Gunjan  Khaitan

Gunjan Khaitan


All You Need To Know About Cryptography

This video on Cryptography full course will acquaint you with cryptography in detail. Here, you will look into an introduction to cryptography, the importance of cryptography, applications of cryptography, and various methods to employ cryptography in the real world.

What Is Cryptography?
Cryptography is both art and science referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). We can also say that Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. Cryptography guarantees basic security services authorization, authentication, integrity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation in all communications and data exchanges in the new information society.

#cryptography #security #developer 


What is GEEK

Buddha Community

All You Need To Know About Cryptography
David mr

David mr




This is all you need to know about safemoon and I provide my safemoon prediction. This is a huge safemoon update so make sure to watch this video until the end.
📺 The video in this post was made by Josh’s Finance
The origin of the article:
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
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#bitcoin #blockchain #safemoon #safemoon #all you need to know about safemoon and safemoon prediction #safemoon update - all you need to know about safemoon and safemoon prediction

Gunjan  Khaitan

Gunjan Khaitan


All You Need To Know About Cryptography

This video on Cryptography full course will acquaint you with cryptography in detail. Here, you will look into an introduction to cryptography, the importance of cryptography, applications of cryptography, and various methods to employ cryptography in the real world.

What Is Cryptography?
Cryptography is both art and science referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). We can also say that Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary. Cryptography guarantees basic security services authorization, authentication, integrity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation in all communications and data exchanges in the new information society.

#cryptography #security #developer 


Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose


Public Key Cryptography | Everything you Need to Know

In this post, you'll learn What is Public Key Cryptography in Blockchain and How Does Public Key Cryptography Work?

Any individual in the domain of software development or a tech enthusiast must have heard about the applications of cryptography. For software developers, cryptography is an integral aspect of signing messages, signature verification, use of certificates, and encryption of payloads. 

As a matter of fact, cryptography is an essential requirement for modern applications and enterprise solutions. With the large volumes of sensitive customer data and confidential business information being exposed to various vulnerabilities, it is important to reflect on different cryptography techniques. 

Public key cryptography or asymmetric cryptography is undoubtedly one of the prominent cryptographic techniques used in present times. So, what is public-key or asymmetric cryptography? The following discussion provides a detailed account of public key cryptography explained with examples, characteristics of the algorithm, and prominent advantages. 

What is Public Key Cryptography?

The first point of discussion in any introduction to public key cryptography refers to its definition. As the name implies, the type of encryption involving public key is known as public key or asymmetric cryptography. So, why is asymmetry included in the definition? Asymmetric cryptography involves the creation of a public key and a private key. 

The public key is utilized for encrypting the message of the sender, while the private key helps the receiver in decrypting the message. There are no profound historical accounts of the implementation of public-key cryptography as it is a comparatively new concept. Symmetric cryptography has been widely accepted for use in large financial enterprises, military, and government agencies for classified communication purposes. 

However, the gradual growth in the number of unsecured computer networks in recent times presented the need for implementing cryptography on a broader scale. Symmetric cryptography turned out unsuitable for large-scale implementation due to challenges in key management. As a result, the public key cryptography example served as the most prolific solution for the setbacks in symmetric cryptography.

Symmetric Vs Asymmetric Cryptography

Before diving further into the details of public key encryption, it is important to take note of the difference between symmetric and asymmetric or public key encryption. The differences can help you understand the distinct advantages of public key in blockchain over symmetric encryption. In the case of symmetric cryptography, one key is used for encryption as well as decryption. 

The key serves as the shared secret for multiple participants involved in a transaction. Furthermore, the risks of leaking the secret key also increase profoundly with the rise in the number of participants in the transaction. For example, if any participant’s system is compromised, any individual with the secret key can decrypt all the messages to other network participants. 

Therefore, compromises in shared secrets in any particular location jeopardize the security of the whole system. So, the need to use a single shared key and implement secure approaches for transferring it serve as a prominent setback with symmetric cryptography. As a result, the asymmetric encryption method started to find its roots in the mid-70s as researchers working on finding different approaches for creating and securely moving keys. 

In the case of public key cryptography, every party in the transaction has a pair of keys, including a public key and a private key. The most prominent improvement with public key encryption is the fact that the public key does not serve as a shared secret. Participants in a network or transaction don’t have to keep the public key hidden by multiple parties. As a matter of fact, participants have the privilege of sharing their public keys with others. 

Also Read: How Does Blockchain Use Public Key Cryptography?

Issues Addressed by Public Key Encryption

Public key cryptography notes also focus on the issues that it resolves. It is important to observe the reasons for employing public key encryption. Internet traffic moves information through various intermediate computers in a network. Therefore, third-party agents could intercept the continuously flowing internet traffic to obtain sensitive information through malicious ways. The issues addressed by public key encryption provide a formidable impression regarding its benefits.

Here is an outline of some of the common threats that you resolve with public key encryption.

  • Tampering

Tampering is one of the formidable concerns for information security in modern times. It involves changing or replacing the information in transit before it goes to the recipient. For example, malicious agents could change a person’s details in their resume or modify an order for products.

  • Eavesdropping

Public key cryptography can also help in resolving the issues of eavesdropping in information security. Although the information remains intact in eavesdropping, the privacy of the information is compromised. The examples of eavesdropping are evident in incidents of intercepting classified information or collecting credit card numbers.

  • Identity Theft 

Identity theft is a critical issue in the modern information security landscape. With malicious agents impersonating other individuals, identity theft poses serious consequences for digital security. The first type of identity theft includes spoofing, according to which a person could pretend that they are someone else. 

For example, an individual could pretend that they have an email address. Another type of identity theft is clearly evident in the incidents of misrepresentation, which involve a person or organization posing as something they are not. For example, an organization that receives orders but never delivers any products could showcase its identity as an online furniture store. 

Public key in blockchain helps in providing the desired protection against such types of attacks by leveraging four important factors. The factors include,

  1. Encryption and Decryption

Encryption and decryption are probably the most common terms you would come across in a public key cryptography example. Both of them help two parties to cover up the information transferred between them. The sender scrambles the information (encryption) before sending, and the receiver unscrambles the information (decryption) after receiving the message. During the process of moving from the sender to the receiver, the information is not readable by any unauthorized party.

2. Authentication

Public key cryptographic technologies also emphasize the value of authentication. Authentication is essential to enable the recipient of a message to find out the origin of the message through the confirmation of sender’s identity. 

3. Tamper Detection

The next significant feature outlined in public key cryptography notes emphasizes tamper detection. Public key encryption ensures that the recipient of a message can verify that it has not been through any modifications. Public key encryption enables easier detection of any attempts for modification or substituting information during transit. 

4. Non-Repudiation

Non-repudiation with public key encryption ensures that the sender could not claim that the message was never sent in the first place at some time in the future. 

Working of Public Key Encryption

So, what does public key encryption look like actually in the real world? The following public key cryptography example can help you find out how it works. 

  1. The sender John wants to send an important business document to Mary, his colleague in the same company. The business document is highly confidential and should be seen by Mary only.
  2. So, John uses his public key for encrypting the business document before sending it to Mary.
  3. Now, the business document has turned into scrambled data and is completely unreadable for any other employee in the company.
  4. Mary could receive the message and use her private key for decrypting the message sent by John,
  5. Mary could retrieve the original data sent by John with the help of her private key.

See how simple it is to implement public key cryptography! 

Now, it is important to find out what are the important components that define the working of public key encryption. The significant components in public key or asymmetric cryptography include plain text, ciphertext, encryption algorithm, decryption algorithm, and most important of all, the public key and private key. Each component has a unique function in the overall public key encryption infrastructure. 

  1. Plain text, as the name implies, refers to the message that is interpretable or readable for any individual. The plain text serves as the input for the encryption algorithm.
  2. The ciphertext is the output generated from the encryption algorithm. The scrambled message is completely illegible for anyone.
  3. The encryption algorithm and the decryption algorithm play the most critical role in public key cryptography. An encryption algorithm helps in converting plain text to ciphertext. On the other hand, the decryption algorithm takes in the ciphertext as input alongside the matching key pair for producing the original plain text.
  4. The public and private keys are important in the public key ecosystem. It is possible to use any of the keys for encryption when you can use the other for decryption.

Important Traits of Public Key Encryption

The content of public key cryptography notes is incomplete without reflecting on the important characteristics that are unique for public key encryption. Here are some of the notable features that you can find solely with a public key or asymmetric cryptography. 

  1. Public key encryption involves the use of distinct keys for encryption and decryption. The use of different keys for encryption and decryption helps in differentiating public key encryption from symmetric cryptography.
  2. Every recipient has their own personalized decryption key, known as the private key.
  3. Recipient must also showcase an encryption key, known as their public key.
  4. Public key cryptography also relies on proving the authenticity of public key to avoid concerns of spoofing by malicious agents. The public key encryption system leverages the services of trusted third-party providers for verification of ownership of public key.
  5. The next important characteristic of public key encryption relates directly to the algorithm. The public key cryptography algorithm for encryption must have ideally complex traits for preventing attackers from deriving the plaintext or unscrambled message with the help of ciphertext or scrambled message and the encryption public key.

Another striking highlight that showcases the value advantages of public key cryptography refers to the relationship between public and private keys. Both of them are mathematically related to each other. However, it is not possible to derive the private key from the public key. As a matter of fact, the most crucial component in the public-key ecosystem deals with the design of the relationship between public and private keys.

Public Key Cryptography Algorithms

As you must have understood by now, public key encryption depends profoundly on algorithms for encryption and decryption processes. Presently, there are around three different types of public key cryptography algorithm. However, the most notable mention among all the algorithms used for public key encryption refers prominently to the RSA algorithm. 

Developed by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman, the RSA algorithm offers a wide collection of cryptographic algorithms. It has a reputation as a reliable tool for supporting public key encryption. As a matter of fact, various protocols such as SSL/TLS, OpenPGP, secure shell, and S/MIME utilize RSA for cryptography. 

RSA has found widespread application as a public key cryptography algorithm with browsers that have to establish secure connections over the internet. In addition, the most common tasks performed in systems connected to the network involve RSA digital signature verification. It can offer profoundly reliable levels of security. RSA algorithm presents difficulty in factoring large integers derived as products of two large prime numbers. 

Even though the multiplication of the two numbers is easy, it is not an easy task to find out the original prime numbers. The applications of RSA in public key cryptography explained properly would show that generating the algorithms for the public and private keys is the most complicated task of using RSA for cryptography. The security with the RSA algorithm depends on the difficulty in factoring large integers. 

Challenges in Public Key Cryptography

With all such features of public-key cryptography, there are numerous advantages which are enjoyed by the corporate sectors using this method of encryption but there are few challenges that are faced during the usage of public-key cryptography.

In this article, we will bring your disadvantages of public key cryptography that can come across while using public-key cryptography to transmit data or information security conducting a one-way communication method in an insecure network which again becomes much safer.

With the help of public-key cryptography algorithms, speed is one of the most commonly faced challenges. It is known that there are many methods of data encryption that insure faster dealing. But there is a way with the help of which this problem can be overcome and that is combining the public key cryptography with the secret key system so that the advantages of public-key systems can also be experienced and the faster speed of the private key system which is a secured and a secretive one can also be experienced.

Another major challenge that needs to be mentioned under this section is the vulnerability to the attacks by the compromised authorities. Such attacks take place when the cybercriminals choose to pretend to be anyone else by choosing the public keys certificates. Hence day gets access to the public key by using the names of some other user.

Business Applications of Public Key Cryptography

The business application of public-key cryptography are huge. One of the most important business applications which have to be included in this part of the article is the use of public-key cryptography in Bitcoins where the owners of the money wallet are allowed to transfer or withdraw the money with the help of the system. Another example that can be set to understand the real-time business application of public-key cryptography is the use of the website. Whenever we reached out to a website that is secured by HTTPS we use the public key cryptography method for the encryption of data.

Benefits of Public Key Cryptography

The benefits of public-key cryptography methods are many and in this part, you will get to know each one of them enlisted in the below pointers:

  • The security of the data is one of the most celebrated benefits of public-key cryptography. Since there are two keys available for the encryption of the data where one is private and the other is public as mentioned above, it becomes much easier to safely decrypt the data in an unsafe network. So, the authentication using public key cryptography is the first and foremost benefit.
  • Transparency is another must-include in this list. Since there is a one-way communication established in this public key cryptography theories and practices the transparency of the system becomes double.
  • The authentic creation of digital signatures as well as the validation of digital signatures can also be possible with the help of public-key cryptography principles and algorithms. Hence this has to be another nature benefits of the method.

On a concluding note, it is quite clear that public key cryptography is an essentially flexible and prolific tool for information security. The advantages of public key encryption are clearly evident in the opportunities for dealing with prominent internet-based attacks. In addition, public key encryption also brings the assurance of complete control over the security of your own data. 

It reduces the need for managing multiple keys, like in the case of symmetric cryptography. Public key encryption enables recipients to prove their ownership of the private key without revealing their details. Furthermore, the substantial breakthroughs in the world of computing have established the foundation for the arrival of new algorithms.

#blockchain #cryptography 

Kole  Haag

Kole Haag


What Is Entropy In Cryptography?

If you are familiar with the laws of thermodynamics, you may recognize the second law as dealing with entropy. In the realm of physics, entropy represents the degree of disorder in a system. Because systems tend to degrade over time, thermodynamic energy becomes less available to do mechanical work. In cryptography, entropy has a distinct but similar meaning.

In cryptography, entropy refers to the randomness collected by a system for use in algorithms that require random data. A lack of good entropy can leave a cryptosystem vulnerable and unable to encrypt data securely.

For example, the Qvault app generates random coupon codes from time to time. If the coupon codes weren’t generated with enough randomness, attackers could pre-compute the codes and steal all the gems!

Computers are Deterministic

Deterministic machines are machines that do exactly what we tell them to do.




In mathematics, computer science, and physics, a deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system. A deterministic model will thus always produce the same output from a given starting condition or initial state


In order to coax a machine into doing something random, we have to introduce a source of random input from outside the machine. Typically operating systems are primarily responsible for supplying sources of entropy to programs.

Linux – A Dive Into Randomness Source Code

The average Linux machine can generate secure random numbers. Because Linux is conveniently open-source, here is a link to random.c, a file responsible for a randomness driver. By taking a look at the comments at the top of the file, we learn:

We must try to  gather "environmental noise" from the computer's environment, which must be hard for outside attackers to observe, and use that to generate random numbers. In a Unix environment, this is best done from inside the kernel.

Sources of randomness from the environment include inter-keyboard timings, inter-interrupt timings from some interrupts, and other events which are both (a) non-deterministic and (b) hard for an outside observer to measure.

#cryptography #security #crypto #cryptography #devops #secops

Norvergence - AI for Climate Change: All you Need to Know

AI is available in our lives in numerous spaces, from telephones where we can go without much of stretch access practically any data anyplace on the planet to grocery stores where we can shop with a ‘tick’; from banks where we can undoubtedly handle exchanges online to social stages where we invest the majority of our energy.

Yet, can artificial intelligence make a positive commitment to understanding the issues brought about by environmental change and problems continuously transforming into an emergency?

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Indeed, AI can help environment analysts discover arrangements in numerous spaces, for example, air contamination. An illustration of this is IBM’s Green Horizon Project, which predicts contamination by breaking down ecological information and testing what will occur if contamination is decreased.

Similarly, Google has reduced its server farms’ energy by around 15% by utilizing data from AI calculations.

Projects like these can likewise help and urge different firms to diminish their carbon impression.

Astounding advancement has been made to utilize AI calculations dependent on information from other outrageous climate occasions to recognize hurricanes and environmental waterways. What’s more, even though machines are not entirely believed, environment researchers can work with them to gain better headway.

Also read more related this post visit here

#norvergence #ai for climate change #ai #climate change #all you need to know