Machine learning for anomaly detection and condition monitoring

Machine learning for anomaly detection and condition monitoring

<strong>Originally published by </strong><a href="" target="_blank">Vegard Flovik</a><strong> </strong><em>at&nbsp;</em><a href="" target="_blank"></a>

My previous article on anomaly detection and condition monitoring has received a lot of feedback. Many of the questions I receive, concern the technical aspects and how to set up the models etc. Due to this, I decided to write a follow-up article covering all the necessary steps in detail, from pre-processing data to building models and visualizing results.

For an introduction to anomaly detection and condition monitoring, I recommend first reading my original article on the topic. This provides the neccesary background information on how machine learning and data driven analytics can be utilized to extract valuable information from sensor data.

The current article focuses mostly on the technical aspects, and includes all the code needed to set up anomaly detection models based on multivariate statistical analysis and autoencoder neural networks.

Download the dataset:

To replicate the results in the original article, you first need to download the dataset from the NASA Acoustics and Vibration Database. See the downloaded Readme Document for IMS Bearing Data for further information on the experiment and available data.

Each data set consists of individual files that are 1-second vibration signal snapshots recorded at specific intervals. Each file consists of 20.480 points with the sampling rate set at 20 kHz. The file name indicates when the data was collected. Each record (row) in the data file is a data point. Larger intervals of time stamps (showed in file names) indicate resumption of the experiment in the next working day.

Import packages and libraries:

The first step is to import some useful packages and libraries for the analysis:

# Common imports
import os
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn import preprocessing
import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

from numpy.random import seed
from tensorflow import set_random_seed

from keras.layers import Input, Dropout
from keras.layers.core import Dense 
from keras.models import Model, Sequential, load_model
from keras import regularizers
from keras.models import model_from_json

Data loading and pre-processing:

An assumption is that gear degradation occur gradually over time, so we use one datapoint every 10 minutes in the following analysis. Each 10 minute datapoint is aggregated by using the mean absolute value of the vibration recordings over the 20.480 datapoints in each file. We then merge together everything in a single dataframe.

In the following example, I use the data from the 2nd Gear failure test (see readme document for further info on that experiment).

data_dir = '2nd_test'
merged_data = pd.DataFrame()

for filename in os.listdir(data_dir):
    dataset=pd.read_csv(os.path.join(data_dir, filename), sep='\t')
    dataset_mean_abs = np.array(dataset.abs().mean())
    dataset_mean_abs = pd.DataFrame(dataset_mean_abs.reshape(1,4))
    dataset_mean_abs.index = [filename]
    merged_data = merged_data.append(dataset_mean_abs)

merged_data.columns = ['Bearing 1','Bearing 2','Bearing 3','Bearing 4']

After loading the vibration data, we transform the index to datetime format (using the following convention), and then sort the data by index in chronological order before saving the merged dataset as a .csv file

merged_data.index = pd.to_datetime(merged_data.index, format='%Y.%m.%d.%H.%M.%S')
merged_data = merged_data.sort_index()

Resulting dataframe: “merged_data”

Define train/test data:

Before setting up the models, we need to define train/test data. To do this, we perform a simple split where we train on the first part of the dataset (which should represent normal operating conditions), and test on the remaining parts of the dataset leading up to the bearing failure.

dataset_train = merged_data['2004-02-12 11:02:39':'2004-02-13 23:52:39']
dataset_test = merged_data['2004-02-13 23:52:39':]
dataset_train.plot(figsize = (12,6))

Training data: Normal operating conditions

Normalize data:

I then use preprocessing tools from Scikit-learn to scale the input variables of the model. The “MinMaxScaler” simply re-scales the data to be in the range [0,1].

scaler = preprocessing.MinMaxScaler()

X_train = pd.DataFrame(scaler.fit_transform(dataset_train), 
# Random shuffle training data

X_test = pd.DataFrame(scaler.transform(dataset_test), 

PCA type model for anomaly detection:

As dealing with high dimensional sensor data is often challenging, there are several techniques to reduce the number of variables (dimensionality reduction). One of the main techniques is principal component analysis(PCA). For a more detailed introduction, I refer to my original article on the topic.

As an initial attempt, let us compress the sensor readings down to the two main principal components.

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA
pca = PCA(n_components=2, svd_solver= 'full')
X_train_PCA = pca.fit_transform(X_train)
X_train_PCA = pd.DataFrame(X_train_PCA)
X_train_PCA.index = X_train.index

X_test_PCA = pca.transform(X_test)
X_test_PCA = pd.DataFrame(X_test_PCA)
X_test_PCA.index = X_test.index

The Mahalanobis distance metric:

The Mahalanobis distance is widely used in cluster analysis and classification techniques. In order to use the Mahalanobis distance to classify a test point as belonging to one of N classes, one first estimates the covariance matrix of each class, usually based on samples known to belong to each class. In our case, as we are only interested in classifying “normal” vs “anomaly”, we use training data that only contains normal operating conditions to calculate the covariance matrix. Then, given a test sample, we compute the Mahalanobis distance to the “normal” class, and classifies the test point as an “anomaly” if the distance is above a certain threshold.

For a more detailed introduction to these technical aspects, you can have a look at my previous article, which covers these topics in more detail.

Define functions used in the PCA model:

Calculate the covariance matrix:

def cov_matrix(data, verbose=False):
    covariance_matrix = np.cov(data, rowvar=False)
    if is_pos_def(covariance_matrix):
        inv_covariance_matrix = np.linalg.inv(covariance_matrix)
        if is_pos_def(inv_covariance_matrix):
            return covariance_matrix, inv_covariance_matrix
            print("Error: Inverse of Covariance Matrix is not positive definite!")
        print("Error: Covariance Matrix is not positive definite!")

Calculate the Mahalanobis distance:

def MahalanobisDist(inv_cov_matrix, mean_distr, data, verbose=False):
    inv_covariance_matrix = inv_cov_matrix
    vars_mean = mean_distr
    diff = data - vars_mean
    md = []
    for i in range(len(diff)):
    return md

Detecting outliers:

def MD_detectOutliers(dist, extreme=False, verbose=False):
    k = 3. if extreme else 2.
    threshold = np.mean(dist) * k
    outliers = []
    for i in range(len(dist)):
        if dist[i] >= threshold:
            outliers.append(i)  # index of the outlier
    return np.array(outliers)

Calculate threshold value for classifying datapoint as anomaly:

def MD_threshold(dist, extreme=False, verbose=False):
    k = 3. if extreme else 2.
    threshold = np.mean(dist) * k
    return threshold

Check if matrix is positive definite:

def is_pos_def(A):
    if np.allclose(A, A.T):
            return True
        except np.linalg.LinAlgError:
            return False
        return False

Set up PCA model:

Define train/test set from the two main principal components:

data_train = np.array(X_train_PCA.values)
data_test = np.array(X_test_PCA.values)

Calculate the covariance matrix and its inverse, based on data in the training set:

cov_matrix, inv_cov_matrix  = cov_matrix(data_train)

We also calculate the mean value for the input variables in the training set, as this is used later to calculate the Mahalanobis distance to datapoints in the test set

mean_distr = data_train.mean(axis=0)

Using the covariance matrix and its inverse, we can calculate the Mahalanobis distance for the training data defining “normal conditions”, and find the threshold value to flag datapoints as an anomaly. One can then calculate the Mahalanobis distance for the datapoints in the test set, and compare that with the anomaly threshold.

dist_test = MahalanobisDist(inv_cov_matrix, mean_distr, data_test, verbose=False)
dist_train = MahalanobisDist(inv_cov_matrix, mean_distr, data_train, verbose=False)
threshold = MD_threshold(dist_train, extreme = True)

Threshold value for flagging an anomaly:

The square of the Mahalanobis distance to the centroid of the distribution should follow a χ2 distribution if the assumption of normal distributed input variables is fulfilled. This is also the assumption behind the above calculation of the “threshold value” for flagging an anomaly. As this assumption is not necessarily fulfilled in our case, it is beneficial to visualize the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance to set a good threshold value for flagging anomalies. Again, I refer to my previous article, for a more detailed introduction to these technical aspects.

We start by visualizing the square of the Mahalanobis distance, which should then ideally follow a χ2 distribution.

             bins = 10, 
             kde= False);

Square of the Mahalanobis distance

Then visualize the Mahalanobis distance itself:

             bins = 10, 
             kde= True, 
            color = 'green');
plt.xlabel('Mahalanobis dist')

From the above distributions, the calculated threshold value of 3.8 for flagging an anomaly seems reasonable (defined as 3 standard deviations from the center of the distribution)

We can then save the Mahalanobis distance, as well as the threshold value and “anomaly flag” variable for the test data in a dataframe:

anomaly = pd.DataFrame()
anomaly['Mob dist']= dist_test
anomaly['Thresh'] = threshold
# If Mob dist above threshold: Flag as anomaly
anomaly['Anomaly'] = anomaly['Mob dist'] > anomaly['Thresh']
anomaly.index = X_test_PCA.index

Resulting dataframe for the test data

Based on the calculated statistics, any distance above the threshold value will be flagged as an anomaly.

We can now merge the data in a single dataframe and save it as a .csv file:

anomaly_alldata = pd.concat([anomaly_train, anomaly])

Verifying PCA model on test data:

We can now plot the calculated anomaly metric (Mob dist), and check when it crosses the anomaly threshold (note the logarithmic y-axis).

anomaly_alldata.plot(logy=True, figsize = (10,6), ylim = [1e-1,1e3], color = ['green','red'])

From the above figure, we see that the model is able to detect the anomaly approximately 3 days ahead of the actual bearing failure.

Other approach: Autoencoder model for anomaly detection

The basic idea here is to use an autoencoder neural network to “compress” the sensor readings to a low dimensional representation, which captures the correlations and interactions between the various variables. (Essentially the same principle as the PCA model, but here we also allow for non-linearities among the input variables).

For a more detailed introduction to Autoencoders you can have a look at my previous article, which covers the topic in more detail.

Defining the Autoencoder network:

We use a 3 layer neural network: First layer has 10 nodes, middle layer has 2 nodes, and third layer has 10 nodes. We use the mean square error as loss function, and train the model using the “Adam” optimizer.

act_func = 'elu'

# Input layer:
# First hidden layer, connected to input vector X. 





# Train model for 100 epochs, batch size of 10: 

Fitting the model:

To keep track of the accuracy during training, we use 5% of the training data for validation after each epoch (validation_split = 0.05),np.array(X_train),
                  verbose = 1)

Training process

Visualize training/validation loss:

         label='Training loss')
         label='Validation loss')
plt.legend(loc='upper right')
plt.ylabel('Loss, [mse]')

Train/validation loss

Distribution of loss function in the training set:

By plotting the distribution of the calculated loss in the training set, one can use this to identify a suitable threshold value for identifying an anomaly. In doing this, one can make sure that this threshold is set above the “noise level”, and that any flagged anomalies should be statistically significant above the noise background.

X_pred = model.predict(np.array(X_train))
X_pred = pd.DataFrame(X_pred, 
X_pred.index = X_train.index

scored = pd.DataFrame(index=X_train.index)
scored['Loss_mae'] = np.mean(np.abs(X_pred-X_train), axis = 1)
             bins = 10, 
             kde= True,
            color = 'blue');

Loss distribution, training set

From the above loss distribution, let us try a threshold of 0.3 for flagging an anomaly. We can then calculate the loss in the test set, to check when the output crosses the anomaly threshold.

X_pred = model.predict(np.array(X_test))
X_pred = pd.DataFrame(X_pred, 
X_pred.index = X_test.index

scored = pd.DataFrame(index=X_test.index)
scored['Loss_mae'] = np.mean(np.abs(X_pred-X_test), axis = 1)
scored['Threshold'] = 0.3
scored['Anomaly'] = scored['Loss_mae'] > scored['Threshold']

We then calculate the same metrics also for the training set, and merge all data in a single dataframe:

X_pred_train = model.predict(np.array(X_train))
X_pred_train = pd.DataFrame(X_pred_train, 
X_pred_train.index = X_train.index

scored_train = pd.DataFrame(index=X_train.index)
scored_train['Loss_mae'] = np.mean(np.abs(X_pred_train-X_train), axis = 1)
scored_train['Threshold'] = 0.3
scored_train['Anomaly'] = scored_train['Loss_mae'] > scored_train['Threshold']
scored = pd.concat([scored_train, scored])

Results from Autoencoder model:

Having calculated the loss distribution and the anomaly threshold, we can visualize the model output in the time leading up to the bearing failure:

scored.plot(logy=True,  figsize = (10,6), ylim = [1e-2,1e2], color = ['blue','red'])


Both modeling approaches give similar results, where they are able to flag the upcoming bearing malfunction well in advance of the actual failure. The main difference is essentially how to define a suitable threshold value for flagging anomalies, to avoid to many false positives during normal operating conditions.

I hope this tutorial gave you inspiration to try out these anomaly detection models yourselves. Once you have succesfully set up the models, it is time to start experimenting with model parameters etc. and test the same approach on new datasets. If you come across some interesting use cases, please let me know in the comments below.

Have fun!

Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free

Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free

Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free. In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free.

The average cost of obtaining a masters degree at traditional bricks and mortar institutions will set you back anywhere between $30,000 and $120,000. Even online data science degree programs don’t come cheap costing a minimum of $9,000. So what do you do if you want to learn data science but can’t afford to pay this?

I trained into a career as a data scientist without taking any formal education in the subject. In this article, I am going to share with you my own personal curriculum for learning data science if you can’t or don’t want to pay thousands of dollars for more formal study.

The curriculum will consist of 3 main parts, technical skills, theory and practical experience. I will include links to free resources for every element of the learning path and will also be including some links to additional ‘low cost’ options. So if you want to spend a little money to accelerate your learning you can add these resources to the curriculum. I will include the estimated costs for each of these.

Technical skills

The first part of the curriculum will focus on technical skills. I recommend learning these first so that you can take a practical first approach rather than say learning the mathematical theory first. Python is by far the most widely used programming language used for data science. In the Kaggle Machine Learning and Data Science survey carried out in 2018 83% of respondents said that they used Python on a daily basis. I would, therefore, recommend focusing on this language but also spending a little time on other languages such as R.

Python Fundamentals

Before you can start to use Python for data science you need a basic grasp of the fundamentals behind the language. So you will want to take a Python introductory course. There are lots of free ones out there but I like the Codeacademy ones best as they include hands-on in-browser coding throughout.

I would suggest taking the introductory course to learn Python. This covers basic syntax, functions, control flow, loops, modules and classes.

Data analysis with python

Next, you will want to get a good understanding of using Python for data analysis. There are a number of good resources for this.

To start with I suggest taking at least the free parts of the data analyst learning path on Dataquest offers complete learning paths for data analyst, data scientist and data engineer. Quite a lot of the content, particularly on the data analyst path is available for free. If you do have some money to put towards learning then I strongly suggest putting it towards paying for a few months of the premium subscription. I took this course and it provided a fantastic grounding in the fundamentals of data science. It took me 6 months to complete the data scientist path. The price varies from $24.50 to $49 per month depending on whether you pay annually or not. It is better value to purchase the annual subscription if you can afford it.

The Dataquest platform

Python for machine learning

If you have chosen to pay for the full data science course on Dataquest then you will have a good grasp of the fundamentals of machine learning with Python. If not then there are plenty of other free resources. I would focus to start with on scikit-learn which is by far the most commonly used Python library for machine learning.

When I was learning I was lucky enough to attend a two-day workshop run by Andreas Mueller one of the core developers of scikit-learn. He has however published all the material from this course, and others, on this Github repo. These consist of slides, course notes and notebooks that you can work through. I would definitely recommend working through this material.

Then I would suggest taking some of the tutorials in the scikit-learn documentation. After that, I would suggest building some practical machine learning applications and learning the theory behind how the models work — which I will cover a bit later on.


SQL is a vital skill to learn if you want to become a data scientist as one of the fundamental processes in data modelling is extracting data in the first place. This will more often than not involve running SQL queries against a database. Again if you haven’t opted to take the full Dataquest course then here are a few free resources to learn this skill.

Codeacamdemy has a free introduction to SQL course. Again this is very practical with in-browser coding all the way through. If you also want to learn about cloud-based database querying then Google Cloud BigQuery is very accessible. There is a free tier so you can try queries for free, an extensive range of public datasets to try and very good documentation.

Codeacademy SQL course


To be a well-rounded data scientist it is a good idea to diversify a little from just Python. I would, therefore, suggest also taking an introductory course in R. Codeacademy have an introductory course on their free plan. It is probably worth noting here that similar to Dataquest Codeacademy also offers a complete data science learning plan as part of their pro account (this costs from $31.99 to $15.99 per month depending on how many months you pay for up front). I personally found the Dataquest course to be much more comprehensive but this may work out a little cheaper if you are looking to follow a learning path on a single platform.

Software engineering

It is a good idea to get a grasp of software engineering skills and best practices. This will help your code to be more readable and extensible both for yourself and others. Additionally, when you start to put models into production you will need to be able to write good quality well-tested code and work with tools like version control.

There are two great free resources for this. Python like you mean it covers things like the PEP8 style guide, documentation and also covers object-oriented programming really well.

The scikit-learn contribution guidelines, although written to facilitate contributions to the library, actually cover the best practices really well. This covers topics such as Github, unit testing and debugging and is all written in the context of a data science application.

Deep learning

For a comprehensive introduction to deep learning, I don’t think that you can get any better than the totally free and totally ad-free This course includes an introduction to machine learning, practical deep learning, computational linear algebra and a code-first introduction to natural language processing. All their courses have a practical first approach and I highly recommend them. platform


Whilst you are learning the technical elements of the curriculum you will encounter some of the theory behind the code you are implementing. I recommend that you learn the theoretical elements alongside the practical. The way that I do this is that I learn the code to be able to implement a technique, let’s take KMeans as an example, once I have something working I will then look deeper into concepts such as inertia. Again the scikit-learn documentation contains all the mathematical concepts behind the algorithms.

In this section, I will introduce the key foundational elements of theory that you should learn alongside the more practical elements.

The khan academy covers almost all the concepts I have listed below for free. You can tailor the subjects you would like to study when you sign up and you then have a nice tailored curriculum for this part of the learning path. Checking all of the boxes below will give you an overview of most elements I have listed below.



Calculus is defined by Wikipedia as “the mathematical study of continuous change.” In other words calculus can find patterns between functions, for example, in the case of derivatives, it can help you to understand how a function changes over time.

Many machine learning algorithms utilise calculus to optimise the performance of models. If you have studied even a little machine learning you will probably have heard of Gradient descent. This functions by iteratively adjusting the parameter values of a model to find the optimum values to minimise the cost function. Gradient descent is a good example of how calculus is used in machine learning.

What you need to know:


  • Geometric definition
  • Calculating the derivative of a function
  • Nonlinear functions

Chain rule

  • Composite functions
  • Composite function derivatives
  • Multiple functions


  • Partial derivatives
  • Directional derivatives
  • Integrals

Linear Algebra

Many popular machine learning methods, including XGBOOST, use matrices to store inputs and process data. Matrices alongside vector spaces and linear equations form the mathematical branch known as Linear Algebra. In order to understand how many machine learning methods work it is essential to get a good understanding of this field.

What you need to learn:

Vectors and spaces

  • Vectors
  • Linear combinations
  • Linear dependence and independence
  • Vector dot and cross products

Matrix transformations

  • Functions and linear transformations
  • Matrix multiplication
  • Inverse functions
  • Transpose of a matrix


Here is a list of the key concepts you need to know:

Descriptive/Summary statistics

  • How to summarise a sample of data
  • Different types of distributions
  • Skewness, kurtosis, central tendency (e.g. mean, median, mode)
  • Measures of dependence, and relationships between variables such as correlation and covariance

Experiment design

  • Hypothesis testing
  • Sampling
  • Significance tests
  • Randomness
  • Probability
  • Confidence intervals and two-sample inference

Machine learning

  • Inference about slope
  • Linear and non-linear regression
  • Classification

Practical experience

The third section of the curriculum is all about practice. In order to truly master the concepts above you will need to use the skills in some projects that ideally closely resemble a real-world application. By doing this you will encounter problems to work through such as missing and erroneous data and develop a deep level of expertise in the subject. In this last section, I will list some good places you can get this practical experience from for free.

“With deliberate practice, however, the goal is not just to reach your potential but to build it, to make things possible that were not possible before. This requires challenging homeostasis — getting out of your comfort zone — and forcing your brain or your body to adapt.”, Anders Ericsson, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise

Kaggle, et al

Machine learning competitions are a good place to get practice with building machine learning models. They give access to a wide range of data sets, each with a specific problem to solve and have a leaderboard. The leaderboard is a good way to benchmark how good your knowledge at developing a good model actually is and where you may need to improve further.

In addition to Kaggle, there are other platforms for machine learning competitions including Analytics Vidhya and DrivenData.

Driven data competitions page

UCI Machine Learning Repository

The UCI machine learning repository is a large source of publically available data sets. You can use these data sets to put together your own data projects this could include data analysis and machine learning models, you could even try building a deployed model with a web front end. It is a good idea to store your projects somewhere publically such as Github as this can create a portfolio showcasing your skills to use for future job applications.

UCI repository

Contributions to open source

One other option to consider is contributing to open source projects. There are many Python libraries that rely on the community to maintain them and there are often hackathons held at meetups and conferences where even beginners can join in. Attending one of these events would certainly give you some practical experience and an environment where you can learn from others whilst giving something back at the same time. Numfocus is a good example of a project like this.

In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free. Showcasing what you are able to do in the form of a portfolio is a great tool for future job applications in lieu of formal qualifications and certificates. I really believe that education should be accessible to everyone and, certainly, for data science at least, the internet provides that opportunity. In addition to the resources listed here, I have previously published a recommended reading list for learning data science available here. These are also all freely available online and are a great way to complement the more practical resources covered above.

Thanks for reading!

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Downloadable PDF of Best AI Cheat Sheets in Super High Definition

Let’s begin.

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Data Science in HD

Part 1: Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

Neural Networks Basics

Neural Networks Basics Cheat Sheet

An Artificial Neuron Network (ANN), popularly known as Neural Network is a computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. It is like an artificial human nervous system for receiving, processing, and transmitting information in terms of Computer Science.

Basically, there are 3 different layers in a neural network :

  1. Input Layer (All the inputs are fed in the model through this layer)
  2. Hidden Layers (There can be more than one hidden layers which are used for processing the inputs received from the input layers)
  3. Output Layer (The data after processing is made available at the output layer)

Neural Networks Graphs

Neural Networks Graphs Cheat Sheet

Graph data can be used with a lot of learning tasks contain a lot rich relation data among elements. For example, modeling physics system, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model learns from graph inputs. Graph reasoning models can also be used for learning from non-structural data like texts and images and reasoning on extracted structures.

Part 2: Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

>>> If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.<<<

Machine Learning with Emojis

Machine Learning with Emojis Cheat Sheet

Machine Learning: Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit-learn is a free software machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines is a simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis. It’s built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib an open source, commercially usable — BSD license

Scikit-learn Algorithm Cheat Sheet

Scikit-learn algorithm

This machine learning cheat sheet will help you find the right estimator for the job which is the most difficult part. The flowchart will help you check the documentation and rough guide of each estimator that will help you to know more about the problems and how to solve it.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Machine Learning: Scikit-Learn Algorythm for Azure Machine Learning Studios

Scikit-Learn Algorithm for Azure Machine Learning Studios Cheat Sheet

Part 3: Data Science with Python

Data Science with Python Cheat Sheets

Data Science: TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow is a free and open-source software library for dataflow and differentiable programming across a range of tasks. It is a symbolic math library, and is also used for machine learning applications such as neural networks.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python is one of the most popular data science tool due to its low and gradual learning curve and the fact that it is a fully fledged programming language.

Data Science: PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

“At a high level, every Spark application consists of a driver program that runs the user’s main function and executes various parallel operations on a cluster. The main abstraction Spark provides is a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a collection of elements partitioned across the nodes of the cluster that can be operated on in parallel. RDDs are created by starting with a file in the Hadoop file system (or any other Hadoop-supported file system), or an existing Scala collection in the driver program, and transforming it. Users may also ask Spark to persist an RDD in memory, allowing it to be reused efficiently across parallel operations. Finally, RDDs automatically recover from node failures.” via Spark.Aparche.Org

Data Science: NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.

***If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know ***here.

Data Science: Bokeh Cheat Sheet

Bokeh Cheat Sheet

“Bokeh is an interactive visualization library that targets modern web browsers for presentation. Its goal is to provide elegant, concise construction of versatile graphics, and to extend this capability with high-performance interactivity over very large or streaming datasets. Bokeh can help anyone who would like to quickly and easily create interactive plots, dashboards, and data applications.” from

Data Science: Karas Cheat Sheet

Karas Cheat Sheet

Keras is an open-source neural-network library written in Python. It is capable of running on top of TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, Theano, or PlaidML. Designed to enable fast experimentation with deep neural networks, it focuses on being user-friendly, modular, and extensible.

Data Science: Padas Basics Cheat Sheet

Padas Basics Cheat Sheet

Pandas is a software library written for the Python programming language for data manipulation and analysis. In particular, it offers data structures and operations for manipulating numerical tables and time series. It is free software released under the three-clause BSD license.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

Data Wrangling

The term “data wrangler” is starting to infiltrate pop culture. In the 2017 movie Kong: Skull Island, one of the characters, played by actor Marc Evan Jackson is introduced as “Steve Woodward, our data wrangler”.

Data Science: Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

“Why Use tidyr & dplyr

  • Although many fundamental data processing functions exist in R, they have been a bit convoluted to date and have lacked consistent coding and the ability to easily flow together → leads to difficult-to-read nested functions and/or choppy code.
  • R Studio is driving a lot of new packages to collate data management tasks and better integrate them with other analysis activities → led by Hadley Wickham & the R Studio teamGarrett Grolemund, Winston Chang, Yihui Xie among others.
  • As a result, a lot of data processing tasks are becoming packaged in more cohesive and consistent ways → leads to:
  • More efficient code
  • Easier to remember syntax
  • Easier to read syntax” via Rstudios

Data Science: Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr

Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr Cheat Sheet

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Scipy Linear Algebra

Scipy Linear Algebra Cheat Sheet

SciPy builds on the NumPy array object and is part of the NumPy stack which includes tools like Matplotlib, pandas and SymPy, and an expanding set of scientific computing libraries. This NumPy stack has similar users to other applications such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, and Scilab. The NumPy stack is also sometimes referred to as the SciPy stack.[3]

Data Science: Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib is a plotting library for the Python programming language and its numerical mathematics extension NumPy. It provides an object-oriented APIfor embedding plots into applications using general-purpose GUI toolkits like Tkinter, wxPython, Qt, or GTK+. There is also a procedural “pylab” interface based on a state machine (like OpenGL), designed to closely resemble that of MATLAB, though its use is discouraged. SciPy makes use of matplotlib.

Pyplot is a matplotlib module which provides a MATLAB-like interface matplotlib is designed to be as usable as MATLAB, with the ability to use Python, with the advantage that it is free.

Data Science: Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

>>> If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here. <<<

Data Science: Big-O Cheat Sheet

Big-O Cheat Sheet


Special thanks to DataCamp, Asimov Institute, RStudios and the open source community for their content contributions. You can see originals here:

Big-O Algorithm Cheat Sheet:

Bokeh Cheat Sheet:

Data Science Cheat Sheet:

Data Wrangling Cheat Sheet:

Data Wrangling:

Ggplot Cheat Sheet:

Keras Cheat Sheet:


Machine Learning Cheat Sheet:

Machine Learning Cheat Sheet:

ML Cheat Sheet::

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet:


Neural Networks Cheat Sheet:

Neural Networks Graph Cheat Sheet:

Neural Networks:

Numpy Cheat Sheet:


Pandas Cheat Sheet:


Pandas Cheat Sheet:

Pyspark Cheat Sheet:

Scikit Cheat Sheet:


Scikit-learn Cheat Sheet:

Scipy Cheat Sheet:


TesorFlow Cheat Sheet:

Tensor Flow:

10 Data Science and Machine Learning Courses for Beginners

10 Data Science and Machine Learning Courses for Beginners

Data Science, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial intelligence are really hot at this moment and offering a lucrative career to programmers with high pay and exciting work.

Data Science, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial intelligence are really hot at this moment and offering a lucrative career to programmers with high pay and exciting work.

It's a great opportunity for programmers who are willing to learn these new skills and upgrade themselves and want to solve some of the most interesting real-world problems.

It's also important from the job perspective because Robots and Bots are getting smarter day by day, thanks to these technologies and most likely will take over some of the jobs which many programmers do today.

Hence, it's important for software engineers and developers to upgrade themselves with these skills. Programmers with these skills are also commanding significantly higher salaries as data science is revolutionizing the world around us.

You might already know that the Machine learning specialist is one of the top paid technical jobs in the world. However, most developers and IT professionals are yet to learn this valuable set of skills.

For those, who don't know what is a Data ScienceMachine learning, or deep learning, they are very related terms with all pointing towards machine doing jobs which is only possible for humans till date and analyzing the huge set of data collected by modern day application.

Data Science, in particular, is a combination of concepts such as machine learning, visualization, data mining, programming, data mugging, etc.

If you have some programming experience then you can learn Python or Rto make your carer as a Data Scientist.

There are a lot of popular scientific Python libraries such as Numpy, Scipy, Scikit-learn, Pandas, which is used by Data Scientist for analyzing data.

To be honest with you, I am also quite new to Data Science and Machine learning world but I have been spending some time from last year to understand this field and have done some research in terms of best resources to learn machine learning, data science, etc.

I am sharing all those resources in a series of a blog post like this. Earlier, I have shared some courses to learn TensorFlow, one of the most popular machine-learning library and today I'll share some more to learn these technologies.

These are a combination of both free and paid resource which will help you to understand key data science concepts and become a Data Scientist. Btw, I'll get paid if you happen to buy a course which is not free.

10 Useful Courses to Learn Machine Learning and Data Science for Programmers

Here is my list of some of the best courses to learn Data Science, Machine learning, and deep learning using Python and R programming language. As I have said, Data Science and machine learning work very closely together, hence some of these courses also cover machine learning.

If you are still on fence with respect to choosing Python or R for machine learning, let me tell you that both Python and R are a great language for Data Analysis and have good APIs and library, hence I have included courses in both Python and R, you can choose the one you like.

I personally like Python because of its versatile usage, it's the next best in my list of language after Java. I am already using it for writing scripts and other web stuff, so it was an easy choice for me. It has also got some excellent libraries like Sci-kit Learn and TensorFlow.

Data Science is also a combination of many skills e.g. visualization, data cleaning, data mining, etc and these courses provide a good overview of all these concepts and also presents a lot of useful tools which can help you in the real world.

Machine Learning by Andrew Ng

This is probably the most popular course to learn machine learning provided by Stanford University and Coursera, which also provides certification. You'll be tested on each and every topic that you learn in this course, and based on the completion and the final score that you get, you'll also be awarded the certificate.

This course is free but you need to pay for certificates, if you want. Though, it does provide value to you as a developer and gives you a good understanding of the mathematics behind all the machine learning algorithms that you come up with.

I personally really like this one. Andrew Ng takes you through the course using Octave, which is a good tool to test your algorithm before making it go live on your project.

1.Machine Learning A-Z: Hands-On Python and R --- In Data Science

This is probably the best hands on course on Data Science and machine learning online. In this course, you will learn to create Machine Learning Algorithms in Python and R from two Data Science experts.

This is a great course for students and programmers who want to make a career in Data Science and also Data Analysts who want to level up in machine learning.

It's also good for any intermediate level programmers who know the basics of machine learning, including the classical algorithms like linear regression or logistic regression, but who want to learn more about it and explore all the different fields of Machine Learning.

2. Data Science with R by Pluralsight

Data science is the practice of transforming data into knowledge, and R is one of the most popular programming language used by data scientists.

In this course, you'll learn first learn about the practice of data science, the R programming language, and how they can be used to transform data into actionable insight.

Next, you'll learn how to transform and clean your data, create and interpret descriptive statistics, data visualizations, and statistical models.

Finally, you'll learn how to handle Big Data, make predictions using machine learning algorithms, and deploy R to production.

Btw, you would need a Pluralsight membership to get access this course, but if you don't have one you can still check out this course by taking their 10-day free Pass, which provides 200 minutes of access to all of their courses for free.

3.** **Harvard Data Science Course

The course is a combination of various data science concepts such as machine learning, visualization, data mining, programming, data mugging, etc.

You will be using popular scientific Python libraries such as Numpy, Scipy, Scikit-learn, Pandas throughout the course.

I suggest you complete the machine learning course on course before taking this course, as machine learning concepts such as PCA (dimensionality reduction), k-means and logistic regression are not covered in depth.

But remember, you have to invest a lot of time to complete this course, especially the homework exercises are very challenging

In short, if you are looking for an online course in data science(using Python), there is no better course than Harvard's CS 109. You need some background in programming and knowledge of statistics to complete this course.

4. Want to be a Data Scientist? (FREE)

This is a great introductory course on what Data Scientist do and how you can become a data science professional. It's also free and you can get it on Udemy.

If you have just heard about Data Science and excited about it but doesn't know what it really means then this is the course you should attend first.

It's a small course but packed with big punches. You will understand what Data Science is? Appreciate the work Data Scientists do on a daily basis and differentiate the various roles in Data Science and the skills needed to perform them.

You will also learn about the challenges Data Scientists face. In short, this course will give you all the knowledge to make a decision on whether Data Science is the right path for you or not.

5. Intro to Data Science by Udacity

This is another good Introductory course on Data science which is available for free on Udacity, another popular online course website.

In this course, you will learn about essential Data science concepts e.g. Data Manipulation, Data Analysis with Statistics and Machine Learning, Data Communication with Information Visualization, and Data at Scale while working with Big Data.

This is a free course and it's also the first step towards a new career with the Data Analyst Nanodegree Program offered by Udacity.

6. Data Science Certification Training --- R Programming

The is another good course to learn Data Science with R. In this course, you will not only learn R programming language but also get some hands-on experience with statistical modeling techniques.

The course has real-world examples of how analytics have been used to significantly improve a business or industry.

If you are interested in learning some practical analytic methods that don't require a ton of maths background to understand, this is the course for you.

7. Intro To Data Science Course by Coursera

This course provides a broad introduction to various concepts of data science. The first programming exercise "Twitter Sentiment Analysis in Python" is both fun and challenging, where you analyze tons of twitter message to find out the sentiments e.g. negative, positive etc.

The course assumes that you know statistics, Python, and SQL.

Btw, It's not so good for beginners, especially if you don't know Python and SQL but if you do and have a basic understanding of Data Science then this is a great course.

8. Python for Data Science and Machine Learning Bootcamp

There is no doubt that Python is probably the best language, apart from R for Data Analysis and that's why it's hugely popular among Data Scientists.

This course will teach you how to use all important Python scientific and machine learning libraries Tensorflow, NumPy, Pandas, Seaborn, Matplotlib, Plotly, Scikit-Learn, Machine Learning, and many more libraries which I have explained earlier in my list of useful machine learning libraries.

It's a very comprehensive course and you will how to use the power of Python to analyze data, create beautiful visualizations, and use powerful machine learning algorithms!

9. Data Science A-Z: Real-Life Data Science Exercises Included

This is another great hands-on course on Data Science from Udemy. It promises to teach you Data Science step by step through real Analytics examples. Data Mining, Modeling, Tableau Visualization and more.

This course will give you so many practical exercises that the real world will seem like a piece of cake when you complete this course.

The homework exercises are also very thought-provoking and challenging. In short, If you love doing stuff then this is a course for you.

10. Data Science, Deep Learning and Machine Learning with Python

If you've got some programming or scripting experience, this course will teach you the techniques used by real data scientists and machine learning practitioners in the tech industry --- and help you to become a data scientist.

The topics in this course come from an analysis of real requirements in data scientist job listings from the biggest tech employers, that makes it even more special and useful.

That's all about some of the popular courses to learn Data Science. As I said, there is a lot of demand for good Data Analytics and there are not many developers out there to fulfill that demand.

It's a great chance for the programmer, especially those who have good knowledge of maths and statistics to make a career in machine learning and Data analytics. You will be awarded exciting work and incredible pay.

Other useful Data Science and Machine Learning resources

Top 8 Python Machine Learning Libraries

5 Free courses to learn R Programming for Machine learning

5 Free courses to learn Python in 2018

Top 5 Data Science and Machine Learning courses

Top 5 TensorFlow and Machine Learning Courses

10 Technologies Programmers Can Learn in 2018

Top 5 Courses to Learn Python Better

How a Japanese cucumber farmer is using deep learning and TensorFlow

Closing Notes

Thanks, You made it to the end of the article ... Good luck with your Data Science and Machine Learning journey! It's certainly not going to be easy, but by following these courses, you are one step closer to becoming the Machine Learning Specialists you always wanted to be.