u)
print('v = ',v)

The output will be:

the output is=
s(the singular value) =  [3.36962067e+01 2.13673903e+00 8.83684950e-16]
u =  [[-0.21483724  0.88723069  0.40824829]
 [-0.52058739  0.24964395 -0.81649658]
 [-0.82633754 -0.38794278  0.40824829]]
v =  [[-0.47967118 -0.57236779 -0.66506441]
 [-0.77669099 -0.07568647  0.62531805]
 [-0.40824829  0.81649658 -0.40824829]]

Example 1

Example 1

Example 2: Calculating the Singular Value Decomposition of a Random Matrix

In this example, we will be using the numpy.random.randint() function to create a random matrix. Let’s get into it!

#importing the numpy module
import numpy as np
#using the numpy.array() function to craete an array
A=np.random.randint(5, 200, size=(3,3))
#display the created matrix
print("The input matrix is=",A)
#calculatin all three matrices for the output
#using the numpy linalg.svd function
u,s,v=np.linalg.svd(A, compute_uv=True)
#displaying the result
print("the output is=")
print('s(the singular value) = ',s)
print('u = ',u)
print('v = ',v)

The output will be as follows:

The input matrix is= [[ 36  74 101]
 [104 129 185]
 [139 121 112]]
the output is=
s(the singular value) =  [348.32979681  61.03199722  10.12165841]
u =  [[-0.3635535  -0.48363012 -0.79619769]
 [-0.70916514 -0.41054007  0.57318554]
 [-0.60408084  0.77301925 -0.19372034]]
v =  [[-0.49036384 -0.54970618 -0.67628871]
 [ 0.77570499  0.0784348  -0.62620264]
 [ 0.39727203 -0.83166766  0.38794824]]

Example 2

Example 2

Suggested: Numpy linalg.eigvalsh: A Guide to Eigenvalue Computation.

Wrapping Up

In this article, we explored the concept of singular value decomposition in mathematics and how to calculate it using Python’s numpy module. We used the linalg.svd() function to compute the singular value decomposition of both given and random matrices. Numpy provides an efficient and easy-to-use method for performing linear algebra operations, making it highly valuable in machine learning, neural networks, and regression analysis. Keep exploring other linear algebraic functions in numpy to enhance your mathematical toolset in Python.

Article source at:

#python #numpy