What is CSS Selector in Selenium?

What is CSS Selector in Selenium?

In Selenium, Locators are the commands that show which Graphical User Interface components like checkboxes, buttons, text boxes, etc. they have to work on. It is necessary to identify the correct GUI components, to create an automation script....

In Selenium, Locators are the commands that show which Graphical User Interface components like checkboxes, buttons, text boxes, etc. they have to work on.

It is necessary to identify the correct GUI components, to create an automation script. Therefore, There are a number of CSS Locators in Selenium that is used to find the correct GUI component.
There are different types of Locators. Among them, the CSS selector in selenium is one of the locators.

CSS means Cascading Style Sheets. CSS Selector in Selenium online training is the union of a selector value and element selector, that finds the web component on a web page. The combination of a selector value and component selector is called a Selector Pattern.
Using HTML tags, attributes, and their values, the selector pattern is created for CSS Locators in selenium.
A CSS selector in Selenium is used to find, web components when we don’t have any ID, class or Name.
Let us discuss the main CSS Selector types.
CSS Locators in Selenium: ID
Syntax for Selenium CSS:
CSS= <#>
HTML Tag:
Denotes the web component
#: The hash symbol is used to represent the ID attribute. When we are using the ID attribute, the hash symbol is compulsory.
Attribute Value:
It is the ID attribute value that is being retrieved.
For Example, consider the “Email” text box in the login form of gmail.com.
First, find or examine the web component “Email” textbox, and observe if the HTML tag is “input” and the ID attribute value is “Email”, and both together give a reference to the “Email Textbox”.
Type “CSS=input#Email”
2. CSS Locators in Selenium: Class
The syntax for Selenium CSS:
CSS= <.>
.The dot symbol is used to represent the class attribute.
For Example, consider the “Stay signed in” checkbox in the login form of gmail.com.
The “stay signed in” checkbox has a class attribute and its value is specified as, “remember”. Finding a component using Class as a CSS Selector in selenium is almost same as the that of using ID. There is only a small difference in syntax.
First, find or examine the web component “Stay signed in” textbox in our example, and observe if the HTML tag is “label” and the ID attribute value is “remember” and both together give a reference, to the “Stay signed in the checkbox”.
Type “CSS=label.remember”
3. CSS Locators in Selenium: Attribute
The syntax for Selenium CSS:
CSS= <[attribute= attribute value]>
For Example, consider the “Sign in” button, in the login form of gmail.com.
The “sign-in” button has an attribute and its value is specified as “submit”.
First, find or examine the web component “Sign in” button in our example and observe if the HTML tag is “input”, and the ID attribute value is “submit” and both together give a reference to the “Sign in” button.
Give “CSS=input[type=’ submit’]
4. CSS Locators in Selenium: ID/Class & Attribute
The syntax for Selenium CSS:
CSS=<. Or #><[attribute=attribute value]>
For Example, consider the “password” textbox, in the login form of gmail.com.
The attribute value of the “Password” text box is specified as “Passwd”, attribute type value is “Password”.
CSS=input#Password[name=’Passwd’]
5. CSS Locators in Selenium: SubString
CSS Locators in Selenium enables, comparing a partial string and obtain a very attractive feature for creating CSS Selector in Selenium, with the help of substrings. CSS Selector in Selenium can be designed, in three ways depending on the technique used to compare the substring.
Types of techniques
Match a substring:
uses a matching substring
Syntax: CSS=<[attribute*=sub string]>
Example: CSS=input#Passwd[name$=’wd’]
2. Match a suffix:
uses a matching suffix
Syntax: CSS=<[attribute$=suffix of the string]>
Example: CSS=input#Passwd[name$=’wd’]
3. Match a prefix:
uses a matching prefix
Syntax: CSS=<[attribute^=prefix of the string]>
Example: CSS=input#Passwd[name^=’Pass’]
6. CSS Locators in Selenium: Inner text
Inner text is used to find and create CSS Selector in Selenium online training Hyderabad, with a string format that the HTML Tag shows on the web page.
Observe, “Need help?” link in the login page of gmail.com.
The syntax for Selenium CSS:
CSS=<:><(text)>
· Dot sign is used to represent contains method.
· Contains is the Class attribute value that is being accessed.
· Text is showed in any place on the web page, no matter what its location is.
In this article, I have explained about CSS Selector in Selenium and its types. In my next article, I will explain the techniques used to locate web components on Google chrome.

What is the Actions Class in Selenium?

What is the Actions Class in Selenium?

Generally, during online shopping, we have seen many keyboard and mouse events such as, when you click the right side of the mouse on any of the items on the website, an action is performed. ![This is image...

Generally, during online shopping, we have seen many keyboard and mouse events such as, when you click the right side of the mouse on any of the items on the website, an action is performed.

Similarly, when we use a browser with a Grammarly extension, then you might have observed that if you click twice on any word, then a message is displayed showing you the meaning of that word.
These actions of the mouse or a keyboard, are done with the help of Action class in Selenium online training.
What is an Action Class in Selenium?
It is an integrated ability, for controlling different kinds of mouse and keyboard events. We have to use org.openqa.selinium.interactions Action class, to perform action events.
Instead of using Mouse or keyboard directly, we can use the Selenium actions class.
There are two classes in Selenium. They are Actions Class and Action Class.
Action Class in Selenium: Action Class in Selenium is an interface, that is used to indicate one-user communication to do a sequence of action items, designed by Actions Class.

Actions Class: Actions Class designs complex actions with Selenium Web Driver. We can find the availability of the web-based elements, on the web application using Web Driver.

Syntax of Action Class:

//Configure the Action
Actions action = new Actions ( driver);
//To click on the element
Action.moveToElement ( element).click( ). Perform( );

There are two main categories in the methods of Actions Class in Selenium. They are.
Keyboard Interface
Mouse Interface
Various methods to perform Keyboard Events:
KeyUp(modifier key) – used to modify key press release action.
KeyDown(modifier key) – Continuous interactions can accept when key pressed. Accepts keys like keys.CONTROL, Keys.ALT, Keys.SHIFT etc.
sendKeys(keys to send) – used to send continuous key presses, on to a web component. It takes two parameters.
Various methods to perform Mouse Events:
Release( ) – frees the flat left mouse button, at the present mouse place.
moveToElement(toElement): Moves the mouse to the center of the component. It takes one parameter.
moveByOffset(x-offset, y-offset) – Moves the mouse from its present position(or 0,0) by the specific offset.
dragAndDropBy(source, xOffset, yOffset) – click and hold at the source element place, and moves by a specific offset.
drag and drop( source, target) – click and hold at the source element location, and moves to the target element location. The source takes the component location, as the parameter. Target takes the item to move and free the mouse at the target component, as a parameter.
click and hold( ) – Clicks without freeing in the center of the give component.
context-click( ) – a context-click is done at the center of the given component.
DoubleClick( ) – clicks twice at the present mouse place,
click( ) – presses at the present mouse place.
Let us see how Actions Class works in Selenium with an example:
Example 1: Consider a situation, where we need to enter the Capital letters in the text box.
First, create the Actions Class using the syntax.
After creating the Actions Class, move the move over the Actions, and import the interactions package.
Then find the component that you want to move, with the help of the web driver locators, like Xpath and use the moveToElement method to move to element.
First ‘click’ the text box, then you can ‘type’ with Capital letters.
To perform Click action, use ‘.click( )’
For sending capital text into text box, use ‘.keyDown(Key.SHIFT).
For typing into text box, use ‘.sendKeys()’
Create command method ‘.build()’
Perform command method using ‘.perform()’.
Example 2: Selecting a Text with the help of Selenium Webdriver
Use ‘.doubleClick’ method for this example.
First ‘click’ in the text box then ‘type’ with Upper Case letter and highlight or select complete text.
Use ‘.click( )’ for clicking.
Use ‘.keyDown(key.SHIFT)’ for sending upper case letters into the text box.
Use ‘.sendkeys( )’, for typing into the text box.
Use ‘.build( )’, a build command method.
Use ‘.perform( )’, a perform command method.
Use ‘.doubleClick’, for highlighting or selecting the complete text.
These are the two examples showing how to use Actions class in Selenium webdriver. In this article, I have shared about Action Class in Selenium. Follow my articles to get more updates on Selenium.

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