Cayla  Erdman

Cayla Erdman


The Cloud Native Landscape: The Runtime Layer Explained

_This post is part of an ongoing series from __Catherine Paganini _and Jason Morgan that focuses on explaining each category of the cloud native landscape to a non-technical audience as well as engineers just getting started with cloud native.

In our previous article, we explored the provisioning layer of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation’s cloud native landscape which focuses on building the foundation of your cloud native platforms and applications. This article zooms into the runtime layer encompassing everything a container needs in order to run in a cloud native environment. That means the code used to start a container, referred to as the runtime engine; the tools to make persistent storage available to containers; and those that manage the container environment networks.

But note, these resources shouldn’t be confused with the networking and storage work handled by the infrastructure and provisioning layer concerned with getting the container platform running. Tools in this category are used by the containers directly to start/stop, store data, and talk to each other.

runtime layer


When looking at the Cloud Native Landscape, you’ll note a few distinctions:

  • Projects in large boxes are CNCF-hosted open source projects. Some are still in the incubation phase (light blue/purple frame), while others are graduated projects (dark blue frame).
  • Projects in small white boxes are open source projects.
  • Products/projects in gray boxes are proprietary.

Please note that even during the time of this writing, we saw new projects becoming part of the CNCF so always refer to the actual landscape — things are moving fast!

Cloud Native Storage

What It Is

Storage is where the persistent data of an app is stored, often referred to as persistent volume. Easy access to it is critical for the app to function reliably. Generally, when we say persistent data we mean storing things like databases, messages, or any other information we want to ensure doesn’t disappear when an app gets restarted.

Problem It Addresses

Cloud native architectures are fluid, flexible, and elastic, making persisting data between restarts challenging. To scale up and down or self-heal, containerized apps are continuously created and deleted, changing physical location over time. Therefore, cloud native storage must be provided in a node-independent fashion. To store data, however, you’ll need hardware — a disk to be specific — and disks, just like any other hardware, are infrastructure-bound. That’s the first big challenge.

Then there is the actual storage interface which can change significantly between datacenters (in the old world, each infrastructure had their own storage solution with its own interface), making portability really tough. And lastly, to benefit from the elasticity of the cloud, storage must be provisioned in an automated fashion as manual provisioning and autoscaling aren’t compatible.

Cloud native storage is tailored to this new cloud native reality.

How It Helps

The tools in this category help either a) provide cloud native storage options for containers, b) standardize the interfaces between containers and storage providers or c) provide data protection through backup and restore operations. The former means storage that uses a cloud native compatible container storage interface (aka tools in the second category) and which can be provisioned automatically, enabling autoscaling and self-healing by eliminating the human bottleneck.

#cloud native #contributed #react native

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The Cloud Native Landscape: The Runtime Layer Explained
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick


How native is React Native? | React Native vs Native App Development

If you are undertaking a mobile app development for your start-up or enterprise, you are likely wondering whether to use React Native. As a popular development framework, React Native helps you to develop near-native mobile apps. However, you are probably also wondering how close you can get to a native app by using React Native. How native is React Native?

In the article, we discuss the similarities between native mobile development and development using React Native. We also touch upon where they differ and how to bridge the gaps. Read on.

A brief introduction to React Native

Let’s briefly set the context first. We will briefly touch upon what React Native is and how it differs from earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is a popular JavaScript framework that Facebook has created. You can use this open-source framework to code natively rendering Android and iOS mobile apps. You can use it to develop web apps too.

Facebook has developed React Native based on React, its JavaScript library. The first release of React Native came in March 2015. At the time of writing this article, the latest stable release of React Native is 0.62.0, and it was released in March 2020.

Although relatively new, React Native has acquired a high degree of popularity. The “Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019” report identifies it as the 8th most loved framework. Facebook, Walmart, and Bloomberg are some of the top companies that use React Native.

The popularity of React Native comes from its advantages. Some of its advantages are as follows:

  • Performance: It delivers optimal performance.
  • Cross-platform development: You can develop both Android and iOS apps with it. The reuse of code expedites development and reduces costs.
  • UI design: React Native enables you to design simple and responsive UI for your mobile app.
  • 3rd party plugins: This framework supports 3rd party plugins.
  • Developer community: A vibrant community of developers support React Native.

Why React Native is fundamentally different from earlier hybrid frameworks

Are you wondering whether React Native is just another of those hybrid frameworks like Ionic or Cordova? It’s not! React Native is fundamentally different from these earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is very close to native. Consider the following aspects as described on the React Native website:

  • Access to many native platforms features: The primitives of React Native render to native platform UI. This means that your React Native app will use many native platform APIs as native apps would do.
  • Near-native user experience: React Native provides several native components, and these are platform agnostic.
  • The ease of accessing native APIs: React Native uses a declarative UI paradigm. This enables React Native to interact easily with native platform APIs since React Native wraps existing native code.

Due to these factors, React Native offers many more advantages compared to those earlier hybrid frameworks. We now review them.

#android app #frontend #ios app #mobile app development #benefits of react native #is react native good for mobile app development #native vs #pros and cons of react native #react mobile development #react native development #react native experience #react native framework #react native ios vs android #react native pros and cons #react native vs android #react native vs native #react native vs native performance #react vs native #why react native #why use react native

Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas


Multi-cloud Spending: 8 Tips To Lower Cost

A multi-cloud approach is nothing but leveraging two or more cloud platforms for meeting the various business requirements of an enterprise. The multi-cloud IT environment incorporates different clouds from multiple vendors and negates the dependence on a single public cloud service provider. Thus enterprises can choose specific services from multiple public clouds and reap the benefits of each.

Given its affordability and agility, most enterprises opt for a multi-cloud approach in cloud computing now. A 2018 survey on the public cloud services market points out that 81% of the respondents use services from two or more providers. Subsequently, the cloud computing services market has reported incredible growth in recent times. The worldwide public cloud services market is all set to reach $500 billion in the next four years, according to IDC.

By choosing multi-cloud solutions strategically, enterprises can optimize the benefits of cloud computing and aim for some key competitive advantages. They can avoid the lengthy and cumbersome processes involved in buying, installing and testing high-priced systems. The IaaS and PaaS solutions have become a windfall for the enterprise’s budget as it does not incur huge up-front capital expenditure.

However, cost optimization is still a challenge while facilitating a multi-cloud environment and a large number of enterprises end up overpaying with or without realizing it. The below-mentioned tips would help you ensure the money is spent wisely on cloud computing services.

  • Deactivate underused or unattached resources

Most organizations tend to get wrong with simple things which turn out to be the root cause for needless spending and resource wastage. The first step to cost optimization in your cloud strategy is to identify underutilized resources that you have been paying for.

Enterprises often continue to pay for resources that have been purchased earlier but are no longer useful. Identifying such unused and unattached resources and deactivating it on a regular basis brings you one step closer to cost optimization. If needed, you can deploy automated cloud management tools that are largely helpful in providing the analytics needed to optimize the cloud spending and cut costs on an ongoing basis.

  • Figure out idle instances

Another key cost optimization strategy is to identify the idle computing instances and consolidate them into fewer instances. An idle computing instance may require a CPU utilization level of 1-5%, but you may be billed by the service provider for 100% for the same instance.

Every enterprise will have such non-production instances that constitute unnecessary storage space and lead to overpaying. Re-evaluating your resource allocations regularly and removing unnecessary storage may help you save money significantly. Resource allocation is not only a matter of CPU and memory but also it is linked to the storage, network, and various other factors.

  • Deploy monitoring mechanisms

The key to efficient cost reduction in cloud computing technology lies in proactive monitoring. A comprehensive view of the cloud usage helps enterprises to monitor and minimize unnecessary spending. You can make use of various mechanisms for monitoring computing demand.

For instance, you can use a heatmap to understand the highs and lows in computing visually. This heat map indicates the start and stop times which in turn lead to reduced costs. You can also deploy automated tools that help organizations to schedule instances to start and stop. By following a heatmap, you can understand whether it is safe to shut down servers on holidays or weekends.

#cloud computing services #all #hybrid cloud #cloud #multi-cloud strategy #cloud spend #multi-cloud spending #multi cloud adoption #why multi cloud #multi cloud trends #multi cloud companies #multi cloud research #multi cloud market

Madelyn  Frami

Madelyn Frami


Cloud-Native Landscape and Best Practices

The cloud-native approach enables organizations to build modern applications by leveraging the advantage of cloud computing primarily based on PAYG (pay-as-you-go) pricing model. Cloud-native applications are designed loosely coupled & scalable which run on containerized and orchestrated platforms. They are hosted in dynamic environments such as public, private, and hybrid clouds.

This approach offers the following benefits:

  • Faster time-to-market.
  • Maximizing profitability.
  • Better Service/Product.
  • Flexibility to adopt industry best practices.
  • Open source adoption.
  • Enhanced Elasticity, Observability, Reliability, Resiliency, and Maintainability.
  • SDLC automation.
  • Environmental agnostic.

Cloud-Native Landscape

Cloud-Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) is an open-source software foundation that encourages the tech communities to adopt the Cloud Native computing to build and support cloud-ready ecosystems.

The CNCF collaboration with Redpoint Ventures and Amplify Partners developed a cloud-native landscape map. It standardizes technologies, services, and tools such as containerization, orchestration, CI/CD and provisioning, etc. Organizations can take advantage of this referenced map to design and develop the technology ecosystem around cloud-native computing.

The cloud-native landscape consists of four main layers and two supportive layers. Each layer further classifies into respective areas of the cloud-native application development life cycle that consists of tools and services. CNCF technology stack enables cloud portability without vendor lock-in.

CNCF technology stackApplication Definition and Development

This layer emphasizes technologies and tools under application development, which involves build/deployment automation, image building, data publication, and storage. It enables the team to develop reactive, resilient, and scalable apps. Let’s first simplify some general-purpose applications, which fulfill the specific requirement.

Service-based Application:

These applications expose business functionalities via service API using microservices architecture as a common approach. Each service contains independent persistence storage like database, cache, etc.

_Batch Application: _

These are short-lived executable which processes data with minimum input. These can be triggered by events or scheduled to run from other applications. Use cases can be data processing, time-based notification/updates, etc.

Messaging-based Application:

These applications use an asynchronous communication pattern where data can be published & subscribed. The event-driven architecture is a common approach used across such applications. The infrastructure services provider helps in achieving resiliency, performance, and scalability.

Multi-Tier Application:

Such applications are distributed into multiple physical/virtual tiers. An application can have multiple logical layers depending upon application architecture. The application can take advantage of infrastructure as service (IaaS), Platform as a service (Paas), CI/CD, etc.

Application definitions and developmentCNCF recommends a vast range of technology, products, and services under each area, such as:

  • Continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) automate the process of build, package, test, and deployment. It enables development teams to be more agile and deliver changes more frequently and reliably. Tools are Jenkin, Bamboo, AWS code pipeline, etc.
  • Streaming and messaging are the middleware services based on the pub/sub model that enables asynchronous communication between different nodes. Some of the widely used products are RabbitMQ, Kafka, Beam, Amazon Kinesis, etc.
  • Image building is a core building block that plays a significant role in the automatic deployment pipeline. It involves the packaging of application, docker instructions, environmental info, etc. Some of the popular tools are Helm, Packer, Chef, etc.
  • There are wide ranges of open source and commercial DB products available in various categories (NoSQL, Relational, Distributed) such as Cassandra, Couchbase, Redis, MongoDB, etc.

#cloud #cloud-native #application layers #cfcn #cloud native landscape #react native

Thurman  Mills

Thurman Mills


Becoming Cloud Native

There are few companies operating in today’s markets affected most recently as we are with the events of 2020 that have not undergone a digital transformation of some sort. Research shows that 80% of executives are accelerating plans to digitize work processes and deploy new technologies in response to the impact of COVID on the business world. The traditional model of business is undergoing radical change in an endeavour to employ digital technologies better to suit multiple purposes across a variety of sectors, and cloud native is one of the key drivers that re-architects cloud environments with the intent of adapting the means for how to deliver services. cloud native is a modern and advanced software development approach; which is why it is becoming of high importance to many companies.

Digital Transformation Risks

But moving to a new software development approach is not easy, and organizations can be slow to adopt radical change in the interests of safeguarding their market, output and business. So, to mitigate risk, organizations can take a step-by-step approach to becoming cloud native in several phases, where they can first replicate the new approach on a smaller scale inside a department/team/project architecture to test the results. If positive, it is then possible to scale the approach organization-wide continuously till the whole enterprise cloud architecture becomes cloud native. If implemented correctly, the cloud native approach supports organizations to improve speed, agility, and resilience in the app development and management process.

#cloud native #cloud #cloud computing #cloud native development #cloud-native applications

Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas


What are the benefits of cloud migration? Reasons you should migrate

The moving of applications, databases and other business elements from the local server to the cloud server called cloud migration. This article will deal with migration techniques, requirement and the benefits of cloud migration.

In simple terms, moving from local to the public cloud server is called cloud migration. Gartner says 17.5% revenue growth as promised in cloud migration and also has a forecast for 2022 as shown in the following image.

#cloud computing services #cloud migration #all #cloud #cloud migration strategy #enterprise cloud migration strategy #business benefits of cloud migration #key benefits of cloud migration #benefits of cloud migration #types of cloud migration