All you need to know about Promise.all

All you need to know about Promise.all

✅All you need to know about Promise.all. ✅Promise.all takes Async operations to the next new level as it helps you to aggregate a group of promises.

Promises in JavaScript are one of the powerful APIs that help us to do Async operations.

Promise.all takes Async operations to the next new level as it helps you to aggregate a group of promises.

In other words, I can say that it helps you to do concurrent operations (sometimes for free).

Prerequisites:

You have to know what is a Promise in JavaScript.

What is Promise.all?

Promise.all is actually a promise that takes an array of promises as an input (an iterable). Then it gets resolved when all the promises get resolved or any one of them gets rejected.

For example, assume that you have ten promises (Async operation to perform a network call or a database connection). You have to know when all the promises get resolved or you have to wait till all the promises resolve. So you are passing all ten promises to Promise.all. Then, Promise.all itself as a promise will get resolved once all the ten promises get resolved or any of the ten promises get rejected with an error.

Let’s see it in code:

Promise.all([Promise1, Promise2, Promise3])
 .then(result) => {
   console.log(result)
 })
 .catch(error => console.log(`Error in promises ${error}`))

As you can see, we are passing an array to Promise.all. And when all three promises get resolved, Promise.all resolves and the output is consoled.

Let’s see an example:

// A simple promise that resolves after a given time
const timeOut = (t) => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve(`Completed in ${t}`)
    }, t)
  })
}

// Resolving a normal promise.
timeOut(1000)
 .then(result => console.log(result)) // Completed in 1000

// Promise.all
Promise.all([timeOut(1000), timeOut(2000)])
 .then(result => console.log(result)) // ["Completed in 1000", "Completed in 2000"]

sample-promise.js

In the above example, Promise.all resolves after 2000 ms and the output is consoled as an array.

One interesting thing about Promise.all is that the order of the promises is maintained. The first promise in the array will get resolved to the first element of the output array, the second promise will be a second element in the output array and so on.

Let’s see another example:

// A simple promise that resolves after a given time
const timeOut = (t) => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve(`Completed in ${t}`)
    }, t)
  })
}

const durations = [1000, 2000, 3000]

const promises = []

durations.map((duration) => {
  // In the below line, two things happen.
  // 1. We are calling the async function (timeout()). So at this point the async function has started and enters the 'pending' state.
  // 2. We are pushing the pending promise to an array.
  promises.push(timeOut(duration)) 
})

console.log(promises) // [ Promise { "pending" }, Promise { "pending" }, Promise { "pending" } ]

// We are passing an array of pending promises to Promise.all
// Promise.all will wait till all the promises get resolves and then the same gets resolved.
Promise.all(promises)
.then(response => console.log(response)) // ["Completed in 1000", "Completed in 2000", "Completed in 3000"]

sample-promise-in-map.js

From the above example, it’s clear that Promise.all waits till all the promises resolve.

Let’s see what happens if any one of the promises are rejected.

// A simple promise that resolves after a given time
const timeOut = (t) => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      if (t === 2000) {
        reject(`Rejected in ${t}`)
      } else {
        resolve(`Completed in ${t}`)
      }
    }, t)
  })
}

const durations = [1000, 2000, 3000]

const promises = []

durations.map((duration) => {
  promises.push(timeOut(duration)) 
})

// We are passing an array of pending promises to Promise.all
Promise.all(promises)
.then(response => console.log(response)) // Promise.all cannot be resolved, as one of the promises passed got rejected.
.catch(error => console.log(`Error in executing ${error}`)) // Promise.all throws an error.

sample-promise-all-in-rejection.js

As you can see, if one of the promises fails, then all the rest of the promises fail. Then Promise.all gets rejected.

For some use cases, you don’t need that. You need to execute all the promises even if some have failed, or maybe you can handle the failed promises later.

Let’s see how to handle that.

const durations = [1000, 2000, 3000]

promises = durations.map((duration) => {
  return timeOut(duration).catch(e => e) // Handling the error for each promise.
})

Promise.all(promises)
  .then(response => console.log(response)) // ["Completed in 1000", "Rejected in 2000", "Completed in 3000"]
  .catch(error => console.log(`Error in executing ${error}`))

sample-promise-all-handle-rejection.js

Use cases of Promise.all

Assume that you have to perform a huge number of Async operations like sending bulk marketing emails to thousands of users.

Simple pseudo code would be:

for (let i=0;i<50000; i += 1) {
 sendMailForUser(user[i]) // Async operation to send a email
}

The above example is straightforward. But it’s not very performant. The stack will become too heavy and at one point of time, JavaScript will have a huge number of open HTTP connection which may kill the server.

A simple performant approach would be to do it in batches. Take first 500 users, trigger the mail and wait till all the HTTP connections are closed. And then take the next batch to process it and so on.

Let’s see an example:

// Async function to send mail to a list of users.
const sendMailForUsers = async (users) => {
  const usersLength = users.length
  
  for (let i = 0; i < usersLength; i += 100) { 
    const requests = users.slice(i, i + 100).map((user) => { // The batch size is 100. We are processing in a set of 100 users.
      return triggerMailForUser(user) // Async function to send the mail.
       .catch(e => console.log(`Error in sending email for ${user} - ${e}`)) // Catch the error if something goes wrong. So that it won't block the loop.
    })
    
    // requests will have 100 or less pending promises. 
    // Promise.all will wait till all the promises got resolves and then take the next 100.
    await Promise.all(requests)
     .catch(e => console.log(`Error in sending email for the batch ${i} - ${e}`)) // Catch the error.
  }
}


sendMailForUsers(userLists)

Promise all example to send email.js

Let’s consider another scenario: You have to build an API that gets information from multiple third-party APIs and aggregates all the responses from the APIs.

Promise.all is the perfect way of doing that. Let’s see how.

// Function to fetch Github info of a user.
const fetchGithubInfo = async (url) => {
  console.log(`Fetching ${url}`)
  const githubInfo = await axios(url) // API call to get user info from Github.
  return {
    name: githubInfo.data.name,
    bio: githubInfo.data.bio,
    repos: githubInfo.data.public_repos
  }
}

// Iterates all users and returns their Github info.
const fetchUserInfo = async (names) => {
  const requests = names.map((name) => {
    const url = `https://api.github.com/users/${name}`
    return fetchGithubInfo(url) // Async function that fetches the user info.
     .then((a) => {
      return a // Returns the user info.
      })
  })
  return Promise.all(requests) // Waiting for all the requests to get resolved.
}


fetchUserInfo(['sindresorhus', 'yyx990803', 'gaearon'])
 .then(a => console.log(JSON.stringify(a)))

/*
Output:
[{
  "name": "Sindre Sorhus",
  "bio": "Full-Time Open-Sourcerer ·· Maker ·· Into Swift and Node.js ",
  "repos": 996
}, {
  "name": "Evan You",
  "bio": "Creator of @vuejs, previously @meteor & @google",
  "repos": 151
}, {
  "name": "Dan Abramov",
  "bio": "Working on @reactjs. Co-author of Redux and Create React App. Building tools for humans.",
  "repos": 232
}]
*/

promise-all-map.js

To conclude, Promise.all is the best way to aggregate a group of promises to a single promise. This is one of the ways of achieving concurrency in JavaScript.

Hope you liked this article. If you did, please clap and share it.

Even if you didn’t, that’s fine you can do it anyway :P

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Top 7 Most Popular Node.js Frameworks You Should Know

Top 7 Most Popular Node.js Frameworks You Should Know

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, runtime environment that allows developers to run JavaScript outside of a browser. In this post, you'll see top 7 of the most popular Node frameworks at this point in time (ranked from high to low by GitHub stars).

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, runtime environment that allows developers to run JavaScript outside of a browser.

One of the main advantages of Node is that it enables developers to use JavaScript on both the front-end and the back-end of an application. This not only makes the source code of any app cleaner and more consistent, but it significantly speeds up app development too, as developers only need to use one language.

Node is fast, scalable, and easy to get started with. Its default package manager is npm, which means it also sports the largest ecosystem of open-source libraries. Node is used by companies such as NASA, Uber, Netflix, and Walmart.

But Node doesn't come alone. It comes with a plethora of frameworks. A Node framework can be pictured as the external scaffolding that you can build your app in. These frameworks are built on top of Node and extend the technology's functionality, mostly by making apps easier to prototype and develop, while also making them faster and more scalable.

Below are 7of the most popular Node frameworks at this point in time (ranked from high to low by GitHub stars).

Express

With over 43,000 GitHub stars, Express is the most popular Node framework. It brands itself as a fast, unopinionated, and minimalist framework. Express acts as middleware: it helps set up and configure routes to send and receive requests between the front-end and the database of an app.

Express provides lightweight, powerful tools for HTTP servers. It's a great framework for single-page apps, websites, hybrids, or public HTTP APIs. It supports over fourteen different template engines, so developers aren't forced into any specific ORM.

Meteor

Meteor is a full-stack JavaScript platform. It allows developers to build real-time web apps, i.e. apps where code changes are pushed to all browsers and devices in real-time. Additionally, servers send data over the wire, instead of HTML. The client renders the data.

The project has over 41,000 GitHub stars and is built to power large projects. Meteor is used by companies such as Mazda, Honeywell, Qualcomm, and IKEA. It has excellent documentation and a strong community behind it.

Koa

Koa is built by the same team that built Express. It uses ES6 methods that allow developers to work without callbacks. Developers also have more control over error-handling. Koa has no middleware within its core, which means that developers have more control over configuration, but which means that traditional Node middleware (e.g. req, res, next) won't work with Koa.

Koa already has over 26,000 GitHub stars. The Express developers built Koa because they wanted a lighter framework that was more expressive and more robust than Express. You can find out more about the differences between Koa and Express here.

Sails

Sails is a real-time, MVC framework for Node that's built on Express. It supports auto-generated REST APIs and comes with an easy WebSocket integration.

The project has over 20,000 stars on GitHub and is compatible with almost all databases (MySQL, MongoDB, PostgreSQL, Redis). It's also compatible with most front-end technologies (Angular, iOS, Android, React, and even Windows Phone).

Nest

Nest has over 15,000 GitHub stars. It uses progressive JavaScript and is built with TypeScript, which means it comes with strong typing. It combines elements of object-oriented programming, functional programming, and functional reactive programming.

Nest is packaged in such a way it serves as a complete development kit for writing enterprise-level apps. The framework uses Express, but is compatible with a wide range of other libraries.

LoopBack

LoopBack is a framework that allows developers to quickly create REST APIs. It has an easy-to-use CLI wizard and allows developers to create models either on their schema or dynamically. It also has a built-in API explorer.

LoopBack has over 12,000 GitHub stars and is used by companies such as GoDaddy, Symantec, and the Bank of America. It's compatible with many REST services and a wide variety of databases (MongoDB, Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL).

Hapi

Similar to Express, hapi serves data by intermediating between server-side and client-side. As such, it's can serve as a substitute for Express. Hapi allows developers to focus on writing reusable app logic in a modular and prescriptive fashion.

The project has over 11,000 GitHub stars. It has built-in support for input validation, caching, authentication, and more. Hapi was originally developed to handle all of Walmart's mobile traffic during Black Friday.

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A Beginner Guide To Node.js (Basic Introduction To Node.js)

Node.js is a very popular javascript free and open source cross-platform for server-side programming built on Google Chrome’s Javascript V8 Engine. It is used by thousands of developers around the world to develop mobile and web applications. According to StackOverflow survey, Node.js is one of most famous choice for building the web application in 2018.

Introduction

Node.js is a very popular javascript free and open source cross-platform for server-side programming built on Google Chrome’s Javascript V8 Engine. It is used by thousands of developers around the world to develop mobile and web applications. According to StackOverflow survey, Node.js is one of most famous choice for building the web application in 2018.

In this article, you will gain a deep understanding of node, learn how node.js works and why it is so popular among the developers and startups. Not In startup even big companies like eBay, Microsoft, GoDaddy, Paypal etc.

Why is Node.js so much popular

It is fast very fast

It’s a javascript runtime built on google chrome javascript v8 engine which means both node js and js executed in your browser running in the same engine that makes it very fast in comparison to any other server-side programming language.

It uses event-driven and non-blocking model

Node.js uses the event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it very lightweight and efficient.
Now let’s understand the above statement in more details. Here I/O refers to Input /Output.

Event Driven Programming is a paradigm in which control flow of any program is determined by the occurrence of the events. All these events monitor by the code which is known as an event listener. If you are from javascript background then most probably you know what is event-listeners. In short, event-listener is a procedure or function that waits for an event to occurs. In javascript, onload, onclick, onblur most common event-listener.

**Blocking I/O **takes time and hence block other function. Consider the scenario where we want to fetch data from the database for two different users. Here we can not get the data of the second user until we did not complete the first user process. Since javascript is a single threaded and here we would have to start a new thread every time we want to fetch user data. So here Non-Blocking I/O parts come in.

Example of Blocking I/O operation

<span class="hljs-keyword">const</span> fs = <span class="hljs-built_in">require</span>(‘fs’);
<span class="hljs-keyword">var</span> contents = fs.readFileSync(<span class="hljs-string">'package.json'</span>).toString();
<span class="hljs-built_in">console</span>.log(contents);

In** Non-blocking I/O **operations, you can get the user2 data without waiting for the completion of the user1 request. You can initiate both requests in parallel. **Non-blocking I/O **eliminates the need for the multi-threaded, since the system can handle multiple requests at the same time. That is the main reason which makes it very fast.

Example of Non-blocking I/O operation

<span class="hljs-keyword">const</span> fs = <span class="hljs-built_in">require</span>(‘fs’);
fs.readFile(<span class="hljs-string">'package.json'</span>, <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> (<span class="hljs-params">err, buf</span>)</span>{
    <span class="hljs-built_in">console</span>.log(buf.toString());
});

Note: You can learn more about the event loop and other things by going through this link.

What is Node Package Manager ( NPM )

It is is the official package manager for the node. It bundles automatically installed when you install node in your system. It is used to install new packages and manage them in useful ways. NPM install packages in two modes local and global. In the local mode, NPM installs packages in the node_module directory of the current working directory which location is owned by current user. Global packages installed in the directory where the node is installed and the location is owned by the root user.

What is the package.json

package.json is a plain JSON text file which manages all the packaged which you installed in your node application. Every Node.js applications should have this file at the root directory to describe the application metadata. A simple package.json file looks like below

{
    <span class="hljs-string">"name"</span> : <span class="hljs-string">"codesquery"</span>,
    <span class="hljs-string">"version"</span> : <span class="hljs-string">"1.0.0"'
    "repository": {
	"type" : "git",
	"url" : "github_repository_url"
    },
    "dependencies": {
	"async": "0.8.0",
	"express": "4.2.x"
    }
}
</span>

In the above file, name and versions are mandatory for the package.json file and rest is optional.

Installing Node.js

  • In Windows, you can install the node.js by using the installer provided by the official node.js website. Follow the installer instruction and node.js will be installed in your windows system.
  • In Linux OS, you can install the node.js by adding the PPA in your system and then install node js. Run the below command the terminal to install node js
sudo apt-get install curl python-software-properties
curl -sL https:<span class="hljs-comment">//deb.nodesource.com/setup_10.x | sudo -E bash -</span>
sudo apt-get install nodejs

  • In macOS, download the macOS installer from the official node.js website. Now run the installer by accepting the license and selecting the destination.

Test Node.js Installation

You can test the node.js installation by typing below command in the terminal

node -v

If node.js was installed successfully then you will see the installed version of the node in the terminal.

Frameworks and Tools

After gaining the popularity among the developers, there are so many frameworks built for the node js for the different type of uses. Here, I will tell you some of the most famous node js frameworks in the market

  • Express.js is the most popular framework for node.js development. A lot of popular websites is powered by express.js due to its lightweight.
  • Hapi.js is a powerful and robust framework for developing the API. This framework has features like input validation, configuration based functionality, error handling, caching and logging.
  • Metor.js is one of the most used frameworks in the node js web application development. This framework is backed by a huge community of developers, tutorials and good documentation.
  • Socket.io is used to build a real-time web application like chat system and analytics. Its allow the bi-direction data flow between the web client and server.
  • Koa.js is yet another most used framework to build the web application using the node js. This framework is backed by the team behind Express.js. It allows you to ditch callbacks and increase error handling.

Conclusion

Today, Node.js shaping the future of web and application development technology. This is the just the basic of how node js works. If you want to build a scalable web application using the node js then you need to know more then this.

Till now, you have got the basic idea of node.js and now it is time to build something using the node.js. You can start with first by create a simple server using the node.js and then connect your node with MongoDB to perform the basic crud operation.