Edward Jackson

Edward Jackson

1560954177

useReducer vs useState in React

This tutorial doesn’t explain both React hooks in detail, but explains their different use case scenarios. There are many people who ask me whether to use useState or useReducer; that’s why I thought getting together all my thoughts in one article is the best thing to deal with it.

Since React Hooks have been released, function components in React can use state and side-effects. There are two main hooks that are used for modern state management in React: useState and useReducer.

Table of Contents

  • When to use useState or useReducer?
  • Simple vs. Complex State with Hooks
  • Simple vs. Complex State Transitions with Hooks
  • Multiple State Transitions operate on one State Object
  • State Changes and their Logic
  • State Changes and the Trigger

When to use useState or useReducer?

Everyone starting out with React Hooks gets to know pretty soon the useState hook. It’s there to update state in React function components by offering to set the initial state and returning the actual state and an updater function:

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const Counter = () => {
  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

  const handleIncrease = () => {
    setCount(count => count + 1);
  };

  const handleDecrease = () => {
    setCount(count => count - 1);
  };

  return (
    <div>
      <h1>Counter with useState</h1>
      <p>Count: {count}</p>

      <div>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleIncrease}>
          +
        </button>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleDecrease}>
          -
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};

export default Counter;

In contrast, the useReducer hook can be used to update state as well, but it happens in a more sophisticated way with a given reducer function and an initial state which returns the actual state and a dispatch function to alter the state in an implicit way by mapping actions to state transitions:

import React, { useReducer } from 'react';

const counterReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'INCREASE':
      return { ...state, count: state.count + 1 };
    case 'DECREASE':
      return { ...state, count: state.count - 1 };
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

const Counter = () => {
  const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(counterReducer, { count: 0 });

  const handleIncrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'INCREASE' });
  };

  const handleDecrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'DECREASE' });
  };

  return (
    <div>
      <h1>Counter with useReducer</h1>
      <p>Count: {state.count}</p>

      <div>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleIncrease}>
          +
        </button>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleDecrease}>
          -
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};

export default Counter;

Even though both components use different React Hooks for the state management, they solve the same business case. So when would you use which state management solution? Let’s dive into it …

Simple vs. Complex State with Hooks

The previous reducer example already encapsulated the count property into a state object. We could have done it simpler by using the count as the actual state. Refactoring the code to not having a state object, but only the count integer as JavaScript primitive, we can already see that the use case doesn’t have a complex state to manage:

import React, { useReducer } from 'react';

const counterReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'INCREASE':
      return state + 1;
    case 'DECREASE':
      return state - 1;
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

const Counter = () => {
  const [count, dispatch] = useReducer(counterReducer, 0);

  const handleIncrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'INCREASE' });
  };

  const handleDecrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'DECREASE' });
  };

  return (
    <div>
      <h1>Counter with useReducer</h1>
      <p>Count: {count}</p>

      <div>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleIncrease}>
          +
        </button>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleDecrease}>
          -
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};

export default Counter;

The example shows that we may be better off with a simpler useState hook here, because there is no complex state object involved. We could refactor our state object to a primitive.

Anyway, I would argue once you move past managing a primitive (e.g. string, integer, boolean) but rather a complex object (e.g. with arrays and additional primitives), you may be better of using useReducer to manage this object. Perhaps a good rule of thumb:

  • Use useState whenever you manage a JS primitive (e.g. string, boolean, integer).
  • Use useReducer whenever you manage an object or array.

The rule of thumb suggests, for instance, once you spot const [state, setState] = useState({ firstname: 'Robin', lastname: 'Wieruch' }) in your code, you may be better off with useReducer instead of useState.

Simple vs. Complex State Transitions with Hooks

We didn’t use by chance two different action types (INCREASE and DECREASE) for our previous state transitions. What could we have done differently? By using the optional payload that can be used within every dispatched action object, we could say from the outside by how much we want to increase or decrease the count; moving the state transition towards being more implicit:

import React, { useReducer } from 'react';

const counterReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'INCREASE_OR_DECREASE_BY':
      return state + action.by;
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

const Counter = () => {
  const [count, dispatch] = useReducer(counterReducer, 0);

  const handleIncrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'INCREASE_OR_DECREASE_BY', by: 1 });
  };

  const handleDecrease = () => {
    dispatch({ type: 'INCREASE_OR_DECREASE_BY', by: -1 });
  };

  return (
    <div>
      <h1>Counter with useReducer</h1>
      <p>Count: {count}</p>

      <div>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleIncrease}>
          +
        </button>
        <button type="button" onClick={handleDecrease}>
          -
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
};

export default Counter;

But we didn’t. That’s one important lesson when using reducers: Always try to be explicit with your state transitions. The latter example with only one state transitions tries to put every logic into one block, but that’s not very much desired when using a reducer function. Rather we want to be able to reason effortless about our state transitions. By having two state transitions instead, as before in our code, we can always reason about it by just reading the action type’s name.

Using useReducer over useState gives us predictable state transitions. It comes in very powerful when your state changes become more complex and you want to have one place – the reducer function – to reason about them. The reducer functions encapsulates this logic perfectly.

A rule of thumb may suggest: Once you spot multiple setState() calls in succession, try to encapsulate these things in one reducer function to dispatch only one action instead.

A great side-effect of having all state in one object is the possibility to use the browser’s local storage for it. That’s how you could always cache a slice of your state with local storage and retrieve it as initial state for useReducer whenever you restart your application.

Multiple State Transitions operate on one State Object

Once your application grows in size, you will most likely deal with more complex state and state transitions. That’s what we went through in the last two sections of this tutorial. However, one thing to notice is that the state object didn’t just grew in complexity, but also in size of operations that are performed on this object.

Take for instance the following reducer that operates on one state object with multiple state transitions:

const todoReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'DO_TODO':
      return state.map(todo => {
        if (todo.id === action.id) {
          return { ...todo, complete: true };
        } else {
          return todo;
        }
      });
    case 'UNDO_TODO':
      return state.map(todo => {
        if (todo.id === action.id) {
          return { ...todo, complete: false };
        } else {
          return todo;
        }
      });
    case 'ADD_TODO':
      return state.concat({
        task: action.task,
        id: action.id,
        complete: false,
      });
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

It only makes sense to keep everything in one state object (e.g. list of todo items) while operating with multiple state transitions on it. It would be less predictable and maintainable implementing the same business logic with useState instead.

Often you will start out with useState but refactor your state management to useReducer, because the state object becomes more complex or the number of state transitions add up over time. However, there are other cases as well where it makes sense to group different properties, that don’t belong together on first glance, in one state object. For instance, this tutorial that showcases how to fetch data with useEffect, useState, and useReducer groups properties that are dependent on each other together in one state object:

const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(dataFetchReducer, {
  isLoading: false,
  isError: false,
  data: initialData,
});

One could argue that the isLoading and isError properties could be managed separately in two useState hooks, but when looking at the reducer function, one can see that it’s best to put them together in one state object because they conditionally dependent on each other:

const dataFetchReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'FETCH_INIT':
      return {
        ...state,
        isLoading: true,
        isError: false
      };
    case 'FETCH_SUCCESS':
      return {
        ...state,
        isLoading: false,
        isError: false,
        data: action.payload,
      };
    case 'FETCH_FAILURE':
      return {
        ...state,
        isLoading: false,
        isError: true,
      };
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

After all, not only the state object complexity or the number of state transitions is important, but also how properties fit together in context to be managed in one state object. If everything is managed at different places with useState, it becomes harder to reason about the whole thing as one unit. Another important point is the improved developer experience: Since you have this one place with one state object and multiple transitions, it’s far easier to debug your code if anything goes wrong.

A great side-effect of having all state transitions neatly in one reducer function is the ability to export the reducer for unit tests. It’s simpler to reason about a state object with multiple state transitions if you just need to test all state transitions by having only one function: (state, action) => newState. You can test all state transitions by providing all available action types and various matching payloads.

Logic for State Changes

There is a difference of where the logic for state transitions is placed when using useState or useReducer. As we have seen for the previous useReducer examples, the logic for the state transitions happens within the reducer function. The action only comes with the minimum information to perform the transition based on the current state: (state, action) => newState. This comes especially handy if you rely on the current state to update your state.

const todoReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case 'DO_TODO':
      return state.map(todo => {
        if (todo.id === action.id) {
          return { ...todo, complete: true };
        } else {
          return todo;
        }
      });
    case 'UNDO_TODO':
      return state.map(todo => {
        if (todo.id === action.id) {
          return { ...todo, complete: false };
        } else {
          return todo;
        }
      });
    case 'ADD_TODO':
      return state.concat({
        task: action.task,
        id: action.id,
        complete: false,
      });
    default:
      throw new Error();
  }
};

Everything your React component cares about is dispatching the action:

import uuid from 'uuid/v4';

// Somewhere in your React components ...

const handleSubmit = event => {
  dispatch({ type: 'ADD_TODO', task, id: uuid() });
};

const handleChange = () => {
  dispatch({
    type: todo.complete ? 'UNDO_TODO' : 'DO_TODO',
    id: todo.id,
  });
};

Now imagine you would perform the same state transitions but with useState instead. There is no pre-defined entity like the reducer where all business logic is situated. There is no clear separation – as far as you don’t extract the logic into separate functions – and all your state relevant logic ends up in your handlers which call the state updater functions from useState eventually. Over time, it becomes harder to separate state logic from view logic and the components grow in complexity. Reducers instead offer the perfect place for logic that alters the state.

Trigger of the State Change

The vertical component tree in React becomes deeper once you grow your application. If the state is simple and belongs co-located (state + state trigger) to a component (e.g. search input field which is made a controlled component), using useState may be the perfect fit. The state is encapsulated within this one component:

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const App = () => {
  const [value, setValue] = useState('Hello React');

  const handleChange = event => setValue(event.target.value);

  return (
    <div>
      <label>
        My Input:
        <input type="text" value={value} onChange={handleChange} />
      </label>

      <p>
        <strong>Output:</strong> {value}
      </p>
    </div>
  );
};

export default App;

However, sometimes you want to manage state at a top-level but trigger the state changes somewhere deep down in your component tree. It’s possible to pass both the updater function from useState or the dispatch function from useReducer via props down the component tree, but using React’s context API may be a valid alternative to avoid the prop drilling (passing props trough each component level). Then having one dispatch function that is used with different action types and payloads may be the better option than using multiple updater functions from useState that need to be passed down individually. The dispatch function can be passed down once with React’s useContext hook. A good example how this works can be seen in this state management tutorial for React using useContext.

The decision whether to use useState or useReducer isn’t always black and white. There are many shades of grey in between. However, I hope the article gave you a few key understandings on when to use useState or useReducer. Here you can find a GitHub repository with a few examples. The following facts give you a summarized overview, however they only reflect my opinion on this topic:

Use useState if:

  • A) if you manage JavaScript primitives as state
  • B) if you have simple state transitions
  • C) if you want to have business logic within your component
  • D) if you have different properties that don’t change in any correlated manner and can be managed by multiple useState hooks
  • E) if your state is co-located to your component
  • F) if you’ve got a small application (but the lines are blurry here)

Use useReducer if:

  • A) if you manage JavaScript objects or arrays as state
  • B) if you have complex state transitions
  • C) if you want to move business logic into reducers
  • D) if you have different properties that are tied together and should be managed in one state object
  • E) if you want to update state deep down in your component tree
  • F) if you’ve got a medium size application (but the lines are blurry here)
  • G) if you want have an easier time testing it
  • H) if you want a more predictable and maintainable state architecture

Note: Check out when to use useReducer or Redux if you are interested in a comparison.

If you want to go through a more comprehensive example where useState and useReducer are used together, check out this extensive walkthrough for modern state management in React. It almost mimics Redux by using useContext for “global” state management where it’s possible to pass down the dispatch function once.

The Original Article can be found on robinwieruch.de

#react #javascript #web-development #developer #programming

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Buddha Community

useReducer vs useState in React
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick

1598839687

How native is React Native? | React Native vs Native App Development

If you are undertaking a mobile app development for your start-up or enterprise, you are likely wondering whether to use React Native. As a popular development framework, React Native helps you to develop near-native mobile apps. However, you are probably also wondering how close you can get to a native app by using React Native. How native is React Native?

In the article, we discuss the similarities between native mobile development and development using React Native. We also touch upon where they differ and how to bridge the gaps. Read on.

A brief introduction to React Native

Let’s briefly set the context first. We will briefly touch upon what React Native is and how it differs from earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is a popular JavaScript framework that Facebook has created. You can use this open-source framework to code natively rendering Android and iOS mobile apps. You can use it to develop web apps too.

Facebook has developed React Native based on React, its JavaScript library. The first release of React Native came in March 2015. At the time of writing this article, the latest stable release of React Native is 0.62.0, and it was released in March 2020.

Although relatively new, React Native has acquired a high degree of popularity. The “Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019” report identifies it as the 8th most loved framework. Facebook, Walmart, and Bloomberg are some of the top companies that use React Native.

The popularity of React Native comes from its advantages. Some of its advantages are as follows:

  • Performance: It delivers optimal performance.
  • Cross-platform development: You can develop both Android and iOS apps with it. The reuse of code expedites development and reduces costs.
  • UI design: React Native enables you to design simple and responsive UI for your mobile app.
  • 3rd party plugins: This framework supports 3rd party plugins.
  • Developer community: A vibrant community of developers support React Native.

Why React Native is fundamentally different from earlier hybrid frameworks

Are you wondering whether React Native is just another of those hybrid frameworks like Ionic or Cordova? It’s not! React Native is fundamentally different from these earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is very close to native. Consider the following aspects as described on the React Native website:

  • Access to many native platforms features: The primitives of React Native render to native platform UI. This means that your React Native app will use many native platform APIs as native apps would do.
  • Near-native user experience: React Native provides several native components, and these are platform agnostic.
  • The ease of accessing native APIs: React Native uses a declarative UI paradigm. This enables React Native to interact easily with native platform APIs since React Native wraps existing native code.

Due to these factors, React Native offers many more advantages compared to those earlier hybrid frameworks. We now review them.

#android app #frontend #ios app #mobile app development #benefits of react native #is react native good for mobile app development #native vs #pros and cons of react native #react mobile development #react native development #react native experience #react native framework #react native ios vs android #react native pros and cons #react native vs android #react native vs native #react native vs native performance #react vs native #why react native #why use react native

Mathew Rini

1615544450

How to Select and Hire the Best React JS and React Native Developers?

Since March 2020 reached 556 million monthly downloads have increased, It shows that React JS has been steadily growing. React.js also provides a desirable amount of pliancy and efficiency for developing innovative solutions with interactive user interfaces. It’s no surprise that an increasing number of businesses are adopting this technology. How do you select and recruit React.js developers who will propel your project forward? How much does a React developer make? We’ll bring you here all the details you need.

What is React.js?

Facebook built and maintains React.js, an open-source JavaScript library for designing development tools. React.js is used to create single-page applications (SPAs) that can be used in conjunction with React Native to develop native cross-platform apps.

React vs React Native

  • React Native is a platform that uses a collection of mobile-specific components provided by the React kit, while React.js is a JavaScript-based library.
  • React.js and React Native have similar syntax and workflows, but their implementation is quite different.
  • React Native is designed to create native mobile apps that are distinct from those created in Objective-C or Java. React, on the other hand, can be used to develop web apps, hybrid and mobile & desktop applications.
  • React Native, in essence, takes the same conceptual UI cornerstones as standard iOS and Android apps and assembles them using React.js syntax to create a rich mobile experience.

What is the Average React Developer Salary?

In the United States, the average React developer salary is $94,205 a year, or $30-$48 per hour, This is one of the highest among JavaScript developers. The starting salary for junior React.js developers is $60,510 per year, rising to $112,480 for senior roles.

* React.js Developer Salary by Country

  • United States- $120,000
  • Canada - $110,000
  • United Kingdom - $71,820
  • The Netherlands $49,095
  • Spain - $35,423.00
  • France - $44,284
  • Ukraine - $28,990
  • India - $9,843
  • Sweden - $55,173
  • Singapore - $43,801

In context of software developer wage rates, the United States continues to lead. In high-tech cities like San Francisco and New York, average React developer salaries will hit $98K and $114per year, overall.

However, the need for React.js and React Native developer is outpacing local labour markets. As a result, many businesses have difficulty locating and recruiting them locally.

It’s no surprise that for US and European companies looking for professional and budget engineers, offshore regions like India are becoming especially interesting. This area has a large number of app development companies, a good rate with quality, and a good pool of React.js front-end developers.

As per Linkedin, the country’s IT industry employs over a million React specialists. Furthermore, for the same or less money than hiring a React.js programmer locally, you may recruit someone with much expertise and a broader technical stack.

How to Hire React.js Developers?

  • Conduct thorough candidate research, including portfolios and areas of expertise.
  • Before you sit down with your interviewing panel, do some homework.
  • Examine the final outcome and hire the ideal candidate.

Why is React.js Popular?

React is a very strong framework. React.js makes use of a powerful synchronization method known as Virtual DOM, which compares the current page architecture to the expected page architecture and updates the appropriate components as long as the user input.

React is scalable. it utilises a single language, For server-client side, and mobile platform.

React is steady.React.js is completely adaptable, which means it seldom, if ever, updates the user interface. This enables legacy projects to be updated to the most new edition of React.js without having to change the codebase or make a few small changes.

React is adaptable. It can be conveniently paired with various state administrators (e.g., Redux, Flux, Alt or Reflux) and can be used to implement a number of architectural patterns.

Is there a market for React.js programmers?
The need for React.js developers is rising at an unparalleled rate. React.js is currently used by over one million websites around the world. React is used by Fortune 400+ businesses and popular companies such as Facebook, Twitter, Glassdoor and Cloudflare.

Final thoughts:

As you’ve seen, locating and Hire React js Developer and Hire React Native developer is a difficult challenge. You will have less challenges selecting the correct fit for your projects if you identify growing offshore locations (e.g. India) and take into consideration the details above.

If you want to make this process easier, You can visit our website for more, or else to write a email, we’ll help you to finding top rated React.js and React Native developers easier and with strives to create this operation

#hire-react-js-developer #hire-react-native-developer #react #react-native #react-js #hire-react-js-programmer

Franz  Becker

Franz Becker

1651604400

React Starter Kit: Build Web Apps with React, Relay and GraphQL.

React Starter Kit — "isomorphic" web app boilerplate   

React Starter Kit is an opinionated boilerplate for web development built on top of Node.js, Express, GraphQL and React, containing modern web development tools such as Webpack, Babel and Browsersync. Helping you to stay productive following the best practices. A solid starting point for both professionals and newcomers to the industry.

See getting started guide, demo, docs, roadmap  |  Join #react-starter-kit chat room on Gitter  |  Visit our sponsors:

 

Hiring

Getting Started

Customization

The master branch of React Starter Kit doesn't include a Flux implementation or any other advanced integrations. Nevertheless, we have some integrations available to you in feature branches that you can use either as a reference or merge into your project:

You can see status of most reasonable merge combination as PRs labeled as TRACKING

If you think that any of these features should be on master, or vice versa, some features should removed from the master branch, please let us know. We love your feedback!

Comparison

 

React Starter Kit

React Static Boilerplate

ASP.NET Core Starter Kit

App typeIsomorphic (universal)Single-page applicationSingle-page application
Frontend
LanguageJavaScript (ES2015+, JSX)JavaScript (ES2015+, JSX)JavaScript (ES2015+, JSX)
LibrariesReact, History, Universal RouterReact, History, ReduxReact, History, Redux
RoutesImperative (functional)DeclarativeDeclarative, cross-stack
Backend
LanguageJavaScript (ES2015+, JSX)n/aC#, F#
LibrariesNode.js, Express, Sequelize,
GraphQL
n/aASP.NET Core, EF Core,
ASP.NET Identity
SSRYesn/an/a
Data APIGraphQLn/aWeb API

Backers

♥ React Starter Kit? Help us keep it alive by donating funds to cover project expenses via OpenCollective or Bountysource!

lehneres Tarkan Anlar Morten Olsen Adam David Ernst Zane Hitchcox  

How to Contribute

Anyone and everyone is welcome to contribute to this project. The best way to start is by checking our open issues, submit a new issue or feature request, participate in discussions, upvote or downvote the issues you like or dislike, send pull requests.

Learn More

Related Projects

  • GraphQL Starter Kit — Boilerplate for building data APIs with Node.js, JavaScript (via Babel) and GraphQL
  • Membership Database — SQL schema boilerplate for user accounts, profiles, roles, and auth claims
  • Babel Starter Kit — Boilerplate for authoring JavaScript/React.js libraries

Support

License

Copyright © 2014-present Kriasoft, LLC. This source code is licensed under the MIT license found in the LICENSE.txt file. The documentation to the project is licensed under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.


Author: kriasoft
Source Code: https://github.com/kriasoft/react-starter-kit
License: MIT License

#graphql #react 

Juned Ghanchi

1621573085

React Native App Developers India, React Native App Development Company

Expand your user base by using react-native apps developed by our expert team for various platforms like Android, Android TV, iOS, macOS, tvOS, the Web, Windows, and UWP.

We help businesses to scale up the process and achieve greater performance by providing the best react native app development services. Our skilled and experienced team’s apps have delivered all the expected results for our clients across the world.

To achieve growth for your business, hire react native app developers in India. You can count on us for all the technical services and support.

#react native app development company india #react native app developers india #hire react native developers india #react native app development company #react native app developers #hire react native developers

What are hooks in React JS? - INFO AT ONE

In this article, you will learn what are hooks in React JS? and when to use react hooks? React JS is developed by Facebook in the year 2013. There are many students and the new developers who have confusion between react and hooks in react. Well, it is not different, react is a programming language and hooks is a function which is used in react programming language.
Read More:- https://infoatone.com/what-are-hooks-in-react-js/

#react #hooks in react #react hooks example #react js projects for beginners #what are hooks in react js? #when to use react hooks