How to convert XML to HTML using Java libraries

How to convert XML to HTML using Java libraries

In this tutorial, we'll describe how to convert XML to HTML using common Java libraries and template engines – JAXP, StAX, Freemarker, and Mustache

1. An XML to Unmarshal

Let's start off with a simple XML document that we'll unmarshal into a suitable Java representation before we convert it into HTML. We'll bear in mind a few key goals:

  1. Keep the same XML for all of our samples
  2. Create a syntactically and semantically valid HTML5 document at the end
  3. Convert all XML elements into text

Let's use a simple Jenkins notification as our sample XML:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <from>[email protected]</from>
    <heading>Build #7 passed</heading>
    <content>Success: The Jenkins CI build passed</content>

And it's pretty straightforward. It includes a root element and some nested elements.

We'll aim to remove all of the unique XML tags and print out key-value pairs when we create our HTML file.


Java Architecture for XML Processing (JAXP) is a library that was intended to expand the functionality of the popular SAX Parser with additional DOM support. JAXP provides the ability to marshal and unmarshal XML-defined objects into and from POJOs using SAX Parser. We'll also make use of the built-in DOM helpers.

Let's add the Maven dependency for JAXP to our project:


2.1. Unmarshalling Using DOM Builder

Let's begin by first unmarshalling our XML file into a Java Element object:

DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
factory.setFeature(XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING, true);
factory.setFeature("", true);
Document input = factory
Element xml = input.getDocumentElement();

2.2. Extracting the XML file contents in a Map

Now, let's build a Map with the relevant contents of our XML file:

Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
map.put("from", String.format("from: %s",

2.3. Marshalling Using DOM Builder

Marshalling our XML into an HTML file is a little more involved.

Let's prepare a transfer Document that we'll use to write out the HTML:

Document doc = factory

Next, we'll fill the Document with the Elements in our map:

Element html = doc.createElement("html");
Element head = doc.createElement("head");
html.setAttribute("lang", "en");
Element title = doc.createElement("title");
Element body = doc.createElement("body");
Element from = doc.createElement("p");
Element success = doc.createElement("p");

Finally, let's marshal our Document object using a TransformerFactory:

TransformerFactory transformerFactory = TransformerFactory.newInstance();
transformerFactory.setFeature(XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING, true);
transformerFactory.setAttribute(XMLConstants.ACCESS_EXTERNAL_DTD, "");
transformerFactory.setAttribute(XMLConstants.ACCESS_EXTERNAL_STYLESHEET, "");
try (Writer output = new StringWriter()) {
    Transformer transformer = transformerFactory.newTransformer();
    transformer.transform(new DOMSource(doc), new StreamResult(output));

If we call output.toString(), we'll get the HTML representation.

3. StAX

Another library we can use is the Streaming API for XML (StAX). Like JAXP, StAX has been around for a long time — since 2004.

The other two libraries simplify parsing XML files. That's great for simple tasks or projects but less so when we need to iterate or have explicit and fine-grained control over element parsing itself. That's where StAX comes in handy.

Let's add the Maven dependency for the StAX API to our project:


3.1. Unmarshalling Using StAX

We'll use a simple iteration control flow to store XML values into our Map:

XMLInputFactory factory = XMLInputFactory.newInstance();
factory.setProperty(XMLInputFactory.IS_SUPPORTING_EXTERNAL_ENTITIES, Boolean.FALSE);
factory.setProperty(XMLInputFactory.SUPPORT_DTD, Boolean.FALSE);
XMLStreamReader input = null;
try (FileInputStream file = new FileInputStream(resourcePath)) {
    input = factory.createXMLStreamReader(file);
    Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
    while (input.hasNext()) {;
        if (input.isStartElement()) {
            if (input.getLocalName().equals("heading")) {
                map.put("heading", input.getElementText());
            if (input.getLocalName().equals("from")) {
                map.put("from", String.format("from: %s", input.getElementText()));
            if (input.getLocalName().equals("content")) {
                map.put("content", input.getElementText());
} finally {
    if (input != null) {

3.2. Marshalling Using StAX

Now, let's use our map and write out the HTML:

try (Writer output = new StringWriter()) {
    XMLStreamWriter writer = XMLOutputFactory
    writer.writeDTD("<!DOCTYPE html>");
    writer.writeAttribute("lang", "en");
    writer.writeDTD("<META http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">");

Like in the JAXP example, we can call output.toString() to get the HTML representation.

4. Using Template Engines

As an alternative to writing the HTML representation, we can use template engines. There multiple options in the Java ecosystem. Let's explore some of them.

4.1. Using Apache Freemarker

Apache FreeMarker is a Java-based template engine for generating text output (HTML web pages, e-mails, configuration files, source code, etc.) based on templates and changing data.

In order to use it, we'll need to add the freemarker dependency to our Maven project:


First, let's create a template using the FreeMarker syntax:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">

Now, let's reuse our map and fill the gaps in the template:

Configuration cfg = new Configuration(Configuration.VERSION_2_3_29);
cfg.setDirectoryForTemplateLoading(new File(templateDirectory));
Template temp = cfg.getTemplate(templateFile);
try (Writer output = new StringWriter()) {
    temp.process(staxTransformer.getMap(), output);

4.2. Using Mustache

Mustache is a logic-less template engine. Mustache can be used for HTML, config files, source code — pretty much anything. It works by expanding tags in a template using values provided in a hash or object.

To use it, we'll need to add the mustache dependency to our Maven project:


Let's start creating a template using the Mustache syntax:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">

Now, let's fill the template with our map:

MustacheFactory mf = new DefaultMustacheFactory();
Mustache mustache = mf.compile(templateFile);
try (Writer output = new StringWriter()) {
    mustache.execute(output, staxTransformer.getMap());

5. The Resulting HTML

In the end, with all our code samples, we'll get the same HTML output:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
    <title>Build #7 passed</title>
<p>from: [email protected]</p>
<p>Success: The Jenkins CI build passed</p>

6. Conclusion

In this tutorial, we've learned the basics of using JAXP, StAX, Freemarker, and Mustache to convert XML into HTML.

java html xml web-development

What's new in Bootstrap 5 and when Bootstrap 5 release date?

How to Build Progressive Web Apps (PWA) using Angular 9

What is new features in Javascript ES2020 ECMAScript 2020

Deno Crash Course: Explore Deno and Create a full REST API with Deno

How to Build a Real-time Chat App with Deno and WebSockets

Convert HTML to Markdown Online

HTML entity encoder decoder Online

Random Password Generator Online

HTML Color Picker online | HEX Color Picker | RGB Color Picker

Hire Dedicated eCommerce Web Developers | Top eCommerce Web Designers

Build your eCommerce project by hiring our expert eCommerce Website developers. Our Dedicated Web Designers develop powerful & robust website in a short span of time.

Best Web and App Development Company in Ahmedabad

Contact DataPierce for any questions or queries you have about website development, designing, marketing projects or any small or enterprise software development.

Mobile App Development Company India | Ecommerce Web Development Company India

Best Mobile App Development Company India, WebClues Global is one of the leading web and mobile app development company. Our team offers complete IT solutions including Cross-Platform App Development, CMS & E-Commerce, and UI/UX Design.

For World Class Web Development Services in India visit RB Genie

Do you want excellent and world class web development services for your valuable projects? Contact **RB Genie **now, we have more than 8 years experienced team of web developers, which specializes in overall web design and website development...

Web Development Services

As one of the best Web Application Development Company, it provides a fine quality mobile app development service at an affordable price. Especially, it encourage start-ups that have unique ideas, by offering a more competitive price