An Oak application is most often used as a backend application in a client-server architecture whereas the client could be written in React.js or another popular frontend solution and the server could be written in Oak. Both entities result in a client-server architecture (frontend and backend relationship) whereas the backend would be needed for (A) business logic that shouldn’t be exposed as source code to the frontend application – otherwise it would be accessible in the browser – or for (B) establishing connections to third-party data sources (e.g. database(s)).
However, don’t mistake client application always for frontend and server application always for backend here. These terms cannot be exchanged that easily. Whereas a frontend application is usually something seen in the browser, a backend usually performs business logic that shouldn’t be exposed in a browser and often connects to a database as well.
Frontend -> Backend -> Database
But, in contrast, the terms client and server are a matter of perspective. A backend application (Backend 1) which consumes another backend application (Backend 2) becomes a client application (Backend 1) for the server application (Backend 2). However, the same backend application (Backend 1) is still the server for another client application which is the frontend application (Frontend).
Frontend -> Backend 1 -> Backend 2 -> Database // Frontend: Client of Backend 1 // Backend 1: Server for Frontend, also Client of Backend 2 // Backend 2: Server for Backend 1
If you want to answer the client-server question if someone asks you what role an entity plays in a client-server architecture, always ask yourself who (server) is serving whom (client) and who (client) consumes whom’s (backend) functionalities?
That’s the theory behind client-server architectures and how to relate to them. Let’s get more practical again. How do client and server applications communicate with each other? Over the years, there existed a few popular communication interfaces (APIs) between both entities. However, the most popular one is called REST defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding. It’s an architecture that leverages the HTTP protocol to enable communication between a client and a server application. A server application that offers a REST API is also called a RESTful server. Servers that don’t follow the REST architecture a 100% are rather called RESTish than RESTful. In the following, we are going to implement such REST API for our Oak server application, but first let’s get to know the tooling that enables us to interact with a REST API.
#deno #oak #rest #api #web-development
Install via pip:
$ pip install pytumblr
Install from source:
$ git clone https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr.git $ cd pytumblr $ python setup.py install
pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:
client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient( '<consumer_key>', '<consumer_secret>', '<oauth_token>', '<oauth_secret>', ) client.info() # Grabs the current user information
Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:
interactive_console.pytool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
client.info() # get information about the authenticating user client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user client.follow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # follow a blog client.unfollow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # unfollow a blog client.like(id, reblogkey) # like a post client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post
client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog
PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.
The default supported types are described below.
We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.
Creating a photo post
Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload
#Creates a photo post using a source URL client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"], source="https://68.media.tumblr.com/b965fbb2e501610a29d80ffb6fb3e1ad/tumblr_n55vdeTse11rn1906o1_500.jpg") #Creates a photo post using a local filepath client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"], tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]", data="/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg") #Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown", data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"], caption="## Mega sweet kittens")
Creating a text post
Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html
#Creating a text post client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")
Creating a quote post
Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported
#Creating a quote post client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")
Creating a link post
#Create a link post client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="https://duckduckgo.com", description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")
Creating a chat post
Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)
#Create a chat post chat = """John: Testing can be fun! Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you. John: Aw. """ client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])
Creating an audio post
Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr
#Creating an audio file client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3") #lets use soundcloud! client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="https://soundcloud.com/skrillex/sets/recess")
Creating a video post
Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload
#Creating an upload from YouTube client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.", embed="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40pUYLacrj4") #Creating a video post from local file client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/blah.mov")
Editing a post
Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated") client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")
Reblogging a Post
Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.
client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")
Deleting a post
Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id
client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(
A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):
client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)
Getting notes for a post
In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.
data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')
The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.
data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])
# get posts with a given tag client.tagged(tag, **params)
This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).
pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:
$ python interactive-console.py
and away you go! Tokens are stored in
~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.
The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:
python setup.py test
The REST acronym is defined as a “REpresentational State Transfer” and is designed to take advantage of existing HTTP protocols when used for Web APIs. It is very flexible in that it is not tied to resources or methods and has the ability to handle different calls and data formats. Because REST API is not constrained to an XML format like SOAP, it can return multiple other formats depending on what is needed. If a service adheres to this style, it is considered a “RESTful” application. REST allows components to access and manage functions within another application.
REST was initially defined in a dissertation by Roy Fielding’s twenty years ago. He proposed these standards as an alternative to SOAP (The Simple Object Access Protocol is a simple standard for accessing objects and exchanging structured messages within a distributed computing environment). REST (or RESTful) defines the general rules used to regulate the interactions between web apps utilizing the HTTP protocol for CRUD (create, retrieve, update, delete) operations.
An API (or Application Programming Interface) provides a method of interaction between two systems.
A RESTful API (or application program interface) uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE data following the REST standards. This allows two pieces of software to communicate with each other. In essence, REST API is a set of remote calls using standard methods to return data in a specific format.
The systems that interact in this manner can be very different. Each app may use a unique programming language, operating system, database, etc. So, how do we create a system that can easily communicate and understand other apps?? This is where the Rest API is used as an interaction system.
When using a RESTful API, we should determine in advance what resources we want to expose to the outside world. Typically, the RESTful API service is implemented, keeping the following ideas in mind:
The features of the REST API design style state:
For REST to fit this model, we must adhere to the following rules:
#tutorials #api #application #application programming interface #crud #http #json #programming #protocols #representational state transfer #rest #rest api #rest api graphql #rest api json #rest api xml #restful #soap #xml #yaml
I’ve been working with Restful APIs for some time now and one thing that I love to do is to talk about APIs.
So, today I will show you how to build an API using the API-First approach and Design First with OpenAPI Specification.
First thing first, if you don’t know what’s an API-First approach means, it would be nice you stop reading this and check the blog post that I wrote to the Farfetchs blog where I explain everything that you need to know to start an API using API-First.
Before you get your hands dirty, let’s prepare the ground and understand the use case that will be developed.
If you desire to reproduce the examples that will be shown here, you will need some of those items below.
To keep easy to understand, let’s use the Todo List App, it is a very common concept beyond the software development community.
#api #rest-api #openai #api-first-development #api-design #apis #restful-apis #restful-api
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Opencart Rest APIs List
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Checkout Confirm GET APIs.
Checkout Confirm POST APIs.
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