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Angular 8 Pagination Example and Tutorial

Angular 8 Pagination Example and Tutorial

Pagination is the best way to show huge number of records in series for any application. Also showing/fetching thousands of record at one go will affect the performance of the application.

Pagination is the best way to show huge number of records in series for any application. Also showing/fetching thousands of record at one go will affect the performance of the application.

For example, when you search something that returns a large number of records which cannot be shown on a single web page therefore, those records are part into number of pages that can be accessed through links via pagination structure.

So today in this demo we will discuss the simple pagination in Angular 8.

Step 1: Create a basic app with angular cli
ng new angular8-simple-pagination-example

By typing the above command we will see a basic angular app created on the current folder. So move to the created folder by typing **cd angular8-simple-pagination-example/. **You can check the newly created app by typing http://localhost:4200 on the browser.

Step 2: install ngx-pagination pagination dependency from terminal

So run the below command over terminal

npm install ngx-pagination --save

Step 3: Create dummy records for pagination

Now we will create static data to show the pagination. So lets have a look on the code under file **app.component.ts **

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import {NgxPaginationModule} from 'ngx-pagination';
@Component({
   selector: 'app-root',
   templateUrl: './app.component.html',
   styleUrls: ['./app.component.css']
})
export class AppComponent {
   title = 'simple pagination demo';
   collection = [];
   constructor(){
     for(let i=1;i<=100;i++){
       let Obj = {'name': `Employee Name ${i}`,'code': `EMP00 ${i}`}
       this.collection.push(Obj);
     }
   }
}

In the above file, we can see that inside constructor we have created a loop for created dummy record for 100 employees having employee name & code for showing pagination.

Step 4: Import dependency in app.module.ts

Now let's have a look on the code inside **app.module.ts **where the ngx-pagination module has been imported

import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
 
import { NgxPaginationModule } from 'ngx-pagination';
import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
 
@NgModule({
declarations: [
AppComponent
],
imports: [
BrowserModule,
NgxPaginationModule
],
providers: [],
bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }

Step 5: Update view from app.component.html

Now one last step needed to do is, add the below code anywhere inside app.component.html

*  Emp Name | Emp code
 {{item.name}} | {{item.code}} 


Now, we are done with all the needed steps for the pagination in our angular application.

Step 6: Run the app

Run the app over the terminal with npm start and check the app after typing the url http://localhost:4200/.** **A page will open like below:

Conclusion

By following these easy steps we can easily achieve the client side pagination in Angular 8 application. If you want to impliment server side pagination in angular8 Server Side Pagination in Angular Example and Tutorial . You can also find other demos of Angular Sample Application here to start working on enterprise level application. Click here to view more about the pagination package over npm.

Create Simple Login Page using Angular 8 and HTTP Authentication

Create Simple Login Page using Angular 8 and HTTP Authentication

In this article, you'll learn how to setup a simple login page using Angular 8 and Basic HTTP authentication

In this article, you'll learn how to setup a simple login page using Angular 8 and Basic HTTP authentication

Tutorial built with Angular 8.0.2 and the Angular CLI

Angular CLI was used to generate the base project structure with the ng new command, the CLI is also used to build and serve the application. For more info about the Angular CLI see https://angular.io/cli.

Styling of the example app is all done with Bootstrap 4.3, for more info about Bootstrap see https://getbootstrap.com/docs/4.3/getting-started/introduction/.

Running the Angular 8 Basic Authentication Tutorial Example Locally
  1. Install NodeJS and NPM from https://nodejs.org/en/download/.
  2. Download or clone the tutorial project source code from https://github.com/cornflourblue/angular-8-basic-authentication-example
  3. Install all required npm packages by running npm install from the command line in the project root folder (where the package.json is located).
  4. Start the application by running npm start from the
  5. command line in the project root folder, this will build the application
  6. and automatically launch it in the browser on the URL
  7. http://localhost:4200.

NOTE: You can also run the app directly using the Angular CLI command ng serve --open. To do this first install the Angular CLI globally on your system with the command npm install -g @angular/cli.

Running the Tutorial Example with a Real Backend API

The Angular 8 basic authentication example app uses a fake / mock backend by default so it can run in the browser without a real api, to switch to a real backend api you just have to remove or comment out the line below the comment // provider used to create fake backend located in the /src/app/app.module.ts file.

Angular 8 Tutorial Project Structure

The app and code structure of the tutorial mostly follows the best practice recommendations in the official Angular Style Guide, with a few of my own tweaks here and there.

Each feature has it's own folder (home & login), other shared/common code such as services, models, helpers etc are placed in folders prefixed with an underscore _ to easily differentiate them and group them together at the top of the folder structure.

The index.ts files in each folder are barrel files that group the exported modules from a folder together so they can be imported using the folder path instead of the full module path and to enable importing multiple modules in a single import (e.g. import { AuthenticationService, UserService } from '../_services').

Path aliases @app and @environments have been configured in tsconfig.json that map to the /src/app and /src/environments directories. This allows imports to be relative to the app and environments folders by prefixing import paths with aliases instead of having to use long relative paths (e.g. import MyComponent from '../../../MyComponent').

Here are the main project files that contain the application logic, I left out some files that were generated by Angular CLI ng new command that I didn't change.

  • src
  • app
  • _helpers
  • auth.guard.ts
  • basic-auth.interceptor.ts
  • error.interceptor.ts
  • fake-backend.ts
  • index.ts
  • _models
  • user.ts
  • index.ts
  • _services
  • authentication.service.ts
  • user.service.ts
  • index.ts
  • home
  • home.component.html
  • home.component.ts
  • index.ts
  • login
  • login.component.html
  • login.component.ts
  • index.ts
  • app.component.html
  • app.component.ts
  • app.module.ts
  • app.routing.ts
  • environments
  • environment.prod.ts
  • environment.ts
  • index.html
  • main.ts
  • polyfills.ts
  • styles.less
  • package.json
  • tsconfig.json
Auth Guard

Path: /src/app/_helpers/auth.guard.ts

The auth guard is an angular route guard that's used to prevent unauthenticated users from accessing restricted routes, it does this by implementing the CanActivate interface which allows the guard to decide if a route can be activated with the canActivate() method. If the method returns true the route is activated (allowed to proceed), otherwise if the method returns false the route is blocked.

The auth guard uses the authentication service to check if the user is logged in, if they are logged in it returns true from the canActivate() method, otherwise it returns false and redirects the user to the login page.

Angular route guards are attached to routes in the router config, this auth guard is used in app.routing.ts to protect the home page route.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { Router, CanActivate, ActivatedRouteSnapshot, RouterStateSnapshot } from '@angular/router';

import { AuthenticationService } from '@app/_services';

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export class AuthGuard implements CanActivate {
    constructor(
        private router: Router,
        private authenticationService: AuthenticationService
    ) { }

    canActivate(route: ActivatedRouteSnapshot, state: RouterStateSnapshot) {
        const currentUser = this.authenticationService.currentUserValue;
        if (currentUser) {
            // logged in so return true
            return true;
        }

        // not logged in so redirect to login page with the return url
        this.router.navigate(['/login'], { queryParams: { returnUrl: state.url } });
        return false;
    }
}
Basic Authentication Interceptor

Path: /src/app/_helpers/basic-auth.interceptor.ts

The Basic Authentication Interceptor intercepts http requests from the application to add basic authentication credentials to the Authorization header if the user is logged in.

It's implemented using the HttpInterceptor class included in the HttpClientModule, by extending the HttpInterceptor class you can create a custom interceptor to modify http requests before they get sent to the server.

Http interceptors are added to the request pipeline in the providers section of the _app.module.ts_ file.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpRequest, HttpHandler, HttpEvent, HttpInterceptor } from '@angular/common/http';
import { Observable } from 'rxjs';

import { AuthenticationService } from '@app/_services';

@Injectable()
export class BasicAuthInterceptor implements HttpInterceptor {
    constructor(private authenticationService: AuthenticationService) { }

    intercept(request: HttpRequest, next: HttpHandler): Observable> {
        // add authorization header with basic auth credentials if available
        const currentUser = this.authenticationService.currentUserValue;
        if (currentUser && currentUser.authdata) {
            request = request.clone({
                setHeaders: { 
                    Authorization: `Basic ${currentUser.authdata}`
                }
            });
        }

        return next.handle(request);
    }
}
Http Error Interceptor

Path: /src/app/_helpers/error.interceptor.ts

The Error Interceptor intercepts http responses from the api to check if there were any errors. If there is a 401 Unauthorized response the user is automatically logged out of the application, all other errors are re-thrown up to the calling service so an alert with the error can be displayed on the screen.

It's implemented using the HttpInterceptor class included in the HttpClientModule, by extending the HttpInterceptor class you can create a custom interceptor to catch all error responses from the server in a single location.

Http interceptors are added to the request pipeline in the providers section of the app.module.ts file.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpRequest, HttpHandler, HttpEvent, HttpInterceptor } from '@angular/common/http';
import { Observable, throwError } from 'rxjs';
import { catchError } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { AuthenticationService } from '@app/_services';

@Injectable()
export class ErrorInterceptor implements HttpInterceptor {
    constructor(private authenticationService: AuthenticationService) { }

    intercept(request: HttpRequest, next: HttpHandler): Observable> {
        return next.handle(request).pipe(catchError(err => {
            if (err.status === 401) {
                // auto logout if 401 response returned from api
                this.authenticationService.logout();
                location.reload(true);
            }

            const error = err.error.message || err.statusText;
            return throwError(error);
        }))
    }
}
Fake Backend Provider

Path: /src/app/_helpers/fake-backend.ts

In order to run and test the Angular application without a real backend API, the example uses a fake backend that intercepts the HTTP requests from the Angular app and send back "fake" responses. This is done by a class that implements the Angular HttpInterceptor interface, for more information on Angular HTTP Interceptors see https://angular.io/api/common/http/HttpInterceptor

The fake backend contains a handleRoute function that checks if the request matches one of the faked routes in the switch statement, at the moment this includes POST requests to the /users/authenticate route for handling authentication, and GET requests to the /users route for getting all users.

Requests to the authenticate route are handled by the authenticate() function which checks the username and password against an array of hardcoded users. If the username and password are correct then an ok response is returned with the user details, otherwise an error response is returned.

Requests to the get users route are handled by the getUsers() function which checks if the user is logged in by calling the new isLoggedIn() helper function. If the user is logged in an ok() response with the whole users array is returned, otherwise a 401 Unauthorized response is returned by calling the new unauthorized() helper function.

If the request doesn't match any of the faked routes it is passed through as a real HTTP request to the backend API.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpRequest, HttpResponse, HttpHandler, HttpEvent, HttpInterceptor, HTTP_INTERCEPTORS } from '@angular/common/http';
import { Observable, of, throwError } from 'rxjs';
import { delay, mergeMap, materialize, dematerialize } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { User } from '@app/_models';

const users: User[] = [{ id: 1, username: 'test', password: 'test', firstName: 'Test', lastName: 'User' }];

@Injectable()
export class FakeBackendInterceptor implements HttpInterceptor {
    intercept(request: HttpRequest, next: HttpHandler): Observable> {
        const { url, method, headers, body } = request;

        // wrap in delayed observable to simulate server api call
        return of(null)
            .pipe(mergeMap(handleRoute))
            .pipe(materialize()) // call materialize and dematerialize to ensure delay even if an error is thrown (https://github.com/Reactive-Extensions/RxJS/issues/648)
            .pipe(delay(500))
            .pipe(dematerialize());

        function handleRoute() {
            switch (true) {
                case url.endsWith('/users/authenticate') && method === 'POST':
                    return authenticate();
                case url.endsWith('/users') && method === 'GET':
                    return getUsers();
                default:
                    // pass through any requests not handled above
                    return next.handle(request);
            }    
        }

        // route functions

        function authenticate() {
            const { username, password } = body;
            const user = users.find(x => x.username === username && x.password === password);
            if (!user) return error('Username or password is incorrect');
            return ok({
                id: user.id,
                username: user.username,
                firstName: user.firstName,
                lastName: user.lastName
            })
        }

        function getUsers() {
            if (!isLoggedIn()) return unauthorized();
            return ok(users);
        }

        // helper functions

        function ok(body?) {
            return of(new HttpResponse({ status: 200, body }))
        }

        function error(message) {
            return throwError({ error: { message } });
        }

        function unauthorized() {
            return throwError({ status: 401, error: { message: 'Unauthorised' } });
        }

        function isLoggedIn() {
            return headers.get('Authorization') === `Basic ${window.btoa('test:test')}`;
        }
    }
}

export let fakeBackendProvider = {
    // use fake backend in place of Http service for backend-less development
    provide: HTTP_INTERCEPTORS,
    useClass: FakeBackendInterceptor,
    multi: true
};
User Model

Path: /src/app/_models/user.ts

The user model is a small class that defines the properties of a user.

export class User {
    id: number;
    username: string;
    password: string;
    firstName: string;
    lastName: string;
    authdata?: string;
}
Authentication Service

Path: /src/app/_services/authentication.service.ts

The authentication service is used to login & logout of the Angular app, it notifies other components when the user logs in & out, and allows access the currently logged in user.

RxJS Subjects and Observables are used to store the current user object and notify other components when the user logs in and out of the app. Angular components can subscribe() to the public currentUser: Observable property to be notified of changes, and notifications are sent when the this.currentUserSubject.next() method is called in the login() and logout() methods, passing the argument to each subscriber. The RxJS BehaviorSubject is a special type of Subject that keeps hold of the current value and emits it to any new subscribers as soon as they subscribe, while regular Subjects don't store the current value and only emit values that are published after a subscription is created.

The login() method sends the user credentials to the API via an HTTP POST request for authentication. If successful the user's basic authentication data (base64 encoded username and password) is added to the user object and stored in localStorage to keep the user logged in between page refreshes. The user object is then published to all subscribers with the call to this.currentUserSubject.next(user);.

The basic auth data is used by the basic authentication interceptor above to set the authorization header of http requests made to secure api endpoints.

The constructor() of the service initialises the currentUserSubject with the currentUser object from localStorage which enables the user to stay logged in between page refreshes or after the browser is closed. The public currentUser property is then set to this.currentUserSubject.asObservable(); which allows other components to subscribe to the currentUser Observable but doesn't allow them to publish to the currentUserSubject, this is so logging in and out of the app can only be done via the authentication service.

The currentUserValue getter allows other components an easy way to get the value of the currently logged in user without having to subscribe to the currentUser Observable.

The logout() method removes the current user object from local storage and publishes null to the currentUserSubject to notify all subscribers that the user has logged out.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http';
import { BehaviorSubject, Observable } from 'rxjs';
import { map } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { environment } from '@environments/environment';
import { User } from '@app/_models';

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export class AuthenticationService {
    private currentUserSubject: BehaviorSubject;
    public currentUser: Observable;

    constructor(private http: HttpClient) {
        this.currentUserSubject = new BehaviorSubject(JSON.parse(localStorage.getItem('currentUser')));
        this.currentUser = this.currentUserSubject.asObservable();
    }

    public get currentUserValue(): User {
        return this.currentUserSubject.value;
    }

    login(username: string, password: string) {
        return this.http.post(`${environment.apiUrl}/users/authenticate`, { username, password })
            .pipe(map(user => {
                // store user details and basic auth credentials in local storage to keep user logged in between page refreshes
                user.authdata = window.btoa(username + ':' + password);
                localStorage.setItem('currentUser', JSON.stringify(user));
                this.currentUserSubject.next(user);
                return user;
            }));
    }

    logout() {
        // remove user from local storage to log user out
        localStorage.removeItem('currentUser');
        this.currentUserSubject.next(null);
    }
}
User Service

Path: /src/app/_services/user.service.ts

The user service contains a method for getting all users from the api, I included it to demonstrate accessing a secure api endpoint with the http authorization header set after logging in to the application, the auth header is automatically set with basic authentication credentials by the basic authentication interceptor. The secure endpoint in the example is a fake one implemented in the fake backend provider.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http';

import { environment } from '@environments/environment';
import { User } from '@app/_models';

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export class UserService {
    constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }

    getAll() {
        return this.http.get(`${environment.apiUrl}/users`);
    }
}
Home Component Template

Path: /src/app/home/home.component.html

The home component template contains html and angular 8 template syntax for displaying a simple welcome message and a list of users from a secure api endpoint.


    #### You're logged in with Angular 8 & Basic HTTP Authentication!!

    
        ###### Users from secure api end point

        

        
            {{user.firstName}} {{user.lastName}}
        
    

Home Component

Path: /src/app/home/home.component.ts

The home component defines an angular 8 component that gets all users from the user service and makes them available to the template via a users array property.

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { first } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { User } from '@app/_models';
import { UserService } from '@app/_services';

@Component({ templateUrl: 'home.component.html' })
export class HomeComponent {
    loading = false;
    users: User[];

    constructor(private userService: UserService) { }

    ngOnInit() {
        this.loading = true;
        this.userService.getAll().pipe(first()).subscribe(users => {
            this.loading = false;
            this.users = users;
        });
    }
}
Login Component Template

Path: /src/app/login/login.component.html

The login component template contains a login form with username and password fields. It displays validation messages for invalid fields when the submit button is clicked. The form submit event is bound to the onSubmit() method of the login component.


    
        Username: test

        Password: test
    
    
        #### Angular 8 Basic Auth Login Example

        
            
                
                    Username
                    
                    
                        Username is required

                    
                
                
                    Password
                    
                    
                        Password is required

                    
                
                
                    
                    Login
                
                {{error}}

            
        
    

Login Component

Path: /src/app/login/login.component.ts

The login component uses the authentication service to login to the application. If the user is already logged in they are automatically redirected to the home page.

The loginForm: FormGroup object defines the form controls and validators, and is used to access data entered into the form. The FormGroup is part of the Angular Reactive Forms module and is bound to the login template above with the [formGroup]="loginForm" directive.

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { Router, ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router';
import { FormBuilder, FormGroup, Validators } from '@angular/forms';
import { first } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { AuthenticationService } from '@app/_services';

@Component({ templateUrl: 'login.component.html' })
export class LoginComponent implements OnInit {
    loginForm: FormGroup;
    loading = false;
    submitted = false;
    returnUrl: string;
    error = '';

    constructor(
        private formBuilder: FormBuilder,
        private route: ActivatedRoute,
        private router: Router,
        private authenticationService: AuthenticationService
    ) { 
        // redirect to home if already logged in
        if (this.authenticationService.currentUserValue) { 
            this.router.navigate(['/']);
        }
    }

    ngOnInit() {
        this.loginForm = this.formBuilder.group({
            username: ['', Validators.required],
            password: ['', Validators.required]
        });

        // get return url from route parameters or default to '/'
        this.returnUrl = this.route.snapshot.queryParams['returnUrl'] || '/';
    }

    // convenience getter for easy access to form fields
    get f() { return this.loginForm.controls; }

    onSubmit() {
        this.submitted = true;

        // stop here if form is invalid
        if (this.loginForm.invalid) {
            return;
        }

        this.loading = true;
        this.authenticationService.login(this.f.username.value, this.f.password.value)
            .pipe(first())
            .subscribe(
                data => {
                    this.router.navigate([this.returnUrl]);
                },
                error => {
                    this.error = error;
                    this.loading = false;
                });
    }
}
App Component Template

Path: /src/app/app.component.html

The app component template is the root component template of the application, it contains the main nav bar which is only displayed for authenticated users, and a router-outlet directive for displaying the contents of each view based on the current route / path.



    
        Home
        Logout
    




    

App Component

Path: /src/app/app.component.ts

The app component is the root component of the application, it defines the root tag of the app as `` with the selector property of the @Component() decorator.

It subscribes to the currentUser observable in the authentication service so it can reactively show/hide the main navigation bar when the user logs in/out of the application. I didn't worry about unsubscribing from the observable here because it's the root component of the application, the only time the component will be destroyed is when the application is closed which would destroy any subscriptions as well.

The app component contains a logout() method which is called from the logout link in the main nav bar above to log the user out and redirect them to the login page.

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { Router } from '@angular/router';

import { AuthenticationService } from './_services';
import { User } from './_models';

@Component({ selector: 'app', templateUrl: 'app.component.html' })
export class AppComponent {
    currentUser: User;

    constructor(
        private router: Router,
        private authenticationService: AuthenticationService
    ) {
        this.authenticationService.currentUser.subscribe(x => this.currentUser = x);
    }

    logout() {
        this.authenticationService.logout();
        this.router.navigate(['/login']);
    }
}
App Module

Path: /src/app/app.module.ts

The app module defines the root module of the application along with metadata about the module. For more info about angular 8 modules check out this page on the official docs site.

This is where the fake backend provider is added to the application, to switch to a real backend simply remove the providers located below the comment // provider used to create fake backend.

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { ReactiveFormsModule } from '@angular/forms';
import { HttpClientModule, HTTP_INTERCEPTORS } from '@angular/common/http';

// used to create fake backend
import { fakeBackendProvider } from './_helpers';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { appRoutingModule } from './app.routing';

import { BasicAuthInterceptor, ErrorInterceptor } from './_helpers';
import { HomeComponent } from './home';
import { LoginComponent } from './login';

@NgModule({
    imports: [
        BrowserModule,
        ReactiveFormsModule,
        HttpClientModule,
        appRoutingModule
    ],
    declarations: [
        AppComponent,
        HomeComponent,
        LoginComponent
    ],
    providers: [
        { provide: HTTP_INTERCEPTORS, useClass: BasicAuthInterceptor, multi: true },
        { provide: HTTP_INTERCEPTORS, useClass: ErrorInterceptor, multi: true },

        // provider used to create fake backend
        fakeBackendProvider
    ],
    bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }
App Routing Module

Path: /src/app/app.routing.ts

Routing for the Angular app is configured as an array of Routes, each component is mapped to a path so the Angular Router knows which component to display based on the URL in the browser address bar. The home route is secured by passing the AuthGuard to the canActivate property of the route.

The Routes array is passed to the RouterModule.forRoot() method which creates a routing module with all of the app routes configured, and also includes all of the Angular Router providers and directives such as the `` directive. For more information on Angular Routing and Navigation see https://angular.io/guide/router.

import { Routes, RouterModule } from '@angular/router';

import { HomeComponent } from './home';
import { LoginComponent } from './login';
import { AuthGuard } from './_helpers';

const routes: Routes = [
    { path: '', component: HomeComponent, canActivate: [AuthGuard] },
    { path: 'login', component: LoginComponent },

    // otherwise redirect to home
    { path: '**', redirectTo: '' }
];

export const appRoutingModule = RouterModule.forRoot(routes);
Production Environment Config

Path: /src/environments/environment.prod.ts

The production environment config contains variables required to run the application in production. This enables you to build the application with a different configuration for each different environment (e.g. production & development) without updating the app code.

When you build the application for production with the command ng build --prod, the output environment.ts is replaced with environment.prod.ts.

export const environment = {
    production: true,
    apiUrl: 'http://localhost:4000'
};
Development Environment Config

Path: /src/environments/environment.ts

The development environment config contains variables required to run the application in development.

Environment config is accessed by importing the environment object into any Angular service of component with the line import { environment } from '@environments/environment' and accessing properties on the environment object, see the user service for an example.

export const environment = {
    production: false,
    apiUrl: 'http://localhost:4000'
};
Main Index Html File

Path: /src/index.html

The main index.html file is the initial page loaded by the browser that kicks everything off. The Angular CLI (with Webpack under the hood) bundles all of the compiled javascript files together and injects them into the body of the index.html page so the scripts can be loaded and executed by the browser.




    
    Angular 8 - Basic HTTP Authentication Tutorial & Example
    

    
    


    Loading...


Main (Bootstrap) File

Path: /src/main.ts

The main file is the entry point used by angular to launch and bootstrap the application.

import { enableProdMode } from '@angular/core';
import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic';

import { AppModule } from './app/app.module';
import { environment } from './environments/environment';

if (environment.production) {
    enableProdMode();
}

platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule)
    .catch(err => console.error(err));
Polyfills

Path: /src/polyfills.ts

Some features used by Angular 8 are not yet supported natively by all major browsers, polyfills are used to add support for features where necessary so your Angular 8 application works across all major browsers.

This file is generated by the Angular CLI when creating a new project with the ng new command, I've excluded the comments in the file for brevity.

import 'zone.js/dist/zone';
Global LESS/CSS Styles

Path: /src/styles.less

The global styles file contains LESS/CSS styles that are applied globally throughout the application.

/* You can add global styles to this file, and also import other style files */
a { cursor: pointer }
npm package.json

Path: /package.json

The package.json file contains project configuration information including package dependencies which get installed when you run npm install. Full documentation is available on the npm docs website.

{
    "name": "angular-8-basic-authentication-example",
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "scripts": {
        "ng": "ng",
        "start": "ng serve --open",
        "build": "ng build",
        "test": "ng test",
        "lint": "ng lint",
        "e2e": "ng e2e"
    },
    "private": true,
    "dependencies": {
        "@angular/animations": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/common": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/compiler": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/core": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/forms": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/platform-browser": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/platform-browser-dynamic": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/router": "~8.0.1",
        "rxjs": "~6.4.0",
        "tslib": "^1.9.0",
        "zone.js": "~0.9.1"
    },
    "devDependencies": {
        "@angular-devkit/build-angular": "~0.800.0",
        "@angular/cli": "~8.0.3",
        "@angular/compiler-cli": "~8.0.1",
        "@angular/language-service": "~8.0.1",
        "@types/node": "~8.9.4",
        "@types/jasmine": "~3.3.8",
        "@types/jasminewd2": "~2.0.3",
        "codelyzer": "^5.0.0",
        "jasmine-core": "~3.4.0",
        "jasmine-spec-reporter": "~4.2.1",
        "karma": "~4.1.0",
        "karma-chrome-launcher": "~2.2.0",
        "karma-coverage-istanbul-reporter": "~2.0.1",
        "karma-jasmine": "~2.0.1",
        "karma-jasmine-html-reporter": "^1.4.0",
        "protractor": "~5.4.0",
        "ts-node": "~7.0.0",
        "tslint": "~5.15.0",
        "typescript": "~3.4.3"
    }
}
TypeScript tsconfig.json

Path: /tsconfig.json

The tsconfig.json file configures how the TypeScript compiler will convert TypeScript into JavaScript that is understood by the browser. More information is available on the TypeScript docs.

Most of the file is unchanged from when it was generated by the Angular CLI, only the paths property has been added to map @app and @environments to the /src/app and /src/environments directories. This allows imports to be relative to the app and environments folders by prefixing import paths with aliases instead of having to use long relative paths (e.g. import MyComponent from '../../../MyComponent').

{
    "compileOnSave": false,
    "compilerOptions": {
        "baseUrl": "./",
        "outDir": "./dist/out-tsc",
        "sourceMap": true,
        "declaration": false,
        "downlevelIteration": true,
        "emitDecoratorMetadata": true,
        "experimentalDecorators": true,
        "module": "esnext",
        "moduleResolution": "node",
        "importHelpers": true,
        "target": "es2015",
        "typeRoots": [
            "node_modules/@types"
        ],
        "lib": [
            "es2018",
            "dom"
        ],
        "paths": {
            "@app/*": ["src/app/*"],
            "@environments/*": ["src/environments/*"]
        }
    }
}

The tutorial code is available on GitHub

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial - How to build user roles and permissions on Laravel 5.8 App

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial - How to build user roles and permissions on Laravel 5.8 App

In this article, you'll learn how to user build roles and permissions on Laravel 5.8 Application. You can do it acl in Laravel 5.8 using spatie composer package. I will explain how to implement User Roles and Permissions(ACL) using spatie/laravel-permission composer package.

In this article, you'll learn how to user build roles and permissions on Laravel 5.8 Application. You can do it acl in Laravel 5.8 using spatie composer package. I will explain how to implement User Roles and Permissions(ACL) using spatie/laravel-permission composer package.

Spatie role permission composer package provide way to create acl in Laravel 5.8. They provide how to assign role to user, how to assign permission to user and how to assign permission assign to roles. I will write step by step creating roles and permissions in Laravel 5.8 application.

Roles and Permissions through you can create several types of users with different role and permission, i mean some user have only see listing of items module, some user can also edit items modules, for delete and etc.

In this examples i created three modules as listed bellow:

  • User Management
  • Role Management
  • Product Management

After register user, you don't have any roles, so you can edit your details and assign admin role to you from User Management. After that you can create your own role with permission like role-list, role-create, role-edit, role-delete, product-list, product-create, product-edit, product-delete. You can check with assign new user and check that.

Step 1: Laravel 5.8 Installation

We are going from scratch so, If you haven't installed Laravel in your system then you can run bellow command and get fresh Laravel project.

composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel blog

Step 2: Install Composer Packages

Now we require to install Spatie package for ACL, that way we can use it's method. Also we will install form collection package. So Open your terminal and run bellow command.

composer require spatie/laravel-permission
  
composer require laravelcollective/html

Now open config/app.php file and add service provider and aliase.

config/app.php

'providers' => [
	....
	Spatie\Permission\PermissionServiceProvider::class,
	Collective\Html\HtmlServiceProvider::class,
],
'aliases' => [
	....
	'Form' => Collective\Html\FormFacade::class,
	'Html' => Collective\Html\HtmlFacade::class,
],

We can also custom changes on Spatie package, so if you also want to changes then you can fire bellow command and get config file in config/permission.php.

php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Spatie\Permission\PermissionServiceProvider" --tag="config"

Step 3: Create Migrations

In this step we have to create three migrations for as listed bellow tables:

  1. users

  2. products

  3. roles

  4. permissions

  5. model_has_permissions

  6. model_has_roles

  7. role_has_permissions

So, if you install fresh project then you have already users table migration but if you don't have products table, so can create manually and other table can create using Spatie package command, so run bellow command and check migration file also.

php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Spatie\Permission\PermissionServiceProvider" --tag="migrations"
php artisan make:migration create_products_table

users table:

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;

class CreateUsersTable extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('users', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->bigIncrements('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->string('email');
            $table->string('password');
            $table->rememberToken();
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('users');
    }
}

products table:

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;

class CreateProductsTable extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('products', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->bigIncrements('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->text('detail');
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('products');
    }
}

Spatie tables:

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;

class CreatePermissionTables extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        $tableNames = config('permission.table_names');

        Schema::create($tableNames['permissions'], function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->string('guard_name');
            $table->timestamps();
        });

        Schema::create($tableNames['roles'], function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->string('guard_name');
            $table->timestamps();
        });

        Schema::create($tableNames['model_has_permissions'], function (Blueprint $table) use ($tableNames) {
            $table->integer('permission_id')->unsigned();
            $table->morphs('model');

            $table->foreign('permission_id')
                ->references('id')
                ->on($tableNames['permissions'])
                ->onDelete('cascade');

            $table->primary(['permission_id', 'model_id', 'model_type']);
        });

        Schema::create($tableNames['model_has_roles'], function (Blueprint $table) use ($tableNames) {
            $table->integer('role_id')->unsigned();
            $table->morphs('model');

            $table->foreign('role_id')
                ->references('id')
                ->on($tableNames['roles'])
                ->onDelete('cascade');

            $table->primary(['role_id', 'model_id', 'model_type']);
        });

        Schema::create($tableNames['role_has_permissions'], function (Blueprint $table) use ($tableNames) {
            $table->integer('permission_id')->unsigned();
            $table->integer('role_id')->unsigned();

            $table->foreign('permission_id')
                ->references('id')
                ->on($tableNames['permissions'])
                ->onDelete('cascade');

            $table->foreign('role_id')
                ->references('id')
                ->on($tableNames['roles'])
                ->onDelete('cascade');

            $table->primary(['permission_id', 'role_id']);

            app('cache')->forget('spatie.permission.cache');
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        $tableNames = config('permission.table_names');

        Schema::drop($tableNames['role_has_permissions']);
        Schema::drop($tableNames['model_has_roles']);
        Schema::drop($tableNames['model_has_permissions']);
        Schema::drop($tableNames['roles']);
        Schema::drop($tableNames['permissions']);
    }
}

Now run migration:

php artisan migrate

Step 4: Create Models

In this step we have to create model for User and Product table, so if you get fresh project then you have User Model have so just replace code and other you should create.

app/User.php

<?php
  
namespace App;
  
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\MustVerifyEmail;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Spatie\Permission\Traits\HasRoles;
  
class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use Notifiable;
    use HasRoles;
  
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'email', 'password',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for arrays.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password', 'remember_token',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be cast to native types.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $casts = [
        'email_verified_at' => 'datetime',
    ];
}

app/Product.php

<?php

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Product extends Model
{
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *	
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'detail'
    ];
}

Step 5: Add Middleware

Spatie package provide it's in-built middleware that way we can use it simply and that is display as bellow:

role

permission

So, we have to add middleware in Kernel.php file this way :

app/Http/Kernel.php

....
protected $routeMiddleware = [
	....
	'role' => \Spatie\Permission\Middlewares\RoleMiddleware::class,
	'permission' => \Spatie\Permission\Middlewares\PermissionMiddleware::class,
]
....

Step 6: Create Authentication

In this step we require to create authentication of Laravel 5.8, so laravel provide artisan command to create authentication that way we don't require to create route and controller for login and registration. so run bellow command:

php artisan make:auth

Step 7: Create Routes

We require to add number of route for users module, products module and roles module. In this this route i also use middleware with permission for roles and products route, so add route this way:

routes/web.php

Auth::routes();

Route::get('/home', '[email protected]')->name('home');

Route::group(['middleware' => ['auth']], function() {
    Route::resource('roles','RoleController');
    Route::resource('users','UserController');
    Route::resource('products','ProductController');
});

Step 8: Add Controllers

In this step we have add three controller for users module, products module and roles module so you can create three controller like as bellow:

app/Http/Controllers/UserController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\Controller;
use App\User;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Role;
use DB;
use Hash;

class UserController extends Controller
{
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        $data = User::orderBy('id','DESC')->paginate(5);
        return view('users.index',compact('data'))
            ->with('i', ($request->input('page', 1) - 1) * 5);
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for creating a new resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function create()
    {
        $roles = Role::pluck('name','name')->all();
        return view('users.create',compact('roles'));
    }

    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'email' => 'required|email|unique:users,email',
            'password' => 'required|same:confirm-password',
            'roles' => 'required'
        ]);

        $input = $request->all();
        $input['password'] = Hash::make($input['password']);

        $user = User::create($input);
        $user->assignRole($request->input('roles'));

        return redirect()->route('users.index')
                        ->with('success','User created successfully');
    }

    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show($id)
    {
        $user = User::find($id);
        return view('users.show',compact('user'));
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for editing the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function edit($id)
    {
        $user = User::find($id);
        $roles = Role::pluck('name','name')->all();
        $userRole = $user->roles->pluck('name','name')->all();

        return view('users.edit',compact('user','roles','userRole'));
    }

    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, $id)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'email' => 'required|email|unique:users,email,'.$id,
            'password' => 'same:confirm-password',
            'roles' => 'required'
        ]);

        $input = $request->all();
        if(!empty($input['password'])){ 
            $input['password'] = Hash::make($input['password']);
        }else{
            $input = array_except($input,array('password'));    
        }

        $user = User::find($id);
        $user->update($input);
        DB::table('model_has_roles')->where('model_id',$id)->delete();

        $user->assignRole($request->input('roles'));

        return redirect()->route('users.index')
                        ->with('success','User updated successfully');
    }

    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy($id)
    {
        User::find($id)->delete();
        return redirect()->route('users.index')
                        ->with('success','User deleted successfully');
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/ProductController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use App\Product;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class ProductController extends Controller
{ 
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    function __construct()
    {
         $this->middleware('permission:product-list|product-create|product-edit|product-delete', ['only' => ['index','show']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:product-create', ['only' => ['create','store']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:product-edit', ['only' => ['edit','update']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:product-delete', ['only' => ['destroy']]);
    }
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function index()
    {
        $products = Product::latest()->paginate(5);
        return view('products.index',compact('products'))
            ->with('i', (request()->input('page', 1) - 1) * 5);
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for creating a new resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function create()
    {
        return view('products.create');
    }

    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        request()->validate([
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required',
        ]);

        Product::create($request->all());

        return redirect()->route('products.index')
                        ->with('success','Product created successfully.');
    }

    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  \App\Product  $product
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show(Product $product)
    {
        return view('products.show',compact('product'));
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for editing the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  \App\Product  $product
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function edit(Product $product)
    {
        return view('products.edit',compact('product'));
    }

    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  \App\Product  $product
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, Product $product)
    {
         request()->validate([
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required',
        ]);

        $product->update($request->all());

        return redirect()->route('products.index')
                        ->with('success','Product updated successfully');
    }

    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  \App\Product  $product
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy(Product $product)
    {
        $product->delete();

        return redirect()->route('products.index')
                        ->with('success','Product deleted successfully');
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/RoleController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\Controller;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Role;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Permission;
use DB;

class RoleController extends Controller
{
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    function __construct()
    {
         $this->middleware('permission:role-list|role-create|role-edit|role-delete', ['only' => ['index','store']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:role-create', ['only' => ['create','store']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:role-edit', ['only' => ['edit','update']]);
         $this->middleware('permission:role-delete', ['only' => ['destroy']]);
    }

    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        $roles = Role::orderBy('id','DESC')->paginate(5);
        return view('roles.index',compact('roles'))
            ->with('i', ($request->input('page', 1) - 1) * 5);
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for creating a new resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function create()
    {
        $permission = Permission::get();
        return view('roles.create',compact('permission'));
    }

    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'name' => 'required|unique:roles,name',
            'permission' => 'required',
        ]);

        $role = Role::create(['name' => $request->input('name')]);
        $role->syncPermissions($request->input('permission'));

        return redirect()->route('roles.index')
                        ->with('success','Role created successfully');
    }
    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show($id)
    {
        $role = Role::find($id);
        $rolePermissions = Permission::join("role_has_permissions","role_has_permissions.permission_id","=","permissions.id")
            ->where("role_has_permissions.role_id",$id)
            ->get();

        return view('roles.show',compact('role','rolePermissions'));
    }

    /**
     * Show the form for editing the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function edit($id)
    {
        $role = Role::find($id);
        $permission = Permission::get();
        $rolePermissions = DB::table("role_has_permissions")->where("role_has_permissions.role_id",$id)
            ->pluck('role_has_permissions.permission_id','role_has_permissions.permission_id')
            ->all();

        return view('roles.edit',compact('role','permission','rolePermissions'));
    }

    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, $id)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'permission' => 'required',
        ]);

        $role = Role::find($id);
        $role->name = $request->input('name');
        $role->save();

        $role->syncPermissions($request->input('permission'));

        return redirect()->route('roles.index')
                        ->with('success','Role updated successfully');
    }
    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy($id)
    {
        DB::table("roles")->where('id',$id)->delete();
        return redirect()->route('roles.index')
                        ->with('success','Role deleted successfully');
    }
}

Step 9: Add Blade Files

This is last step we have to add numbers view for layouts, users module, roles module, products modules and errors page, so create number of view like as bellow:

resources/views/layouts/app.blade.php

<html lang="{{ app()->getLocale() }}">
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
    <!-- CSRF Token -->
    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
    <title>{{ config('app.name', 'Laravel 5.8 User Roles and Permissions Tutorial') }}</title>
    <!-- Scripts -->
    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}" defer></script>
    <!-- Fonts -->
    <link rel="dns-prefetch" href="https://fonts.gstatic.com">
    <link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Raleway:300,400,600" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
    <!-- Styles -->
    <link href="{{ asset('css/app.css') }}" rel="stylesheet">
</head>
<body>
    <div id="app">
        <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-light navbar-laravel">
            <div class="container">
                <a class="navbar-brand" href="{{ url('/') }}">
                    Laravel 5.8 User Roles and Permissions - ItSolutionStuff.com
                </a>
                <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarSupportedContent" aria-controls="navbarSupportedContent" aria-expanded="false" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
                    <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
                </button>

                <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarSupportedContent">
                    <!-- Left Side Of Navbar -->
                    <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto"></ul>

                    <!-- Right Side Of Navbar -->
                    <ul class="navbar-nav ml-auto">
                        <!-- Authentication Links -->
                        @guest
                            <li><a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('login') }}">{{ __('Login') }}</a></li>
                            <li><a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('register') }}">{{ __('Register') }}</a></li>
                        @else
                            <li><a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('users.index') }}">Manage Users</a></li>
                            <li><a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('roles.index') }}">Manage Role</a></li>
                            <li><a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('products.index') }}">Manage Product</a></li>
                            <li class="nav-item dropdown">
                                <a id="navbarDropdown" class="nav-link dropdown-toggle" href="#" role="button" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="false" v-pre>
                                    {{ Auth::user()->name }} <span class="caret"></span>
                                </a>

                                <div class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="navbarDropdown">
                                    <a class="dropdown-item" href="{{ route('logout') }}"
                                       onclick="event.preventDefault();
                                                     document.getElementById('logout-form').submit();">
                                        {{ __('Logout') }}
                                    </a>

                                    <form id="logout-form" action="{{ route('logout') }}" method="POST" style="display: none;">
                                        @csrf
                                    </form>
                                </div>
                            </li>
                        @endguest
                    </ul>
                </div>
            </div>
        </nav>

        <main class="py-4">
            <div class="container">
            @yield('content')
            </div>
        </main>
    </div>
</body>
</html>

resources/views/users/index.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Users Management</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-success" href="{{ route('users.create') }}"> Create New User</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if ($message = Session::get('success'))
<div class="alert alert-success">
  <p>{{ $message }}</p>
</div>
@endif

<table class="table table-bordered">
 <tr>
   <th>No</th>
   <th>Name</th>
   <th>Email</th>
   <th>Roles</th>
   <th width="280px">Action</th>
 </tr>
 @foreach ($data as $key => $user)
  <tr>
    <td>{{ ++$i }}</td>
    <td>{{ $user->name }}</td>
    <td>{{ $user->email }}</td>
    <td>
      @if(!empty($user->getRoleNames()))
        @foreach($user->getRoleNames() as $v)
           <label class="badge badge-success">{{ $v }}</label>
        @endforeach
      @endif
    </td>
    <td>
       <a class="btn btn-info" href="{{ route('users.show',$user->id) }}">Show</a>
       <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('users.edit',$user->id) }}">Edit</a>
        {!! Form::open(['method' => 'DELETE','route' => ['users.destroy', $user->id],'style'=>'display:inline']) !!}
            {!! Form::submit('Delete', ['class' => 'btn btn-danger']) !!}
        {!! Form::close() !!}
    </td>
  </tr>
 @endforeach
</table>

{!! $data->render() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/users/create.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Create New User</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('users.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if (count($errors) > 0)
  <div class="alert alert-danger">
    <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
    <ul>
       @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
         <li>{{ $error }}</li>
       @endforeach
    </ul>
  </div>
@endif


{!! Form::open(array('route' => 'users.store','method'=>'POST')) !!}
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('name', null, array('placeholder' => 'Name','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Email:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('email', null, array('placeholder' => 'Email','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Password:</strong>
            {!! Form::password('password', array('placeholder' => 'Password','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Confirm Password:</strong>
            {!! Form::password('confirm-password', array('placeholder' => 'Confirm Password','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Role:</strong>
            {!! Form::select('roles[]', $roles,[], array('class' => 'form-control','multiple')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </div>
</div>
{!! Form::close() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/users/edit.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Edit New User</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('users.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if (count($errors) > 0)
  <div class="alert alert-danger">
    <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
    <ul>
       @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
         <li>{{ $error }}</li>
       @endforeach
    </ul>
  </div>
@endif

{!! Form::model($user, ['method' => 'PATCH','route' => ['users.update', $user->id]]) !!}
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('name', null, array('placeholder' => 'Name','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Email:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('email', null, array('placeholder' => 'Email','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Password:</strong>
            {!! Form::password('password', array('placeholder' => 'Password','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Confirm Password:</strong>
            {!! Form::password('confirm-password', array('placeholder' => 'Confirm Password','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Role:</strong>
            {!! Form::select('roles[]', $roles,$userRole, array('class' => 'form-control','multiple')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </div>
</div>
{!! Form::close() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/users/show.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2> Show User</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('users.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {{ $user->name }}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Email:</strong>
            {{ $user->email }}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Roles:</strong>
            @if(!empty($user->getRoleNames()))
                @foreach($user->getRoleNames() as $v)
                    <label class="badge badge-success">{{ $v }}</label>
                @endforeach
            @endif
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
@endsection

resources/views/roles/index.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Role Management</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
        @can('role-create')
            <a class="btn btn-success" href="{{ route('roles.create') }}"> Create New Role</a>
            @endcan
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if ($message = Session::get('success'))
    <div class="alert alert-success">
        <p>{{ $message }}</p>
    </div>
@endif

<table class="table table-bordered">
  <tr>
     <th>No</th>
     <th>Name</th>
     <th width="280px">Action</th>
  </tr>
    @foreach ($roles as $key => $role)
    <tr>
        <td>{{ ++$i }}</td>
        <td>{{ $role->name }}</td>
        <td>
            <a class="btn btn-info" href="{{ route('roles.show',$role->id) }}">Show</a>
            @can('role-edit')
                <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('roles.edit',$role->id) }}">Edit</a>
            @endcan
            @can('role-delete')
                {!! Form::open(['method' => 'DELETE','route' => ['roles.destroy', $role->id],'style'=>'display:inline']) !!}
                    {!! Form::submit('Delete', ['class' => 'btn btn-danger']) !!}
                {!! Form::close() !!}
            @endcan
        </td>
    </tr>
    @endforeach
</table>

{!! $roles->render() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/roles/create.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Create New Role</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('roles.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if (count($errors) > 0)
    <div class="alert alert-danger">
        <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
        <ul>
        @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
            <li>{{ $error }}</li>
        @endforeach
        </ul>
    </div>
@endif

{!! Form::open(array('route' => 'roles.store','method'=>'POST')) !!}
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('name', null, array('placeholder' => 'Name','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Permission:</strong>
            <br/>
            @foreach($permission as $value)
                <label>{{ Form::checkbox('permission[]', $value->id, false, array('class' => 'name')) }}
                {{ $value->name }}</label>
            <br/>
            @endforeach
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </div>
</div>
{!! Form::close() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/roles/edit.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2>Edit Role</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('roles.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

@if (count($errors) > 0)
    <div class="alert alert-danger">
        <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
        <ul>
        @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
            <li>{{ $error }}</li>
        @endforeach
        </ul>
    </div>
@endif

{!! Form::model($role, ['method' => 'PATCH','route' => ['roles.update', $role->id]]) !!}
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {!! Form::text('name', null, array('placeholder' => 'Name','class' => 'form-control')) !!}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Permission:</strong>
            <br/>
            @foreach($permission as $value)
                <label>{{ Form::checkbox('permission[]', $value->id, in_array($value->id, $rolePermissions) ? true : false, array('class' => 'name')) }}
                {{ $value->name }}</label>
            <br/>
            @endforeach
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </div>
</div>
{!! Form::close() !!}

@endsection
<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>

resources/views/roles/show.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
        <div class="pull-left">
            <h2> Show Role</h2>
        </div>
        <div class="pull-right">
            <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('roles.index') }}"> Back</a>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Name:</strong>
            {{ $role->name }}
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
        <div class="form-group">
            <strong>Permissions:</strong>
            @if(!empty($rolePermissions))
                @foreach($rolePermissions as $v)
                    <label class="label label-success">{{ $v->name }},</label>
                @endforeach
            @endif
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
@endsection

resources/views/products/index.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
            <div class="pull-left">
                <h2>Products</h2>
            </div>
            <div class="pull-right">
                @can('product-create')
                <a class="btn btn-success" href="{{ route('products.create') }}"> Create New Product</a>
                @endcan
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

    @if ($message = Session::get('success'))
        <div class="alert alert-success">
            <p>{{ $message }}</p>
        </div>
    @endif

    <table class="table table-bordered">
        <tr>
            <th>No</th>
            <th>Name</th>
            <th>Details</th>
            <th width="280px">Action</th>
        </tr>
	    @foreach ($products as $product)
	    <tr>
	        <td>{{ ++$i }}</td>
	        <td>{{ $product->name }}</td>
	        <td>{{ $product->detail }}</td>
	        <td>
                <form action="{{ route('products.destroy',$product->id) }}" method="POST">
                    <a class="btn btn-info" href="{{ route('products.show',$product->id) }}">Show</a>
                    @can('product-edit')
                    <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('products.edit',$product->id) }}">Edit</a>
                    @endcan

                    @csrf
                    @method('DELETE')
                    @can('product-delete')
                    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-danger">Delete</button>
                    @endcan
                </form>
	        </td>
	    </tr>
	    @endforeach
    </table>

    {!! $products->links() !!}

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/products/create.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
            <div class="pull-left">
                <h2>Add New Product</h2>
            </div>
            <div class="pull-right">
                <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('products.index') }}"> Back</a>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

    @if ($errors->any())
        <div class="alert alert-danger">
            <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
            <ul>
                @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
                    <li>{{ $error }}</li>
                @endforeach
            </ul>
        </div>
    @endif

    <form action="{{ route('products.store') }}" method="POST">
    	@csrf

         <div class="row">
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
		        <div class="form-group">
		            <strong>Name:</strong>
		            <input type="text" name="name" class="form-control" placeholder="Name">
		        </div>
		    </div>
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
		        <div class="form-group">
		            <strong>Detail:</strong>
		            <textarea class="form-control" style="height:150px" name="detail" placeholder="Detail"></textarea>
		        </div>
		    </div>
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
		            <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
		    </div>
		</div>

    </form>

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/products/edit.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
            <div class="pull-left">
                <h2>Edit Product</h2>
            </div>
            <div class="pull-right">
                <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('products.index') }}"> Back</a>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

    @if ($errors->any())
        <div class="alert alert-danger">
            <strong>Whoops!</strong> There were some problems with your input.<br><br>
            <ul>
                @foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
                    <li>{{ $error }}</li>
                @endforeach
            </ul>
        </div>
    @endif

    <form action="{{ route('products.update',$product->id) }}" method="POST">
    	@csrf
        @method('PUT')

         <div class="row">
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
		        <div class="form-group">
		            <strong>Name:</strong>
		            <input type="text" name="name" value="{{ $product->name }}" class="form-control" placeholder="Name">
		        </div>
		    </div>
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
		        <div class="form-group">
		            <strong>Detail:</strong>
		            <textarea class="form-control" style="height:150px" name="detail" placeholder="Detail">{{ $product->detail }}</textarea>
		        </div>
		    </div>
		    <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12 text-center">
		      <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
		    </div>
		</div>

    </form>

<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>
@endsection

resources/views/products/show.blade.php

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-12 margin-tb">
            <div class="pull-left">
                <h2> Show Product</h2>
            </div>
            <div class="pull-right">
                <a class="btn btn-primary" href="{{ route('products.index') }}"> Back</a>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

    <div class="row">
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
            <div class="form-group">
                <strong>Name:</strong>
                {{ $product->name }}
            </div>
        </div>
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12 col-md-12">
            <div class="form-group">
                <strong>Details:</strong>
                {{ $product->detail }}
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
@endsection
<p class="text-center text-primary"><small>Tutorial by ItSolutionStuff.com</small></p>

Step 10: Handle Exertion Error

Now, in this step we will handle exertion. if you don't have a permission and try to access that page using browser url then you can give message as like bellow:

add/Exceptions/Handler.php

......
public function render($request, Exception $exception)
{
    if ($exception instanceof \Spatie\Permission\Exceptions\UnauthorizedException) {
        return response()->json(['User have not permission for this page access.']);
    }
 
    return parent::render($request, $exception);
}
....

Step 11: Create Seeder For Permissions and AdminUser

In this step we will create seeder for permissions, Right now we have fixed permission so we create using seeder as listed bellow, but if you can add more permission as you want:

1.role-list

2.role-create

3.role-edit

4.role-delete

5.product-list

6.product-create

7.product-edit

8.product-delete

So, first create seeder using bellow command:

php artisan make:seeder PermissionTableSeeder

And put bellow code in PermissionTableSeeder seeder this way:

database/seeds/PermissionTableSeeder.php

<?php

use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Permission;

class PermissionTableSeeder extends Seeder
{
    /**
     * Run the database seeds.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function run()
    {
       $permissions = [
           'role-list',
           'role-create',
           'role-edit',
           'role-delete',
           'product-list',
           'product-create',
           'product-edit',
           'product-delete'
        ];

        foreach ($permissions as $permission) {
             Permission::create(['name' => $permission]);
        }
    }
}

After this we have to run bellow command for run PermissionTableSeeder seeder:

php artisan db:seed --class=PermissionTableSeeder

Now let's create new seeder for creating admin user.

php artisan make:seeder CreateAdminUserSeeder

database/seeds/PermissionTableSeeder.php

<?php
  
use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;
use App\User;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Role;
use Spatie\Permission\Models\Permission;
  
class CreateAdminUserSeeder extends Seeder
{
    /**
     * Run the database seeds.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function run()
    {
        $user = User::create([
        	'name' => 'Hardik Savani', 
        	'email' => '[email protected]',
        	'password' => bcrypt('123456')
        ]);
  
        $role = Role::create(['name' => 'Admin']);
   
        $permissions = Permission::pluck('id','id')->all();
  
        $role->syncPermissions($permissions);
   
        $user->assignRole([$role->id]);
    }
}
php artisan db:seed --class=CreateAdminUserSeeder

Now we are ready to to run full example of ACL. so let's run our example so run bellow command for quick run:

php artisan serve

Access By

http://localhost:8000/

Now you can login with following credential:

Email: [email protected]
Password: 123456

You can see bellow screenshots:

You can download code from GitHub

Creating a Modal Dialog in Angular 8 with TypeScript

Creating a Modal Dialog in Angular 8 with TypeScript

In this tutorial we'll cover how to implement modal windows (dialog boxes) in Angular 8 with TypeScript. The example is a custom modal without the need for any 3rd party libraries.

There are plenty of plugins and libraries out there that include modal windows, in the past I used them myself when I needed to add a modal to a new project. The main issue I have with 3rd party plugins is that they usually contain a lot of features I don't need which adds unnecessary bloat to my Angular app, so a while ago I took some time to implement a custom modal window to see how difficult it would be and also to remove the magic & mystery I had in my mind about exactly how modals work.

When I finished I was pleasantly surprised at the relatively small amount of code required to implement a custom modal window, most of the modal 'magic' is done with a handful of CSS styles (see modal.component.less) while Angular / TypeScript is just used for showing and hiding the modal windows.

Running the Angular 8 Modal Dialog Locally
  1. Install NodeJS and NPM from https://nodejs.org/en/download/.
  2. Download or clone the project source code from https://github.com/cornflourblue/angular-8-custom-modal
  3. Install all required npm packages by running npm install from the command line in the project root folder (where the package.json is located).
  4. Start the application by running npm start from the command line in the project root folder.

NOTE: You can also run the app directly using the Angular CLI command ng serve --open. To do this first install the Angular CLI globally on your system with the command npm install -g @angular/cli.

Adding Custom Modals to Your Angular 8 App

To add modals to your Angular 8 application you'll need to copy the /src/app/_modal folder and contents from the example project, the folder contains the modal module and associated files, including:

  • modal.model.less - LESS/CSS styles for displaying modal dialogs, this is where the modal "magic" happens.
  • modal.component.html - modal component template that contains the wrapper html for displaying modal dialogs.
  • modal.component.ts - modal component with the logic for displaying modal dialogs.
  • modal.module.ts - modal module that encapsulates the modal component so it can be imported by the app module.
  • modal.service.ts - modal service that can be used by any angular component to open and close modal dialogs.
  • index.ts - barrel file that re-exports the modal module and service so they can be imported using only the folder path instead of the full path to each file, and also enables importing from multiple files with a single import.

Import the Modal Module into your App Module

To make the modal component available to your Angular 8 application you need to add the ModalModule to the imports array of your App Module (app.module.ts). See the app module from the example app below, the modal module is imported on line 5 and added to the imports array of the app module on line 16.

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms';

import { ModalModule } from './_modal';
import { appRoutingModule } from './app.routing';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { HomeComponent } from './home';
import { TestPageComponent } from './test-page';

@NgModule({
    imports: [
        BrowserModule,
        FormsModule,
        ModalModule,
        appRoutingModule
    ],
    declarations: [
        AppComponent,
        HomeComponent,
        TestPageComponent
    ],
    bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})

export class AppModule { }

Add the tag to pages where you want to display modals

To add a modal dialog to any page simply add the <jw-modal id="[insert unique id]"></jw-modal> tag along with the content for the modal. You can put any content you like inside the <jw-modal> element. You can also update the modal LESS/CSS if you want to change the styles of the modals, e.g to make them smaller or add CSS animation transitions.

IMPORTANT: A unique id is required for each modal on a page, it can be any string e.g. 'custom-modal-1'. The id string is used by the modal service to keep track of each active modal in the angular app, so the service knows which modal to open/close based on the id passed to the modalService.open() and modalService.close() methods e.g. modalService.open('custom-modal-1').

Here is the home component template from the example app (/src/app/home/home.component.html) that contains two modals, each is opened by a button click, and the first modal contains an input text field that allows you to edit the bodyText displayed in the template.

<div>
    <h1>Home</h1>
    <p>{{bodyText}}</p>
    <button (click)="openModal('custom-modal-1')">Open Modal 1</button>
    <button (click)="openModal('custom-modal-2')">Open Modal 2</button>
</div>

<jw-modal id="custom-modal-1">
    <h1>A Custom Modal!</h1>
    <p>Home page text: <input type="text" [(ngModel)]="bodyText" /></p>
    <button (click)="closeModal('custom-modal-1');">Close</button>
</jw-modal>

<jw-modal id="custom-modal-2">
    <h1 style="height:1000px">A Tall Custom Modal!</h1>
    <button (click)="closeModal('custom-modal-2');">Close</button>
</jw-modal>	

Opening & Closing Angular 8 Modal Dialogs

To open a modal call the modalService.open() method with the id of the modal you want to open, e.g. modalService.open('custom-modal-1'). To close a modal call the modalService.close() method with the id of the modal you want to close, e.g. modalService.close('custom-modal-1').

By default modals are closed on background click, to disable this remove the chunk of code in the modal component (/src/app/_modal/modal.component.ts) located directly below the comment // close modal on background click.

Here is the home component from the example app (/src/app/home/home.component.ts), it contains methods for opening and closing modals (openModal() and closeModal()) that call the corresponding methods of the modal service.

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';

import { ModalService } from '../_modal';

@Component({ templateUrl: 'home.component.html' })
export class HomeComponent implements OnInit {
    bodyText: string;

    constructor(private modalService: ModalService) { }

    ngOnInit() {
        this.bodyText = 'This text can be updated in modal 1';
    }

    openModal(id: string) {
        this.modalService.open(id);
    }

    closeModal(id: string) {
        this.modalService.close(id);
    }
}	
Breakdown of the Angular 8 Custom Modal Code

Below is a breakdown of the pieces of code used to implement custom modal dialogs in Angular 8 & TypeScript, you don't need to know the details of how it all works to use the modals in your project, it's only if you're interested in the nuts and bolts or if you want to modify the underlying code or behaviour.

LESS/CSS Styles for Angular 8 Modal Dialogs

These are the styles applied to the custom modal dialogs in this example, they could also be used in non-angular projects as it's just pure LESS/CSS.

I prefixed the modal element and classes with jw- to prevent conflicts with 3rd party css libraries such as Bootstrap.

/* MODAL STYLES
-------------------------------*/
jw-modal {
    /* modals are hidden by default */
    display: none;

    .jw-modal {
        /* modal container fixed across whole screen */
        position: fixed;
        top: 0;
        right: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        left: 0;

        /* z-index must be higher than .jw-modal-background */
        z-index: 1000;
        
        /* enables scrolling for tall modals */
        overflow: auto;

        .jw-modal-body {
            padding: 20px;
            background: #fff;

            /* margin exposes part of the modal background */
            margin: 40px;
        }
    }

    .jw-modal-background {
        /* modal background fixed across whole screen */
        position: fixed;
        top: 0;
        right: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        left: 0;

        /* semi-transparent black  */
        background-color: #000;
        opacity: 0.75;
        
        /* z-index must be below .jw-modal and above everything else  */
        z-index: 900;
    }
}

body.jw-modal-open {
    /* body overflow is hidden to hide main scrollbar when modal window is open */
    overflow: hidden;
}	
Angular 8 Modal Service

The Angular 8 modal service manages the communication that's required between page components and modal components. It maintains a list of available modals on the page and exposes methods for interacting with those modals.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export class ModalService {
    private modals: any[] = [];

    add(modal: any) {
        // add modal to array of active modals
        this.modals.push(modal);
    }

    remove(id: string) {
        // remove modal from array of active modals
        this.modals = this.modals.filter(x => x.id !== id);
    }

    open(id: string) {
        // open modal specified by id
        const modal = this.modals.find(x => x.id === id);
        modal.open();
    }

    close(id: string) {
        // close modal specified by id
        const modal = this.modals.find(x => x.id === id);
        modal.close();
    }
}	
Angular 8 Modal Component

The custom modal component is used to add modal windows anywhere in your angular application by using the <jw-modal> tag. Each modal instance adds itself to the modal service when it loads by calling modalService.add(this) from the ngOnInit Angular lifecycle method, and removes itself from the modal service when it is destroyed by calling modalService.remove(this.id) from the ngOnDestroy Angular lifecycle method.

import { Component, ViewEncapsulation, ElementRef, Input, OnInit, OnDestroy } from '@angular/core';

import { ModalService } from './modal.service';

@Component({ 
    selector: 'jw-modal', 
    templateUrl: 'modal.component.html', 
    styleUrls: ['modal.component.less'],
    encapsulation: ViewEncapsulation.None
})
export class ModalComponent implements OnInit, OnDestroy {
    @Input() id: string;
    private element: any;

    constructor(private modalService: ModalService, private el: ElementRef) {
        this.element = el.nativeElement;
    }

    ngOnInit(): void {
        // ensure id attribute exists
        if (!this.id) {
            console.error('modal must have an id');
            return;
        }

        // move element to bottom of page (just before </body>) so it can be displayed above everything else
        document.body.appendChild(this.element);

        // close modal on background click
        this.element.addEventListener('click', el => {
            if (el.target.className === 'jw-modal') {
                this.close();
            }
        });

        // add self (this modal instance) to the modal service so it's accessible from controllers
        this.modalService.add(this);
    }

    // remove self from modal service when component is destroyed
    ngOnDestroy(): void {
        this.modalService.remove(this.id);
        this.element.remove();
    }

    // open modal
    open(): void {
        this.element.style.display = 'block';
        document.body.classList.add('jw-modal-open');
    }

    // close modal
    close(): void {
        this.element.style.display = 'none';
        document.body.classList.remove('jw-modal-open');
    }
}	
Angular 8 Modal Component Template

The modal component template contains just a couple of wrapper divs for the modal content and a div for the modal background. The <ng-content> element is replaced by Angular with the contents you set inside the <jw-modal> element, this is called Angular content projection.

<div class="jw-modal">
    <div class="jw-modal-body">
        <ng-content></ng-content>
    </div>
</div>
<div class="jw-modal-background"></div>	

Thanks for reading

If you liked this post, share it with all of your programming buddies!

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Further reading about AngularJS

Angular 8 (formerly Angular 2) - The Complete Guide

Angular & NodeJS - The MEAN Stack Guide

The Complete Node.js Developer Course (3rd Edition)

The Web Developer Bootcamp

Best 50 Angular Interview Questions for Frontend Developers in 2019

MEAN Stack Angular 8 CRUD Web Application

Angular 8 Tutorial - User Registration and Login Example

How to build a CRUD Web App with Angular 8.0

Building CRUD Mobile App using Ionic 4, Angular 8

Angular 8 Material Design Tutorial & Example

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

A CMS (Content Management System) helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

A CMS (Content Management System) helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 1: Setting up

The birth of the internet has since redefined content accessibility for the better, causing a distinct rise in content consumption across the globe. The average user of the internet consumes and produces some form of content formally or informally.

An example of an effort at formal content creation is when an someone makes a blog post about their work so that a targeted demographic can easily find their website. This type of content is usually served and managed by a CMS (Content Management System). Some popular ones are WordPress, Drupal, and SilverStripe.

A CMS helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

Our CMS will be able to make new posts, update existing posts, delete posts that we do not need anymore, and also allow users make comments to posts which will be updated in realtime using Pusher. We will also be able to add featured images to posts to give them some visual appeal.

When we are done, we will be able to have a CMS that looks like this:

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Installing the Laravel CLI
The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
The first thing we need to do is install the Laravel CLI, and the Laravel dependencies. The CLI will be instrumental in creating new Laravel projects whenever we need to create one. Laravel requires PHP and a few other tools and extensions, so we need to first install these first before installing the CLI.

Here’s a list of the dependencies as documented on the official Laravel documentation:

Let’s install them one at a time.

Installing PHP

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Open a fresh instance of the terminal and paste the following command:

    # Linux Users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2

    # Mac users
    $ brew install php72


As at the time of writing this article, PHP 7.2 is the latest stable version of PHP so the command above installs it on your machine.

On completion, you can check that PHP has been installed to your machine with the following command:

    $ php -v


Installing the Mbstring extension

To install the mbstring extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mbstring

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the mbstring extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep mbstring


Installing the XML PHP extension

To install the XML extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php-xml

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the xml extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep xml


Installing the ZIP PHP extension

To install the zip extension for PHP, paste the following command in your terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-zip

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the zip extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep zip


Installing curl

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
To install curl, paste the following command in your terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install curl

    # Mac users using Homebrew (https://brew.sh)
    $ brew install curl


To verify that curl has been installed successfully, run the following command:

    $ curl --version


Installing Composer

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.> The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now that we have curl installed on our machine, let’s pull in Composer with this command:

    $ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer


For us to run Composer in the future without calling sudo, we may need to change the permission, however you should only do this if you have problems installing packages:

    $ sudo chown -R $USER ~/.composer/


Installing the Laravel installer

At this point, we can already create a new Laravel project using Composer’s create-project command, which looks like this:

    $ composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel project-name


But we will go one step further and install the Laravel installer using composer:

    $ composer global require "laravel/installer"


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
After the installation, we will need to add the PATH to the bashrc file so that our terminal can recognize the laravel command:

    $ echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.composer/vendor/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
    $ source ~/.bashrc


Creating the CMS project

Now that we have the official Laravel CLI installed on our machine, let’s create our CMS project using the installer. In your terminal window, cd to the project directory you want to create the project in and run the following command:

    $ laravel new cms


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will navigate into the project directory and serve the application using PHP’s web server:

    $ cd cms
    $ php artisan serve


Now, when we visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/, we will see the default Laravel template:

Setting up the database

In this series, we will be using MySQL as our database system so a prerequisite for this section is that you have MySQL installed on your machine.

You can follow the steps below to install and configure MySQL:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

You will also need a special driver that makes it possible for PHP to work with MySQL, you can install it with this command:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql

    # Mac Users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


Load the project directory in your favorite text editor and there should be a .env file in the root of the folder. This is where Laravel stores its environment variables.

Create a new MySQL database and call it laravelcms. In the .env file, update the database configuration keys as seen below:

    DB_CONNECTION=mysql
    DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
    DB_PORT=3306
    DB_DATABASE=laravelcms
    DB_USERNAME=YourUsername
    DB_PASSWORD=YourPassword


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Setting up user roles

Like most content management systems, we are going to have a user role system so that our blog can have multiple types of users; the admin and regular user. The admin should be able to create a post and perform other CRUD operations on a post. The regular user, on the other hand, should be able to view and comment on a post.

For us to implement this functionality, we need to implement user authentication and add a simple role authorization system.

Setting up user authentication

Laravel provides user authentication out of the box, which is great, and we can key into the feature by running a single command:

    $ php artisan make:auth


The above will create all that’s necessary for authentication in our application so we do not need to do anything extra.

Setting up role authorization

We need a model for the user roles so let’s create one and an associated migration file:

    $ php artisan make:model Role -m


In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRolesTable class with this snippet:

    <?php // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_roles_table.php

    // [...]

    class CreateRolesTable extends Migration
    {
        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->string('name');
                $table->string('description');
                $table->timestamps();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('roles');
        }
    }

We intend to create a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models so let’s add a relationship method on both models.

Open the User model and add the following method:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function roles() 
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class);
    }

Open the Role model and include the following method:

    // File: ./app/Role.php
    public function users() 
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(User::class);
    }

We are also going to need a pivot table to associate each user with a matching role so let’s create a new migration file for the role_user table:

    $ php artisan make:migration create_role_user_table


In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRoleUserTable class with this snippet:

    // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_role_user_table.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class CreateRoleUserTable extends Migration
    {

        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('role_user', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->integer('role_id')->unsigned();
                $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('role_user');
        }
    }

Next, let’s create seeders that will populate the users and roles tables with some data. In your terminal, run the following command to create the database seeders:

    $ php artisan make:seeder RoleTableSeeder
    $ php artisan make:seeder UserTableSeeder


In the database/seeds folder, open the RoleTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

    // File: ./database/seeds/RoleTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use App\Role;
    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class RoleTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $role_regular_user = new Role;
            $role_regular_user->name = 'user';
            $role_regular_user->description = 'A regular user';
            $role_regular_user->save();

            $role_admin_user = new Role;
            $role_admin_user->name = 'admin';
            $role_admin_user->description = 'An admin user';
            $role_admin_user->save();
        }
    }

Open the UserTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

    // File: ./database/seeds/UserTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;
    use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Hash;
    use App\User;
    use App\Role;

    class UserTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {

        public function run()
        {
            $user = new User;
            $user->name = 'Samuel Jackson';
            $user->email = '[email protected]';
            $user->password = bcrypt('samuel1234');
            $user->save();
            $user->roles()->attach(Role::where('name', 'user')->first());

            $admin = new User;
            $admin->name = 'Neo Ighodaro';
            $admin->email = '[email protected]';
            $admin->password = bcrypt('neo1234');
            $admin->save();
            $admin->roles()->attach(Role::where('name', 'admin')->first());
        }
    }

We also need to update the DatabaseSeeder class. Open the file and update the run method as seen below:

    // File: ./database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $this->call([
                RoleTableSeeder::class, 
                UserTableSeeder::class,
            ]);
        }
    }

Next, let’s update the User model. We will be adding a checkRoles method that checks what role a user has. We will return a 404 page where a user doesn’t have the expected role for a page. Open the User model and add these methods:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function checkRoles($roles) 
    {
        if ( ! is_array($roles)) {
            $roles = [$roles];    
        }

        if ( ! $this->hasAnyRole($roles)) {
            auth()->logout();
            abort(404);
        }
    }

    public function hasAnyRole($roles): bool
    {
        return (bool) $this->roles()->whereIn('name', $roles)->first();
    }

    public function hasRole($role): bool
    {
        return (bool) $this->roles()->where('name', $role)->first();
    }

Let’s modify the RegisterController.php file in the Controllers/Auth folder so that a default role, the user role, is always attached to a new user at registration.

Open the RegisterController and update the create action with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/Auth/RegisterController.php
    protected function create(array $data)
    {       
        $user = User::create([
            'name'     => $data['name'],
            'email'    => $data['email'],
            'password' => bcrypt($data['password']),
        ]);

        $user->roles()->attach(\App\Role::where('name', 'user')->first());

        return $user;
    }

Now let’s migrate and seed the database so that we can log in with the sample accounts. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


In order to test that our roles work as they should, we will make an update to the HomeController.php file. Open the HomeController and update the index method as seen below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        $request->user()->checkRoles('admin');

        return view('home');
    }

Now, only administrators should be able to see the dashboard. In a more complex application, we would use a middleware to do this instead.

We can test that this works by serving the application and logging in both user accounts; Samuel Jackson and Neo Ighodaro.

Remember that in our UserTableSeeder.php file, we defined Samuel as a regular user and Neo as an admin, so Samuel should see a 404 error after logging in and Neo should be able to see the homepage.

Testing the application

Let’s serve the application with this command:

    $ php artisan serve


When we try logging in with Samuel’s credentials, we should see this:

On the other hand, we will get logged in with Neo’s credentials because he has an admin account:

We will also confirm that whenever a new user registers, he is assigned a role and it is the role of a regular user. We will create a new user and call him Greg, he should see a 404 error right after:

It works just as we wanted it to, however, it doesn’t really make any sense for us to redirect a regular user to a 404 page. Instead, we will edit the HomeController so that it redirects users based on their roles, that is, it redirects a regular user to a regular homepage and an admin to an admin dashboard.

Open the HomeController.php file and update the index method as seen below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
            return redirect('/');
        }

        if ($request->user()->hasRole('admin')){
            return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
        }
    }

If we serve our application and try to log in using the admin account, we will hit a 404 error because we do not have a controller or a view for the admin/dashboard route. In the next article, we will start building the basic views for the CMS.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we learned how to install a fresh Laravel app on our machine and pulled in all the needed dependencies. We also learned how to configure the Laravel app to work with a MySQL database. We also created our models and migrations files and seeded the database using database seeders.

In the next part of this series, we will start building the views for the application.

The source code for this project is available on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 2: Implementing posts

In the previous part of this series, we set up user authentication and role authorization but we didn’t create any views for the application yet. In this section, we will create the Post model and start building the frontend for the application.

Our application allows different levels of accessibility for two kinds of users; the regular user and admin. In this chapter, we will focus on building the view that the regular users are permitted to see.

Before we build any views, let’s create the Post model as it is imperative to rendering the view.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Setting up the Post model

We will create the Post model with an associated resource controller and a migration file using this command:

    $ php artisan make:model Post -mr


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Let’s navigate into the database/migrations folder and update the CreatePostsTable class that was generated for us:

    // File: ./app/database/migrations/*_create_posts_table.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class CreatePostsTable extends Migration
    {
        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('posts', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
                $table->string('title');
                $table->text('body');
                $table->binary('image')->nullable();
                $table->timestamps();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('posts');
        }
    }

We included a user_id property because we want to create a relationship between the User and Post models. A Post also has an image field, which is where its associated image’s address will be stored.

Creating a database seeder for the Post table

We will create a new seeder file for the posts table using this command:

    $ php artisan make:seeder PostTableSeeder


Let’s navigate into the database/seeds folder and update the PostTableSeeder.php file:

    // File: ./app/database/seeds/PostsTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use App\Post;
    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class PostTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $post = new Post;
            $post->user_id = 2;
            $post->title = "Using Laravel Seeders";
            $post->body = "Laravel includes a simple method of seeding your database with test data using seed classes. All seed classes are stored in the database/seeds directory. Seed classes may have any name you wish, but probably should follow some sensible convention, such as UsersTableSeeder, etc. By default, a DatabaseSeeder class is defined for you. From this class, you may use the  call method to run other seed classes, allowing you to control the seeding order.";
            $post->save();

            $post = new Post;
            $post->user_id = 2;
            $post->title = "Database: Migrations";
            $post->body = "Migrations are like version control for your database, allowing your team to easily modify and share the application's database schema. Migrations are typically paired with Laravel's schema builder to easily build your application's database schema. If you have ever had to tell a teammate to manually add a column to their local database schema, you've faced the problem that database migrations solve.";
            $post->save();
        }
    }

When we run this seeder, it will create two new posts and assign both of them to the admin user whose ID is 2. We are attaching both posts to the admin user because the regular users are only allowed to view posts and make comments; they can’t create a post.

Let’s open the DatabaseSeeder and update it with the following code:

    // File: ./app/database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $this->call([
                RoleTableSeeder::class,
                UserTableSeeder::class,
                PostTableSeeder::class,
            ]);
        }
    }

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will use this command to migrate our tables and seed the database:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Defining the relationships

Just as we previously created a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models, we need to create a different kind of relationship between the Post and User models.

We will define the relationship as a one-to-many relationship because a user will have many posts but a post will only ever belong to one user.

Open the User model and include the method below:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function posts()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Post::class);
    }

Open the Post model and include the method below:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    public function user()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
    }

Setting up the routes

At this point in our application, we do not have a front page with all the posts listed. Let’s create so anyone can see all of the created posts. Asides from the front page, we also need a single post page in case a user needs to read a specific post.

Let’s include two new routes to our routes/web.php file:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
    Route::get('/', '[email protected]');

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.* Basic knowledge of PHP.

  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
    Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');

With these two new routes added, here’s what the routes/web.php file should look like this:

    // File: ./routes/web.php
    <?php 

    Auth::routes();
    Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');
    Route::get('/home', '[email protected]')->name('home');
    Route::get('/', '[email protected]');

Setting up the Post controller

In this section, we want to define the handler action methods that we registered in the routes/web.php file so that our application know how to render the matching views.

First, let’s add the all() method:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function all()
    {
        return view('landing', [
            'posts' => Post::latest()->paginate(5)
        ]);
    }

Here, we want to retrieve five created posts per page and send to the landing view. We will create this view shortly.

Next, let’s add the single() method to the controller:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function single(Post $post)
    {
        return view('single', compact('post'));
    }

In the method above, we used a feature of Laravel named route model binding to map the URL parameter to a Post instance with the same ID. We are returning a single view, which we will create shortly. This will be the view for the single post page.

Building our views

Laravel uses a templating engine called Blade for its frontend. We will use Blade to build these parts of the frontend before switching to Vue in the next chapter.

Navigate to the resources/views folder and create two new Blade files:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

These are the files that will load the views for the landing page and single post page. Before we start writing any code in these files, we want to create a simple layout template that our page views can use as a base.

In the resources/views/layouts folder, create a Blade template file and call it master.blade.php. This is where we will define the inheritable template for our single and landing pages.

Open the master.blade.php file and update it with this code:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
      <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
        <meta name="description" content="">
        <meta name="author" content="Neo Ighodaro">
        <title>LaravelCMS</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style> 
        body {
          padding-top: 54px;
        }
        @media (min-width: 992px) {
          body {
              padding-top: 56px;
          }
        }
        </style>
      </head>
      <body>
        <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-dark bg-dark fixed-top">
          <div class="container">
            <a class="navbar-brand" href="/">LaravelCMS</a>
            <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarResponsive">
              <ul class="navbar-nav ml-auto">
                 @if (Route::has('login'))
                    @auth
                    <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ url('/home') }}">Home</a>
                    </li>
                    <li class="nav-item">
                      <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('logout') }}"
                                           onclick="event.preventDefault();
                                                         document.getElementById('logout-form').submit();">
                        Log out
                      </a>
                      <form id="logout-form" action="{{ route('logout') }}" method="POST" style="display: none;">
                        @csrf
                      </form>
                     </li>
                     @else
                     <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('login') }}">Login</a>
                    </li>
                     <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('register') }}">Register</a>
                     </li>
                     @endauth
                 @endif
              </ul>
            </div>
          </div>
        </nav>

        <div id="app">
            @yield('content')
        </div>

        <footer class="py-5 bg-dark">
          <div class="container">
            <p class="m-0 text-center text-white">Copyright &copy; LaravelCMS 2018</p>
          </div>
        </footer>
      </body>
    </html>

Now we can inherit this template in the landing.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/landing.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row align-items-center">
        <div class="col-md-8 mx-auto">
          <h1 class="my-4 text-center">Welcome to the Blog </h1>

          @foreach ($posts as $post)
          <div class="card mb-4">
            <img class="card-img-top" src=" {!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt="Card image cap">
            <div class="card-body">
              <h2 class="card-title text-center">{{ $post->title }}</h2>
              <p class="card-text"> {{ str_limit($post->body, $limit = 280, $end = '...') }} </p>
              <a href="/posts/{{ $post->id }}" class="btn btn-primary">Read More &rarr;</a>
            </div>
            <div class="card-footer text-muted">
              Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }} by
              <a href="#">{{ $post->user->name }} </a>
            </div>
          </div>
          @endforeach

        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Let’s do the same with the single.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto">
          <h3 class="mt-4">{{ $post->title }} <span class="lead"> by <a href="#"> {{ $post->user->name }} </a></span> </h3>
          <hr>
          <p>Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }} </p>
          <hr>
          <img class="img-fluid rounded" src=" {!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt="">
          <hr>
          <p class="lead">{{ $post->body }}</p>
          <hr>
          <div class="card my-4">
            <h5 class="card-header">Leave a Comment:</h5>
            <div class="card-body">
              <form>
                <div class="form-group">
                  <textarea class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
                </div>
                <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
              </form>
            </div>
          </div>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Testing the application

We can test the application to see that things work as we expect. When we serve the application, we expect to see a landing page and a single post page. We also expect to see two posts because that’s the number of posts we seeded into the database.

We will serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We can visit this address to see the application:

We have used simple placeholder images here because we haven’t built the admin dashboard that allows CRUD operations to be performed on posts.

In the coming chapters, we will add the ability for an admin to include a custom image when creating a new post.

Conclusion

In this chapter, we created the Post model and defined a relationship on it to the User model. We also built the landing page and single page.

In the next part of this series, we will develop the API that will be the medium for communication between the admin user and the post items.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 3: Building an API

In the previous part of this series, we initialized the posts resource and started building the frontend of the CMS. We designed the front page that shows all the posts and the single post page using Laravel’s templating engine, Blade.

In this part of the series, we will start building the API for the application. We will create an API for CRUD operations that an admin will perform on posts and we will test the endpoints using Postman.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Building the API using Laravel’s API resources

The Laravel framework makes it very easy to build APIs. It has an API resources feature that we can easily adopt in our project. You can think of API resources as a transformation layer between Eloquent models and the JSON responses that will be sent back by our API.

Allowing mass assignment on specified fields

Since we are going to be performing CRUD operations on the posts in the application, we have to explicitly specify that it’s permitted for some fields to be mass-assigned data. For security reasons, Laravel prevents mass assignment of data to model fields by default.

Open the Post.php file and include this line of code:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'title', 'body', 'image'];

Defining API routes

We will use the apiResource()method to generate only API routes. Open the routes/api.php file and add the following code:

    // File: ./routes/api.php
    Route::apiResource('posts', 'PostController');


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.### Creating the Post resource

At the beginning of this section, we already talked about what Laravel’s API resources are. Here, we create a resource class for our Post model. This will enable us to retrieve Post data and return formatted JSON format.

To create a resource class for our Post model run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan make:resource PostResource


A new PostResource.php file will be available in the app/Http/Resources directory of our application. Open up the PostResource.php file and replace the toArray() method with the following:

    // File: ./app/Http/Resources/PostResource.php
    public function toArray($request)
    {
        return [
            'id' => $this->id,
            'title' => $this->title,
            'body' => $this->body,
            'image' => $this->image,
            'created_at' => (string) $this->created_at,
            'updated_at' => (string) $this->updated_at,
        ];
    }

The job of this toArray() method is to convert our P``ost resource into an array. As seen above, we have specified the fields on our Post model, which we want to be returned as JSON when we make a request for posts.

We are also explicitly casting the dates, created_at and update_at, to strings so that they would be returned as date strings. The dates are normally an instance of Carbon.

Now that we have created a resource class for our Post model, we can start building the API’s action methods in our PostController and return instances of the PostResource where we want.

Adding the action methods to the Post controller

The usual actions performed on a post include the following:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

In the last article, we already implemented a kind of ‘Read’ functionality when we defined the all and single methods. These methods allow users to browse through posts on the homepage.

In this section, we will define the methods that will resolve our API requests for creating, reading, updating and deleting posts.

The first thing we want to do is import the PostResource class at the top of the PostController.php file:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    use App\Http\Resources\PostResource;

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.### Building the handler action for the create operation

In the PostController update the store() action method with the code snippet below. It will allow us to validate and create a new post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'title' => 'required',
            'body' => 'required',
            'user_id' => 'required',            
            'image' => 'required|mimes:jpeg,png,jpg,gif,svg',
        ]);

        $post = new Post;

        if ($request->hasFile('image')) {
            $image = $request->file('image');
            $name = str_slug($request->title).'.'.$image->getClientOriginalExtension();
            $destinationPath = public_path('/uploads/posts');
            $imagePath = $destinationPath . "/" . $name;
            $image->move($destinationPath, $name);
            $post->image = $name;
        }

        $post->user_id = $request->user_id;
        $post->title = $request->title;
        $post->body = $request->body;
        $post->save();

        return new PostResource($post);
    }

Here’s a breakdown of what this method does:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

Building the handler action for the read operations

What we want here is to be able to read all the created posts or a single post. This is possible because the apiResource() method defines the API routes using standard REST rules.

This means that a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts, should be resolved by the index() action method. Let’s update the index method with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function index()
    {
        return PostResource::collection(Post::latest()->paginate(5));
    }

This method will allow us to return a JSON formatted collection of all of the stored posts. We also want to paginate the response as this will allow us to create a better view on the admin dashboard.

Following the RESTful conventions as we discussed above, a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts/id, should be resolved by the show() action method. Let’s update the method with the fitting snippet:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function show(Post $post)
    {
        return new PostResource($post);
    }

Awesome, now this method will return a single instance of a post resource upon API query.

Building the handler action for the update operation

Next, let’s update the update() method in the PostController class. It will allow us to modify an existing post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function update(Request $request, Post $post)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'title' => 'required',
            'body' => 'required',
        ]);

        $post->update($request->only(['title', 'body']));

        return new PostResource($post);
    }

This method receives a request and a post id as parameters, then we use route model binding to resolve the id into an instance of a Post. First, we validate the $request attributes, then we update the title and body fields of the resolved post.

Building the handler action for the delete operation

Let’s update the destroy() method in the PostController class. This method will allow us to remove an existing post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function destroy(Post $post)
    {
        $post->delete();

        return response()->json(null, 204);
    }

In this method, we resolve the Post instance, then delete it and return a 204 response code.

Our methods are complete. We have a method to handle our CRUD operations, however, we haven’t built the frontend for the admin dashboard.

At the end of the second article, we defined the [email protected]() action method like this:

    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
            return view('home');
        }

        if ($request->user()->hasRole('admin')) {
            return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
        }
    }

This allowed us to redirect regular users to the view home, and admin users to the URL /admin/dashboard. At this point in this series, a visit to /admin/dashboard will fail because we have neither defined it as a route with a handler Controller nor built a view for it.

Let’s create the AdminController with this command:

    $ php artisan make:controller AdminController


We will add the /admin/ route to our routes/web.php file:

    Route::get('/admin/{any}', '[email protected]')->where('any', '.*');

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Let’s update the AdminController.php file to use the auth middleware and include an index() action method:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/AdminController.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Http\Controllers;

    class AdminController extends Controller
    {
        public function __construct()
        {
            $this->middleware('auth');
        }

        public function index()
        {
            if (request()->user()->hasRole('admin')) {
                return view('admin.dashboard');
            }

            if (request()->user()->hasRole('user')) {
                return redirect('/home');
            }
        }
    }

In the index()action method, we included a snippet that will ensure that only admin users can visit the admin dashboard and perform CRUD operations on posts.

We will not start building the admin dashboard in this article but will test that our API works properly. We will use Postman to make requests to the application.

Testing the application

Let’s test that our API works as expected. We will, first of all, serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We can visit http://localhost:8000 to see our application and there should be exactly two posts available; these are the posts we seeded into the database during the migration:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s create a new post over the API interface using Postman. Send a POST request as seen below:

Now let’s update this post we just created. In Postman, we will pass only the title and body fields to a PUT request.

To make it easy, you can just copy the payload below and use the raw request data type for the Body:

    {
      "title": "We made an edit to the Post on APIs",
      "body": "To a developer, 'What's an API?' might be a straightforward - if not exactly simple - question. But to anyone who doesn't have experience with code. APIs can come across as confusing or downright intimidating."
    }


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Finally, let’s delete the post using Postman:

We are sure the post is deleted because the response status is 204 No Content as we specified in the PostController.

Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about Laravel’s API resources and we created a resource class for the Post model. We also used the apiResources() method to generate API only routes for our application. We wrote the methods to handle the API operations and tested them using Postman.

In the next part, we will build the admin dashboard and develop the logic that will enable the admin user to manage posts over the API.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 4: Building the dashboard

In the last article of this series, we built the API interface and used Laravel API resources to return neatly formatted JSON responses. We tested that the API works as we defined it to using Postman.

In this part of the series, we will start building the admin frontend of the CMS. This is the first part of the series where we will integrate Vue and explore Vue’s magical abilities.

When we are done with this part, our application will have some added functionalities as seen below:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Building the frontend

Laravel ships with Vue out of the box so we do not need to use the Vue-CLI or reference Vue from a CDN. This makes it possible for us to have all of our application, the frontend, and backend, in a single codebase.

Every newly created instance of a Laravel installation has some Vue files included by default, we can see these files when we navigate into the resources/assets/js/components folder.

Setting up Vue and VueRouter

Before we can start using Vue in our application, we need to first install some dependencies using NPM. To install the dependencies that come by default with Laravel, run the command below:

    $ npm install


We will be managing all of the routes for the admin dashboard using vue-router so let’s pull it in:

    $ npm install --save vue-router


When the installation is complete, the next thing we want to do is open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace its contents with the code below:

    // File: ./resources/assets/js/app.js
    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue from 'vue'
    import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Read from './components/Read'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        router,
        components: { Homepage },
    });

In the snippet above, we imported the VueRouter and added it to the Vue application. We also imported a Homepage and a Read component. These are the components where we will write our markup so let’s create both files.

Open the resources/assets/js/components folder and create four files:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined a routes array and in it, we registered a read route. During render time, this route’s path will be mapped to the Read component.

In the previous article, we specified that admin users should be shown an admin.dashboard view in the index method, however, we didn’t create this view. Let’s create the view. Open the resources/views folder and create a new folder called admin. Within the new resources/views/admin folder, create a new file and called dashboard.blade.php. This is going to be the entry point to the admin dashboard, further from this route, we will let the VueRouter handle everything else.

Open the resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file and paste in the following code:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php -->
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
        <title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style>
            html, body {
            background-color: #202B33;
            color: #738491;
            font-family: "Open Sans";
            font-size: 16px;
            font-smoothing: antialiased;
            overflow: hidden;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
    <body>

      <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>
    </body>
    </html>

Our goal here is to integrate Vue into the application, so we included the resources/assets/js/app.js file with this line of code:

    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>


For our app to work, we need a root element to bind our Vue instance unto. Before the <script> tag, add this snippet of code:

    <div id="app">
      <Homepage 
        :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)' 
        :user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'
      ></Homepage>
    </div>

We earlier defined the Homepage component as the wrapping component, that’s why we pulled it in here as the root component. For some of the frontend components to work correctly, we require some details of the logged in admin user to perform CRUD operations. This is why we passed down the userName and userId props to the Homepage component.

We need to prevent the CSRF error from occurring in our Vue frontend, so include this snippet of code just before the <title> tag:

    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
    <script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>

This snippet will ensure that the correct token is always included in our frontend, Laravel provides the CSRF protection for us out of the box.

At this point, this should be the contents of your resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
        <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
        <script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>
        <title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style>
          html, body {
            background-color: #202B33;
            color: #738491;
            font-family: "Open Sans";
            font-size: 16px;
            font-smoothing: antialiased;
            overflow: hidden;
          }
        </style>
    </head>
    <body>
    <div id="app">
      <Homepage 
        :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)' 
        :user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'>
      </Homepage>
    </div>
    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>
    </body>
    </html>

Setting up the Homepage view

Open the Homepage.vue file that we created some time ago and include this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Homepage.vue -->
    <template>
      <div>
        <nav>
          <section>
            <a style="color: white" href="/admin/dashboard">Laravel-CMS</a> &nbsp; ||  &nbsp;
            <a style="color: white" href="/">HOME</a>
            <hr>
            <ul>
               <li>
                 <router-link :to="{ name: 'create', params: { userId } }">
                   NEW POST
                 </router-link>
               </li>
            </ul>
          </section>
        </nav>
        <article>
          <header>
            <header class="d-inline">Welcome, {{ userName }}</header>
            <p @click="logout" class="float-right mr-3" style="cursor: pointer">Logout</p>
          </header>
          <div> 
            <router-view></router-view> 
          </div>
        </article>
      </div>
    </template>

We added a router-link in this template, which routes to the Create component.

We are passing the userId data to the create component because a userId is required during Post creation.

Let’s include some styles so that the page looks good. Below the closing template tag, paste the following code:

    <style scoped>
      @import url(https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Dosis:300|Lato:300,400,600,700|Roboto+Condensed:300,700|Open+Sans+Condensed:300,600|Open+Sans:400,300,600,700|Maven+Pro:400,700);
      @import url("https://netdna.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.2.0/css/font-awesome.css");
      * {
        -moz-box-sizing: border-box;
        -webkit-box-sizing: border-box;
        box-sizing: border-box;
      }
      header {
        color: #d3d3d3;
      }
      nav {
        position: absolute;
        top: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        right: 82%;
        left: 0;
        padding: 22px;
        border-right: 2px solid #161e23;
      }
      nav > header {
        font-weight: 700;
        font-size: 0.8rem;
        text-transform: uppercase;
      }
      nav section {
        font-weight: 600;
      }
      nav section header {
        padding-top: 30px;
      }
      nav section ul {
        list-style: none;
        padding: 0px;
      }
      nav section ul a {
        color: white;
        text-decoration: none;
        font-weight: bold;
      }
      article {
        position: absolute;
        top: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        right: 0;
        left: 18%;
        overflow: auto;
        border-left: 2px solid #2a3843;
        padding: 20px;
      }
      article > header {
        height: 60px;
        border-bottom: 1px solid #2a3843;
      }
    </style>

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Next, let’s add the <script> section that will use the props we passed down from the parent component. We will also define the method that controls the log out feature here. Below the closing style tag, paste the following code:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        },
        userName: {
          type: String,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {};
      },
      methods: {
        logout() {
          axios.post("/logout").then(() => {
            window.location = "/";
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

Setting up the Read view

In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined the path of the read component as /admin/dashboard, which is the same address as the Homepage component. This will make sure the Read component always loads by default.

In the Read component, we want to load all of the available posts. We are also going to add Update and Delete options to each post. Clicking on these options will lead to the update and delete views respectively.

Open the Read.vue file and paste the following:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Read.vue -->
    <template>
        <div id="posts">
            <p class="border p-3" v-for="post in posts">
                {{ post.title }}
                <router-link :to="{ name: 'update', params: { postId : post.id } }">
                    <button type="button" class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-light">
                        Update
                    </button>
                </router-link>
                <button 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="deletePost(post.id)" 
                    class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-danger"
                >
                    Delete
                </button>
            </p>
            <div>
                <button 
                    v-if="next" 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="navigate(next)" 
                    class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
                >
                  Next
                </button>
                <button 
                    v-if="prev" 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="navigate(prev)" 
                    class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
                >
                  Previous
                </button>
            </div>
        </div>
    </template>

Above, we have the template to handle the posts that are loaded from the API. Next, paste the following below the closing template tag:

    <script>
    export default {
      mounted() {
        this.getPosts();
      },
      data() {
        return {
          posts: {},
          next: null,
          prev: null
        };
      },
      methods: {
        getPosts(address) {
          axios.get(address ? address : "/api/posts").then(response => {
            this.posts = response.data.data;
            this.prev = response.data.links.prev;
            this.next = response.data.links.next;
          });
        },
        deletePost(id) {
          axios.delete("/api/posts/" + id).then(response => this.getPosts())
        },
        navigate(address) {
          this.getPosts(address)
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the script above, we defined a getPosts() method that requests a list of posts from the backend server. We also defined a posts object as a data property. This object will be populated whenever posts are received from the backend server.

We defined next and prev data string properties to store pagination links and only display the pagination options where it is available.

Lastly, we defined a deletePost() method that takes the id of a post as a parameter and sends a DELETE request to the API interface using Axios.

Testing the application

Now that we have completed the first few components, we can serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We will also build the assets so that our JavaScript is compiled for us. To do this, will run the command below in the root of the project folder:

    $ npm run dev


We can visit the application’s URL http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user, and delete a post:

Conclusion

In this part of the series, we started building the admin dashboard using Vue. We installed VueRouter to make the admin dashboard a SPA. We added the homepage view of the admin dashboard and included read and delete functionalities.

We are not done with the dashboard just yet. In the next part, we will add the views that lets us create and update posts.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 5: Completing our dashboards

In the previous part of this series, we built the first parts of the admin dashboard using Vue. We also made it into an SPA with the VueRouter, this means that visiting the pages does not cause a reload to the web browser.

We only built the wrapper component and the Read component that retrieves the posts to be loaded so an admin can manage them.

Here’s a recording of what we ended up with, in the last article:

In this article, we will build the view that will allow users to create and update posts. We will start writing code in the Update.vue and Create.vue files that we created in the previous article.

When we are done with this part, we will have additional functionalities like create and updating:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Including the new routes in VueRouter

In the previous article, we only defined the route for the Read component, we need to include the route configuration for the new components that we are about to build; Update and Create.

Open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace the contents with the code below:

    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue from 'vue'
    import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Create from './components/Create'
    import Read from './components/Read'
    import Update from './components/Update'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/create',
                name: 'create',
                component: Create,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/update',
                name: 'update',
                component: Update,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        router,
        components: { Homepage },
    });

Above, we have added two new components to the JavaScript file. We have the Create and Read components. We also added them to the router so that they can be loaded using the specified URLs.

Building the create view

Open the Create.vue file and update it with this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Create.vue -->
    <template>
      <div class="container">
        <form>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', (successful ? 'alert-success' : '')]">
            <span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Published!</span>
          </div>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']">
            <span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.title[0] }}
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger"> 
              {{ errors.body[0] }} 
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.image" class="label label-danger"> 
              {{ errors.image[0] }} 
            </span>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required></textarea>
          </div>

          <div class="custom-file mb-3">
            <input type="file" ref="image" name="image" class="custom-file-input" id="image" required>
            <label class="custom-file-label" >Choose file...</label>
          </div>

          <button type="submit" @click.prevent="create" class="btn btn-primary block">
            Submit
          </button>
        </form>
      </div>
    </template>

Above we have the template for the Create component. If there is an error during post creation, there will be a field indicating the specific error. When a post is successfully published, there will also a message saying it was successful.

Let’s include the script logic that will perform the sending of posts to our backend server and read back the response.

After the closing template tag add this:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          error: false,
          successful: false,
          errors: []
        };
      },
      methods: {
        create() {
          const formData = new FormData();
          formData.append("title", this.$refs.title.value);
          formData.append("body", this.$refs.body.value);
          formData.append("user_id", this.userId);
          formData.append("image", this.$refs.image.files[0]);

          axios
            .post("/api/posts", formData)
            .then(response => {
              this.successful = true;
              this.error = false;
              this.errors = [];
            })
            .catch(error => {
              if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
                if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
                  this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
                  this.successful = false;
                  this.error = true;
                }
              }
            });

          this.$refs.title.value = "";
          this.$refs.body.value = "";
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the script above, we defined a create() method that takes the values of the input fields and uses the Axios library to send them to the API interface on the backend server. Within this method, we also update the status of the operation, so that an admin user can know when a post is created successfully or not.

Building the update view

Let’s start building the Update component. Open the Update.vue file and update it with this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Update.vue -->
    <template>
      <div class="container">
        <form>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', successful ? 'alert-success' : '']">
            <span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Updated!</span>
          </div>

          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']">
            <span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.title[0] }}
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.body[0] }}
            </span>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required></textarea>
          </div>

          <button type="submit" @click.prevent="update" class="btn btn-primary block">
            Submit
          </button>
        </form>
      </div>
    </template>

This template is similar to the one in the Create component. Let’s add the script for the component.

Below the closing template tag, paste the following:

    <script>
    export default {
      mounted() {
        this.getPost();
      },
      props: {
        postId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          error: false,
          successful: false,
          errors: []
        };
      },
      methods: {
        update() {
          let title = this.$refs.title.value;
          let body = this.$refs.body.value;

          axios
            .put("/api/posts/" + this.postId, { title, body })
            .then(response => {
              this.successful = true;
              this.error = false;
              this.errors = [];
            })
            .catch(error => {
              if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
                if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
                  this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
                  this.successful = false;
                  this.error = true;
                }
              }
            });
        },
        getPost() {
          axios.get("/api/posts/" + this.postId).then(response => {
            this.$refs.title.value = response.data.data.title;
            this.$refs.body.value = response.data.data.body;
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>


In the script above, we make a call to the getPosts() method as soon as the component is mounted. The getPosts() method fetches the data of a single post from the backend server, using the postId.

When Axios sends back the data for the post, we update the input fields in this component so they can be updated.

Finally, the update() method takes the values of the fields in the components and attempts to send them to the backend server for an update. In a situation where the fails, we get instant feedback.

Testing the application

To test that our changes work, we want to refresh the database and restore it back to a fresh state. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Next, let’s compile our JavaScript files and assets. This will make sure all the changes we made in the Vue component and the app.js file gets built. To recompile, run the command below in your terminal:

    $ npm run dev


Lastly, we need to serve the application. To do this, run the following command in your terminal window:

    $ php artisan serve


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will visit the application’s http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user. From the dashboard, you can test the create and update feature:

Conclusion

In this part of the series, we updated the dashboard to include the Create and Update component so the administrator can add and update posts.

In the next article, we will build the views that allow for the creation and updating of a post.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 6: Adding Realtime Comments

In the previous part of this series, we finished building the backend of the application using Vue. We were able to add the create and update component, which is used for creating a new post and updating an existing post.

Here’s a screen recording of what we have been able to achieve:

In this final part of the series, we will be adding support for comments. We will also ensure that the comments on each post are updated in realtime, so a user doesn’t have to refresh the page to see new comments.

When we are done, our application will have new features and will work like this:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Adding comments to the backend

When we were creating the API, we did not add the support for comments to the post resource, so we will have to do so now. Open the API project in your text editor as we will be modifying the project a little.

The first thing we want to do is create a model, controller, and a migration for the comment resource. To do this, open your terminal and cd to the project directory and run the following command:

    $ php artisan make:model Comment -mc


The command above will create a model called Comment, a controller called CommentController, and a migration file in the database/migrations directory.

Updating the comments migration file

To update the comments migration navigate to the database/migrations folder and find the newly created migration file for the Comment model. Let’s update the up() method in the file:

    // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_comments_table.php
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('comments', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->timestamps();
            $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
            $table->integer('post_id')->unsigned();
            $table->text('body');
        });
    }

We included user_id and post_id fields because we intend to create a link between the comments, users, and posts. The body field will contain the actual comment.

Defining the relationships among the Comment, User, and Post models

In this application, a comment will belong to a user and a post because a user can make a comment on a specific post, so we need to define the relationship that ties everything up.

Open the User model and include this method:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function comments()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
    }

This is a relationship that simply says that a user can have many comments. Now let’s define the same relationship on the Post model. Open the Post.php file and include this method:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    public function comments()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
    }

Finally, we will include two methods in the Comment model to complete the second half of the relationships we defined in the User and Post models.

Open the app/Comment.php file and include these methods:

    // File: ./app/Comment.php
    public function user()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
    }

    public function post()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(Post::class);
    }

Since we want to be able to mass assign data to specific fields of a comment instance during comment creation, we will include this array of permitted assignments in the app/Comment.php file:

    protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'post_id', 'body'];

We can now run our database migration for our comments:

    $ php artisan migrate


Configuring Laravel to broadcast events using Pusher

We already said that the comments will have a realtime functionality and we will be building this using Pusher, so we need to enable Laravel’s event broadcasting feature.

Open the config/app.php file and uncomment the following line in the providers array:

    App\Providers\BroadcastServiceProvider


Next, we need to configure the broadcast driver in the .env file:

    BROADCAST_DRIVER=pusher


Let’s pull in the Pusher PHP SDK using composer:

    $ composer require pusher/pusher-php-server


Configuring Pusher

For us to use Pusher in this application, it is a prerequisite that you have a Pusher account. You can create a free Pusher account here then login to your dashboard and create an app.

Once you have created an app, we will use the app details to configure pusher in the .env file:

    PUSHER_APP_ID=xxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_KEY=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_SECRET=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER=xx


Update the Pusher keys with the app credentials provided for you under the Keys section on the Overview tab on the Pusher dashboard.

Broadcasting an event for when a new comment is sent

To make the comment update realtime, we have to broadcast an event based on the comment creation activity. We will create a new event and call it CommentSent. It is to be fired when there is a successful creation of a new comment.

Run command in your terminal:

    php artisan make:event CommentSent


There will be a newly created file in the app\Events directory, open the CommentSent.php file and ensure that it implements the ShouldBroadcast interface.

Open and replace the file with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Events/CommentSent.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Events;

    use App\Comment;
    use App\User;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\Channel;
    use Illuminate\Queue\SerializesModels;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PrivateChannel;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PresenceChannel;
    use Illuminate\Foundation\Events\Dispatchable;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\InteractsWithSockets;
    use Illuminate\Contracts\Broadcasting\ShouldBroadcast;

    class CommentSent implements ShouldBroadcast
    {
        use Dispatchable, InteractsWithSockets, SerializesModels;

        public $user;

        public $comment;

        public function __construct(User $user, Comment $comment)
        {
            $this->user = $user;

            $this->comment = $comment;
        }

        public function broadcastOn()
        {
            return new PrivateChannel('comment');
        }
    }

In the code above, we created two public properties, user and comment, to hold the data that will be passed to the channel we are broadcasting on. We also created a private channel called comment. We are using a private channel so that only authenticated clients can subscribe to the channel.

Defining the routes for handling operations on a comment

We created a controller for the comment model earlier but we haven’t defined the web routes that will redirect requests to be handled by that controller.

Open the routes/web.php file and include the code below:

    // File: ./routes/web.php
    Route::get('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');
    Route::post('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');

Setting up the action methods in the CommentController

We need to include two methods in the CommentController.php file, these methods will be responsible for storing and retrieving methods. In the store() method, we will also be broadcasting an event when a new comment is created.

Open the CommentController.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/CommentController.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Http\Controllers;

    use App\Comment;
    use App\Events\CommentSent;
    use App\Post;
    use Illuminate\Http\Request;

    class CommentController extends Controller
    {
        public function store(Post $post)
        {
            $this->validate(request(), [
                'body' => 'required',
            ]);

            $user = auth()->user();

            $comment = Comment::create([
                'user_id' => $user->id,
                'post_id' => $post->id,
                'body' => request('body'),
            ]);

            broadcast(new CommentSent($user, $comment))->toOthers();

            return ['status' => 'Message Sent!'];
        }

        public function index(Post $post)
        {
            return $post->comments()->with('user')->get();
        }
    }

In the store method above, we are validating then creating a new post comment. After the comment has been created, we broadcast the CommentSent event to other clients so they can update their comments list in realtime.

In the index method we just return the comments belonging to a post along with the user that made the comment.

Adding a layer of authentication

Let’s add a layer of authentication that ensures that only authenticated users can listen on the private comment channel we created.

Add the following code to the routes/channels.php file:

    // File: ./routes/channels.php
    Broadcast::channel('comment', function ($user) {
        return auth()->check();
    });

Adding comments to the frontend

In the second article of this series, we created the view for the single post landing page in the single.blade.php file, but we didn’t add the comments functionality. We are going to add it now. We will be using Vue to build the comments for this application so the first thing we will do is include Vue in the frontend of our application.

Open the master layout template and include Vue to its <head> tag. Just before the <title> tag appears in the master.blade.php file, include this snippet:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}" defer></script>

The csrf_token() is there so that users cannot forge requests in our application. All our requests will pick the randomly generated csrf-token and use that to make requests.

Related: CSRF in Laravel: how VerifyCsrfToken works and how to prevent attacks

Now the next thing we want to do is update the resources/assets/js/app.js file so that it includes a template for the comments view.

Open the file and replace its contents with the code below:

    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue          from 'vue'
    import VueRouter    from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Create   from './components/Create'
    import Read     from './components/Read'
    import Update   from './components/Update'
    import Comments from './components/Comments'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/create',
                name: 'create',
                component: Create,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/update',
                name: 'update',
                component: Update,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        components: { Homepage, Comments },
        router,
    });

Above we imported the Comment component and then we added it to the list of components in the applications Vue instance.

Now create a Comments.vue file in the resources/assets/js/components directory. This is where all the code for our comment view will go. We will populate this file later on.

Installing Pusher and Laravel Echo

For us to be able to use Pusher and subscribe to events on the frontend, we need to pull in both Pusher and Laravel Echo. We will do so by running this command:

    $ npm install --save laravel-echo pusher-js


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s configure Laravel Echo to work in our application. In the resources/assets/js/bootstrap.js file, find and uncomment this snippet of code:

    import Echo from 'laravel-echo'

    window.Pusher = require('pusher-js');

    window.Echo = new Echo({
         broadcaster: 'pusher',
         key: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_KEY,
         cluster: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER,
         encrypted: true
    });

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s import the Comments component into the single.blade.php file and pass along the required the props.

Open the single.blade.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto">
          <br>
          <h3 class="mt-4">
            {{ $post->title }} 
            <span class="lead">by <a href="#">{{ $post->user->name }}</a></span>
          </h3>
          <hr>
          <p>Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }}</p>
          <hr>
          <img class="img-fluid rounded" src="{!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image : 'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!}" alt="">
          <hr>
          <div>
            <p>{{ $post->body }}</p>
            <hr>
            <br>
          </div>

          @auth
          <Comments
              :post-id='@json($post->id)' 
              :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)'>
          </Comments>
          @endauth
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Building the comments view

Open the Comments.vue file and add the following markup template below:

    <template>
      <div class="card my-4">
        <h5 class="card-header">Leave a Comment:</h5>
        <div class="card-body">
          <form>
            <div class="form-group">
              <textarea ref="body" class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
            </div>
            <button type="submit" @click.prevent="addComment" class="btn btn-primary">
              Submit
            </button>
          </form>
        </div>
        <p class="border p-3" v-for="comment in comments">
           <strong>{{ comment.user.name }}</strong>: 
           <span>{{ comment.body }}</span>
        </p>
      </div>
    </template>

Now, we’ll add a script that defines two methods:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

In the same file, add the following below the closing template tag:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userName: {
          type: String,
          required: true
        },
        postId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          comments: []
        };
      },

      created() {
        this.fetchComments();

        Echo.private("comment").listen("CommentSent", e => {
            this.comments.push({
              user: {name: e.user.name},
              body: e.comment.body,
            });
        });
      },

      methods: {
        fetchComments() {
          axios.get("/" + this.postId + "/comments").then(response => {
            this.comments = response.data;
          });
        },

        addComment() {
          let body = this.$refs.body.value;
          axios.post("/" + this.postId + "/comments", { body }).then(response => {
            this.comments.push({
              user: {name: this.userName},
              body: this.$refs.body.value
            });
            this.$refs.body.value = "";
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the created() method above, we first made a call to the fetchComments() method, then we created a listener to the private comment channel using Laravel Echo. Once this listener is triggered, the comments property is updated.

Testing the application

Now let’s test the application to see if it is working as intended. Before running the application, we need to refresh our database so as to revert any changes. To do this, run the command below in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Next, let’s build the application so that all the changes will be compiled and included as a part of the JavaScript file. To do this, run the following command on your terminal:

    $ npm run dev


Finally, let’s serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


To test that our application works visit the application URL http://localhost:8000 on two separate browser windows, we will log in to our application on each of the windows as a different user.

We will finally make a comment on the same post on each of the browser windows and check that it updates in realtime on the other window:

Conclusion

In this final tutorial of this series, we created the comments feature of the CMS and also made it realtime. We were able to accomplish the realtime functionality using Pusher.

In this entire series, we learned how to build a CMS using Laravel and Vue.

The source code for this article series is available here on Github.

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