JavaScript: Get Current URL and Components (Protocol, Domain, Port, Path, Query, Hash)

JavaScript: Get Current URL and Components (Protocol, Domain, Port, Path, Query, Hash)

JavaScript: Get Current URL and Components (Protocol, Domain, Port, Path, Query, Hash) We'll take a look at how to get the current URL in JavaScript, including its components such as the protocol, domain, port, path, query and hash.


In this tutorial, we'll take a look at how to get the current URL of a loaded HTML page, using JavaScript.

Firstly, let's take a look at a URL:

It's a made-up URL, that contains several components - the protocoldomainportpathquery and hash.

URL Components

The URL we've defined consists of different segments, divided by certain special characters such as /? and #. Each of these segments is a URL component:

  • Protocol - The protocol of an URL refers to the URL segment which defines which protocol for data transfer is used. In our case, we're using https://, signifying the HTTPS protocol.
  • Domain - The domain, also known as the hostname of an URL refers to the proceeding section of a URL -
  • Port - The port section of an URL is specified after the domain, preceded by :. Most of the time, the port isn't public, so you'll rarely actually see it in deployed applications, but very commonly in the development phase.
  • Path - The path section of an URL follows the domain name and port. It specifies a single resource on a website, HTML page, image, or some other type of file or directory. In our example, the path refers to the /category/article-title.html segment, meaning that it points to the article-title.html file on the server.
  • Query - The query is a string that is usually used to enable internal searches on a website. The query section refers to the ?articleTitle=Example+title section of the example URL and is a result of the user entering the search term Example title on the article-title.html page of the website.
  • Hash - The hash section is usually used to represent an anchor on the page, which is commonly a heading, but can be any other <div> or tag, given that we aim at its id attribute. In our case, we aim at #2, scrolling the user's view to the tag with an id=2.


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