Top 10 Cross Browser Testing Tools in 2019

Top 10 Cross Browser Testing Tools in 2019

In this article, we have compiled a list of top 10 cross browser testing tools which you can use in 2019 for performing cross browser testing of your website.

Cross-browser testing is the formality of testing web applications and websites in all of the common web browsers that users use today — this ensures that we deliver a consistent user experience everywhere, and not just the web browser that takes our fancy. Here are some of the things to look out for:

  • Code validation: do some browsers report code errors?
  • Performance: is the website slow, or even causing crashes?
  • Responsive design: is the design consistently responsive?
  • UI inconsistencies: are there any other design flaws?
  • Other strange behaviours: anything else simply not working?
What happens if I don’t test?

Inconsistencies are actually very normal. Fact is, all web browsers behave and render websites a little differently, and some browsers might not even support the features we originally aimed to utilize; and when these inconsistencies appear, it can have a direct impact on our revenue (among other things).

Let’s take eCommerce for example. 69.89% of checkouts are abandoned, and 17% of those are attributed to website errors and crashes. Assuming that a business would accrue half a million sales annually, that’s 59,407 sales lost due to errors and crashes that could have been thwarted by cross-browser testing.

Which browsers should I test on?

Since Microsoft announced they’d be ditching their own EdgeHTML and Chakra engines in favor of the widely-adopted Blink and V8 engines, this means many of the major browsers today offer similar levels of code compatibility. While this is a step back in terms of healthy competition, it does mean that if a website works in Google Chrome, it’ll most likely work in Brave, Opera, and soon-to-be Microsoft Edge. That combined with the fact that even Microsoft has instructed us to stop using Internet Explorer, cross-browser testing is easier than it’s ever been before, with only Safari and Firefox using their own engines.

Technically, the web browsers we should be supporting today are the ones that our users and customers are using, information that’s easy enough to find using Google Analytics or some other kind of web analytics tracking software. But if you don’t have that kind of data available, here are the worldwide statistics*:

  • Chrome: 61.75%
  • Safari: 15.12%
  • Firefox: 4.92%
  • UC: 4.22%
  • Opera: 3.15%
  • Internet Explorer: 2.8%
  • Samsung Internet: 2.74%
  • Microsoft Edge: 2.15%

*As of November 2018.

Also, bear in mind that there are multiple releases of each web browser across multiple OSs. Sound scary? Not really, but it is boring as heck to be testing websites on all of them!

Luckily, there are a number of excellent cross-browser testing tools available, so today we’re going to take a look at 7 of the best ones.

BrowserStack

With immediate access to over 2,000 web browsers running on real Android and iOS devices, the well-known **BrowserStack **lets developers and other stakeholders engage in cross-browser testing, whether that’s to snap a few screenshots, debug errors in realtime, or to actually interact with the browser natively and see how the layout fairs when the window is resized. There’s no need to compromise on simulators and emulators, **BrowserStack **offers you total control since you’ll be interacting with real browsers on remote machines.

It’s not like the real thing, it is the real thing.

**BrowserStack **also supports Selenium, an open-source tool to help you automate various tests so you don’t have to do so manually.

Although the features above are fairly standard when it comes to cross-browser testing tools, what really sets **BrowserStack **apart is that you can kick things off from as little as $12.50/mo, an initiative aimed at freelancers – offering lighter functionality.

CrossBrowserTesting, by SmartBear

CrossBrowserTesting by SmartBear offers both manual and automated testing via Selenium, 1500+ remote browsers across mobile and desktop, and has a similar subscription setup as BrowserStack (minus their “Freelancer Plan”). With total access to browser extensions and developer tools such as Chrome Dev Tools and FireBug, the ability to interact using swipe motions and more, and finally, the means to natively debug front-end errors, **CrossBrowserTesting **isn’t all that different from BrowserStack.

CrossBrowserTesting and **BrowserStack **also enable users to compare versions (live or screenshot), run multiple tests (or take multiple screenshots) at once, and even share the results.

All-in-all, a suitable alternative to BrowserStack, however I would choose **BrowserStack **if the number of browsers supported is important to you (BrowserStack supports an additional 500).

LambdaTest

With unlimited realtime browser testing, unlimited automation testing, unlimited responsive testing, unlimited screenshot testing, and 24×7 support, you won’t have the slightest of worries in terms of limitations when using Lambdatest. And with the lowest plan starting at only $15/mo, **Lambdatest **offers the best bang for the buck. In fact, there’s even a highly-functional “Lifetime Free” option, making it one of the most accessible cross-browser testing tools available on the market today, very suitable for those anxious about cross-browser testing for the first time.

As an added bonus, all options include free automation minutes; that is if you don’t choose their mighty automation option!

All options also include:

  • 2000+ native test browsers
  • Issue tracking with test logs
  • Local testing functionality
  • Automated screenshot testing
  • Responsive and visual comparison testing
  • Access to the WordPress and Chrome extension
  • Integration with Trello, Asana, Jira, and Slack

In short, the LambdaTest automation platform is an online selenium grid that gives you the ability to run your test scripts on 2000+ browser environments.

Browserling

Despite being one of the cheaper cross-browser testing tools at $19/mo (overtaken by only Lambdatest in terms of value), don’t let Browserling’s no-frills website fool you. If automated testing isn’t much of a concern for your team, Browserling is a fairly cost-effective option.

Also, they have extensions for Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Safari as well!

Experitest

Experitest offers fairly standard features but with reduced costs starting at $9/mo, and even has an attractive freemium option like Lambdatest. That being said, the **Experitest **doesn’t feel nearly as shiny at Lambdatest, so Experitest may be the better option only if you’re on a budget.

Functionize

What separates Functionize’s cross-browser testing tools from the competition is its vast use of artificial intelligence and the fact that if you set up tests for one browser, there’s no need to recode tests for others, which can save a fair bit of time. They’re all about autonomous testing (using their Adaptive Event Analytics™ technology), so that you can spend more time analyzing the results.

It’s not specified how many browsers Functionize supports, however, they offer the same standard of features as with other cross-browser-testing tools, such as code debugging and visual testing.

Just FYI: their cross-browser testing tools ship as part of a larger platform, and their pricing isn’t publicly available.

Sauce Labs

Despite offering similar functionality to other cross-browser testing tools, Sauce Labs starts from $89/mo (for testing on real devices). They’ve been around a while though, and claim to have “the world’s largest continuous testing cloud,” so if you have the budget, it’s worth a try.

Conclusion

Even though the majority of cross-browser testing tools on the market today have maintained a very high-standard in terms of features offered, allowing development teams to increase their test coverage and deliver a more consistent user experience across all devices and screen sizes, many of them have a least one small trait that sets them apart from their competition.

Selenium Testing For Effective Test Automation

This article has been republished from pCloudy

While there is a substantial increment in the mobile apps market share, web apps are still prevalent with a significant user base. Enterprises are focusing on the quality at speed when it comes to web apps, before deployment. This is where testing has an important role to play. UI testing is still mostly a manual process unlike some functional testing which can be automated. But it is sensible to automate testing which will save time and effort. When it comes to automation, Selenium testing is the first thing that comes to mind as it is the most popular test automation tool in the world. So let’s learn more about selenium testing.

What is Selenium Testing

Selenium testing tool is open-source and it enables users to drive interactions with the page and test the app across various platforms. It allows users to control a browser from their preferred language like Java, JavaScript, C#, PHP, Python, etc. Selenium has many tools and APIs for automating user interactions on HTML JavaScript apps on browsers like IE, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, etc.

Selenium Framework is a code structure that helps to simplify and reuse the code. Without frameworks, we will place the code as well as data in the same place which is neither re-usable nor readable. Selenium automation frameworks are beneficial for higher portability, increased code re-usage, higher code readability, reduced script maintenance cost, etc.

What is Selenium Web Driver

Selenium WebDriver accepts commands via the client API and sends them to browsers. Selenium WebDriver is a browser-specific driver which helps in accessing and launching the different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, IE, etc. The WebDriver provides an interface to create and run automation scripts and every browser has different drivers to run the tests. The different drivers are IE Driver, Firefox Driver, Safari Driver, Chrome Driver, etc.

Selenium WebDriver was introduced to negate limitations of Selenium RC, which offers enhanced support for web pages where the elements on a page change without reloading. Many browsers support selenium WebDriver and it uses each browser’s native support for automation testing. The features are supported and direct calls are made depending on the browser that is being used.

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Getting started with Selenium Automation Testing

Getting started with Selenium Automation Testing

Selenium is an open source tool which is used for automating the tests carried out on web browsers (Web applications are tested using any web browser). Take a look at how you can get going with the most popular automation testing platform

Selenium is an open source tool which is used for automating the tests carried out on web browsers (Web applications are tested using any web browser). Take a look at how you can get going with the most popular automation testing platform

Selenium has become very popular among testers because of the various advantages it offers. When we talk about automation testing, the first thing that often comes to our mind is our favorite automation testing tool. Selenium won the hearts of many testers and developers with its simplicity, availability, and ease of use. With its advent in 2004, Selenium made the life of automation testers easier and is now a favorite tool for many automation testers.

What is Selenium?

Selenium was invented with the introduction of a basic tool named as “JavaScriptTestRunner,” by Jason Huggins at ThoughtWorks to test their internal Time and Expenses application. Now it has gained popularity among software testers and developers as an open source portable automation testing framework. It has the capability to automate browsers with specific browser bindings for automating web applications for testing purposes. It is a suite of four tools designed for different purposes. Let’s get to know Selenium in detail and the different tools that it offers.

Selenium Suite of Tools

Selenium has four major components with a different approach for automation testing which is popular as the Selenium suite of tools. Every software tester or developer choose tools out of it depending upon the testing requirement for the organization.

Selenium RC (Remote Control)

Selenium Core was the first tool in the suite of tools. However, it was deprecated as it had some issues related to cross-domain testing because of same origin policy. So, to overcome that, Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC) was introduced after Selenium Core. RC turned out to be a solution to the cross-domain issue. RC has an HTTP proxy server which helps in tricking the browser into believing that both the Selenium Wore and web app which is being tested are from the same domain, removing the cross-domain issue.

Selenium RC is divided into two parts which help in overcoming the cross-domain issue:

  1. Selenium Remote Server
  2. Selenium Remote Client

But the major issue with RC was the time taken to execute a test. As the Selenium server communicates using HTTP requests, it was more time-consuming. Because of this limitation, RC also is now largely obsolete.

Selenium IDE

Selenium IDE, earlier known as Selenium recorder, is a tool used to record, edit, debug, and replay functional tests. Selenium IDE is implemented as an extension to the Chrome browser and an add-on in Firefox browser. With the Selenium IDE plugin, you can record and export tests in any of the supported programming languages like Ruby, Java, PHP, Javascript, and more.

Selenium Grid

Selenium Grid is based on a hub-node architecture. With Selenium Grid, you can run parallel test sessions across different browsers. The hub controls Selenium scripts running on different nodes (specific browsers inside an OS) and test scripts running on different nodes can be written in any programming language.

Selenium Grid was used with RC to test multiple tests on remote machines. Now, as people find **WebDriver **works better than RC, Grid works with both WebDriver and RC.

Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver is an enhanced version of Selenium RC and the most used tool. It accepts commands via the client API and sends them to browsers. Simply put, Selenium WebDriver is a browser-specific driver which helps in accessing and launching the different browsers. It provides an interface to write and run automation scripts. Every browser has different drivers to run tests.

  • Mozilla Firefox uses Firefox Driver (Gecko Driver)
  • Google Chrome uses Chrome Driver
  • Internet Explorer uses Internet Explorer Driver
  • Opera uses Opera Driver
  • Safari uses Safari Driver and
  • HTM Unit Driver used to simulate browsers using headless browser HtmlUnit

Selenium Client API

The Client API is the latest tool in the Suite of tools. With Selenium Client API, you can write test scripts in various programming languages instead of writing test scripts in Selenese. The Selenium Client API is available for Java, JavaScript, C#, Ruby, and Python. These scripts can communicate with Selenium with predefined commands and functions of Client API.

Why Use Selenium for Automation Testing?

Since we are now familiar with Selenium and its suite of tools, let’s find out the various benefits of Selenium which make it stand from the crowd as a tool for automation testing:

  1. Open-Source: Since it is an open source tool, it doesn’t require any licensing costs, which give it an upper hand over other automation testing tools.
  2. Tool for Every Need: As mentioned earlier, Selenium has a suite of tools, so it suits every need of the users. You can use various tools like WebDriver, Grid, and IDE for fulfilling your different needs.
  3. Supports All Major Languages: The major challenge that a tester or developer faces with an automation testing tool is the support for languages. Since Selenium supports all major languages like Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, C#, Perl, .Net and PHP, it is easier for testers to use.
  4. Browser and Operating System Support: Selenium supports different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer, Edge, and Safari and different operating systems like Windows, Linux, and Mac. This makes it flexible to use.
  5. Community Support: Selenium has an active open community which helps you solve your issues and queries related to it. This makes it the best choice as your automation testing tool.

Here’s a quick comparison table of Selenium with other available tools:

Since **Selenium WebDriver **is the most used tool, we’ll be using it to execute some test cases. To understand the complete process on a very simple level, Selenium **WebDriver Architecture **consists of:

Basically, Selenium WebDriver works in three layers: Browser Driver, Remote Driver, and Language Bindings.

Core Components of WebDriver Architecture

Selenium Client Library/Language Bindings

Selenium bindings/client libraries are created by developers to support multiple programming languages. For instance, if you want to use the browser driver in Python, use the Python bindings. You can download all the bindings on the official website.

JSON Protocol Over HTTP

JavaScript Object Notation is used as a data transfer protocol to send data from a server to a client on the web. With JSON, it is very easy to write and read data with data structures like Array and Object support. This wire protocol provides a transport mechanism and defines a RESTful web service using JSON over HTTP.

Browser-Specific Driver

Each web browser has a specific browser driver for Selenium bindings. The browser driver accepts commands from the server and sends it to the browser without loss of any internal logic of browser functionalities. Browser drivers are also specific to programming languages like Ruby, C#, Java, and more for web automation.

Here are the steps when we run any test script using WebDriver:

  1. An HTTP request gets generated for every Selenium command and gets sent to browser driver.
  2. The specific browser driver receives the HTTP request through the HTTP server.
  3. HTTP Server sends all the steps to perform a function, which are executed on the browser.
  4. The test execution report is sent back to server and HTTP server sends it to the Automation script.

Browsers

**Selenium WebDriver **supports all the major browser like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari browsers.

Setting Up Selenium on Your Local Machine

Let’s understand the steps of how we can configure Selenium in your local machine and running a test in your local browser.

  1. Install Code editor or IDE (like Eclipse or IntelliJ)

Note: We’ll be using IntelliJ code editor for writing Automation script.

  1. Download and install Java Runtime environment in your local system.
  2. Download Java Development Kit
  3. Download and install all Java Selenium Files (Selenium Server Standalone)
  4. Install Browser Specific Drivers ( In this blog, we’ll perform Automation on Chrome, so Chrome Driver for this case)
Sample Selenium Script for Web Automation

Here is the sample automation script which can be run to automate the testing process on the local chrome browser. Since we are using IntelliJ as our code editor, so we’ll write the same in IntelliJ.

Sample Script

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
public class TestSelenium {
public static void main(String[] args){
System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","C:\\Users\\Admin\\Desktop\\LT Automation\\chromedriver_win32\\chromedriver.exe");
WebDriver driver= new ChromeDriver();
driver.get("https://hackr.io/");
try {
WebElement signup = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="navbarCollapse"]/ul/li[2]/a"));
signup.click();
WebElement login= driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="modalSignUp"]/div/div/div/div/div[4]/p/a"));
login.click();
String windowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();
WebElement TextBox = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[1]/div/input"));
TextBox.sendKeys("[email protected]");
WebElement Password = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[2]/div/input"));
Password.sendKeys("sample-password");
WebElement proceed = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[4]/button"));
proceed.click();
}
catch (Exception e) {
System.out.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
}

This code will launch a website (here, https://hackr.io/), find “Signup/Login” element, click on the Signup/login button, then go to the login page by finding “Login.” After that, enter the credentials to the login page and click the login button to be redirected to Hackr.io homepage.

Online Selenium Grid

The major challenge in running Selenium on a local machine is the limited number of browsers in the local machine. Since you can have only one version of a particular browser installed in your local machine, if the need comes to test on some downgraded or upgraded version of that browser, you’ll need to upgrade or downgrade the already installed browser in your local machine. Also, you can install only a specific number of browsers in the system. So, if the need comes it becomes almost impossible to test across all browsers and operating systems. That's where an online Selenium Grid can help.

With the help of an online Selenium Grid on the cloud, you can test across all the browsers, browser versions, operating systems, resolutions for cross-browser compatibility. Online platforms which provide Selenium Grids, like LambdaTest, SauceLabs, and BrowserStack, can help you perform cross-browser tests on cloud grid of various browsers-OS combinations.

Common Selenium Command and Operations

While writing an automation script, you will be using many repeated commands and doing various operations. Let’s have a quick look at the most common and used commands in Selenium automation testing.

**Page Visit: **The first thing to do visit a webpage to start automation testing.

driver.get("https://hackr.io/");

**Find an Element: **Find elements to automate them.

// find just one, the first one Selenium finds
WebElement element = driver.findElement(locator);
// find all instances of the element on the page
List<WebElement> elements = driver.findElements(locator);

**Actions on Elements: **Work on found elements.

// chain actions together
driver.findElement(locator).click();
// store the element and then click it

WebElement element = driver.findElement(locator);
element.click();

**Multiple Element Commands: **Common commands to click, submit, clear, input, etc.

element.click(); // clicks an element
element.submit(); // submits a form
element.clear(); // clears an input field of its text
element.sendKeys("input text"); // types text into an input field

**Question Commands: **Check conditions for elements.

element.isDisplayed(); // is it visible to the human eye?
element.isEnabled(); // can it be selected?
element.isSelected(); // is it selected?

**Get your Info: **Commands for retrieving information for an element.

// directly from an element
element.getText();
// by attribute name
element.getAttribute("href");

To Sum Up

Selenium is one of the best automation testing tools to automate web browser interactions. You can perform automation testing by writing code in any of your preferred language supported by Selenium and can easily run your automation script to automate testing of an application or a process. Its ease of use makes it different from other tools and with the help of an online grid you can even run your tests in parallel across more than one browser. So, what are you waiting for? Write a beautiful automation Script and test your website! If you have any questions, let us know in the comments section below.

Happy Testing!

Selenium for Test Automation — Yay or Nay?

Selenium for Test Automation — Yay or Nay?

In this article, we’ll look at some of the aspects that led to the widespread adoption of Selenium as the de-facto standard for web automation. We’ll also check the scope for advancement and improvement in a Selenium-based test framework.

In this article, we’ll look at some of the aspects that led to the widespread adoption of Selenium as the de-facto standard for web automation. We’ll also check the scope for advancement and improvement in a Selenium-based test framework.

“Selenium automates browsers. That’s it! What you do with that power is entirely up to you. Primarily, it is for automating web applications for testing purposes but is certainly not limited to just that. Boring web-based administration tasks can (and should!) be automated as well.”

As SeleniumHQ states above, the primary use of Selenium has been to automate Web Applications for Testing purposes, and it has been doing the same for a decade or longer. From Selenium RC and Selenium IDE, it has grown to a full-blown Web Automation library that supports multiple browsers and Platforms.

Selenium has been around for a long time, and it is, without a doubt, a great tool. It has been serving Automation Testing needs of testers worldwide for quite a long time.

Pros

1. Open Source/ No Licensing costs

Selenium has no upfront licensing costs or payments to be made for its use since its freely available. It is also an open source project which allows for extension and modification of the base framework for one’s personal or professional usage.

2. Language-independent

Devs or QA Analysts working on a particular language don’t have to learn a new language just to start automating their tests using Selenium. Selenium provides official Language bindings with popular languages such as C#, Java, Ruby, JavaScript, PHP, and Python in addition to the unofficial language bindings available for other languages.

3. Third-party Integrations

Selenium does not restrict a QA’s choice of reporting tools, build systems or any other aspect of their development/testing stack. It integrates well with popular tools such as SauceLabs, Selenium-Grid, Extent, JUnit, and others.

4. Parallel Testing

Selenium supports parallel test executions by integrating with Selenium Grid which helps to considerably bring down the feedback time for test executions.

5. Cross Browser and Platform-independent

Selenium supports all popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, etc. and works on all currently available operating systems platforms such as Windows, Mac, and Linux.

6. Community Support

Selenium is backed by a vast community of developers and testers who actively contribute to the tool and documentation.

These reasons make Selenium a great choice for automation testers in enterprises around the world. However, as time flows and technology advances, we need to adapt and adopt newer tools and technologies to keep pace.

One of the advancements that we can’t ignore is the impact of Artificial Intelligence. AI is being heavily adopted in all of fields and software test automation is one such field that can gain from it. Modern test automation frameworks need to leverage their capabilities better.

Now, let’s look into some other reasons that urge us to look for a better alternative to Selenium.

Cons

1. High Initial Setup time and costs

It is true that Selenium is free and there are absolutely no licensing costs involved. However, when it comes to ROI and Initial Cost, we need to think about a couple of other factors.

  • The setup and configuration of a Selenium-based test framework take considerable time. That adds up to indirect costs.
  • For a team consisting of mostly manual testers, the members need to learn to programme or the company needs to hire a bunch of automation experts to automate using Selenium.

Proposed solution: Codeless test automation tools can help the manual testers step up to the automation game easily. Most of these tools come with zero initial setup time as well since they are hosted on the cloud.

2. Not an all-in-one solution — The requirement for 3rd party bindings

Selenium + TestNG/JUnit is not the complete, comprehensive solution to fully automate the testing of your web applications. You need different libraries(POI API, GSON, Extent Reports) to make it a complete solution for a testing framework. And managing multiple dependencies is difficult and extra maintenance work that everyone wants to avoid.

Proposed solution: A good dependency management tool such as Maven, Gradle or NPM can make this task easier. Ant is outdated now and I wouldn’t suggest it since there are better solutions.

3. The difficulty of managing local test infrastructure

Parallel testing is very much possible with Selenium Grid — however, it is not always feasible to set up and manage a local infrastructure (test machines) since the requirements for devices vary with projects.

Proposed solution: Using a cloud platform (IaaS) for the test environments would avoid the hassle.

4. Eventually becomes a parallel development solution

There’s a lot of complexity involved in bringing multiple things together to create an effective and highly functioning test automation ecosystem based on Selenium. It takes huge technical efforts and requires constant updates, improvements, and maintenance of the complete framework. Eventually, it becomes a parallel development project which small and medium-sized companies can not afford in the early stages.

Proposed solution: Use a ready-to-use solution that delegates the maintenance to an external team so that the QA can spend more time on actual issues or bugs.

5. Inability to integrate Continuous Testing/in-sprint automation

With its code-based approach and high dependence on the UI, it is difficult for Selenium-based projects to shift the testing more to the left, which is required for continuous testing.

Proposed solution: Frankly, I don’t have a solution for this issue with Selenium since the dependency on UI is a fundamental drawback and one of the ways to shift left would be to rely on API Tests from the beginning.

6. No participation from non-technical resources

In Continuous Delivery and DevOps, quality is everyone’s responsibility. But with the cryptic code-based approach, only programmers can participate in the test creation activities.

Proposed Solution: Use a framework or tool that provides highly readable tests (to be read as BDD or TDD) and encourages the collaboration of team members.

7. Lack of professional on-demand support for enterprise projects

Even though the Selenium community is pretty helpful, you can’t always rely on community support for large scale enterprise projects which demand utmost privacy and quick resolution time.

Proposed solution: Something similar to point 4.

8. Solving automation/maintenance challenges

There are no inbuilt solutions for specific tasks such as Flaky Tests due to dynamic UI, File handling, API Level tasks, OS-based popup handling, and Basic Authentication

Due to the heavy usage of AJAX and modern web development technologies, Test is not always very stable. Also, since the Test Scripts are code-based, Test Maintenance is a bit difficult.

Proposed Solution: Adding fallback logic that can handle these challenges with native Javascript code.

9. Limited capabilities

Having no built-in test management, test data management, or test reporting capabilities.

Proposed Solution: Integrate with a third party test management tool and third-party libraries for test data management and test reporting.