Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose


What is IntoTheBlock | How to Use IntoTheBlock | Crypto Data Analysis

Many investors like to trade cryptocurrency because it’s an extremely volatile asset. If you can time the market right, trading crypto can give you much higher returns than traditional investments.

In all seriousness, cryptocurrency trading can be risky business. Yes, it’s true — some people have made lots of money. However, some people have lost lots of money too. A major reason for this is Lack of Knowledge.

Cryptocurrency data analysis

Technical analysis might be too complicated for some people and that’s why there is fundamental analysis. Both analytical methods are important but with Fundamental analysis, people can easily get their crypto assets.

Fundamental analysis estimates the intrinsic value of an asset by relying on data and analyzing factors that could influence its price in the future.

Fundamental Analysis tells you what crypto asset to buy. Technical analysis tells you at what price to buy.

Both are equally important but not many are privy to the indicators needed to make good conclusions with fundamental analysis. 

IntoTheBlock is one of the top platforms for fundamental analysis today. In this article, you'll learn What is IntoTheBlock, How to Use IntoTheBlock (Offers real-time directional predictions for top cryptoassets)

1. What is IntoTheBlock

IntoTheBlock is a data science company applying cutting-edge research in AI to deliver actionable intelligence for the crypto market. IntoTheBlock holistic approach covers crypto-assets from four major perspectives. These dive into spot and derivatives trading data, as well as market sentiment for any crypto-asset.

IntoTheBlock is an analytics platform that brings the users a 360 degrees view of the market, intending to provide the investors with all the relevant information and intelligence about crypto assets and the market.

On this platform, the users can explore a wide range of indicators that use on-chain datasets to reveal fundamental analysis for over 500 crypto assets.

Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence is put to use for directional price predictions when the users are trading with top crypto assets. These deep learning techniques can help discover intelligent signals and insights about the crypto space.

IntoTheBlock can help the users get acquainted with systematic strategies that operate in the centralized exchanges as well as the budding ecosystem of deFi space and specified DeFi Protocols.

The users can easily compare spot, derivatives as well as trading data along with market sentiment analysis for Telegram and Twitter, including developer community involvement metrics and analysis of the most relevant news around a crypto-asset.


  • Let the Robots Make You Crypto Smarter – Our machine learning algorithms combine hundreds of factors to extract unique insights about your crypto asset portfolio.
  • Created by Machines, Understood by Humans – IntoTheBlock provides insights about crypto assets that everyone, not only sophisticated traders, can understand.
  • You Know the Price, What About Everything Else – IntoTheBlock creates a holistic view of a crypto asset by analyzing hundreds of on-chain and off-chain factors.
  • We Get Smarter Everyday – IntoTheBlock regularly produces new insights and indicators that reveal new intelligence about crypto markets.

How to sign up to IntoTheBlock

You need to create an account to enjoy all the features on IntoTheBlock.

  1. Go to
  2. Click Sign up at the top right corner
  3. Select IntoTheBlock and wait for the page to load
  4. On the next page, click on Sign up on the top navigation bar
  5. Complete the form with your name, email address, and password
  6. Read the terms of use and privacy information
  7. Click Creat an Account.
  8. Complete the registration with the confirmation link sent to your email.

You are in a Free Trial in 7 Days!

2. Good features of IntoTheBlock

There are plenty of features that we found during our IntoTheBlock review and we’re going to highlight the platform’s features and get you started with.

2.1. Price Predictions

IntoTheBlock’s price predictions let you know where crypto prices are expected to move. Using machine learning, IntoTheBlock's models provide directional predictions for the expected average hourly price for top cryptoassets. 

At the moment IntoTheBlock has predictive models for Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash and Dash.

  • Powered by cutting edge data science: Deep learning based predictive models built according to the latest research from leading universities and technology companies.
  • Predictive signals based on different market datasets: Models are trained on spot, blockchain, and derivatives datasets.
  • Robustness & Accuracy: Models are back-tested and regularly retrained on large datasets to ensure high levels of accuracy and adapt to new market conditions.
  • Transparency: Historical results are published for users to understand rates of success/failure.

Example: Bitcoin (BTC) Price Prediction

The real-world results can be found inside the IntoTheBlock website. At a quick glance, we can see that the “prediction accuracy” gives us an idea of how frequently the predictions are correct.

Based on these accuracy metrics, we find that the average prediction accuracy seems to be around 47 - 60%. That means if they provided 100 predictions, generally we have found that a bit more than 50 would typically be correct.

While this doesn’t feel like a groundbreaking performance, we believe it would be possible to create a long-term trading strategy that leverages these signals to benefit over a long period of time.

2.2. Blockchain Analytics:

IntoTheBlock bringing a 360 view of the crypto markets. Explore indicators that use onchain datasets to unveil fundamental analyses for more than +1000 crypto-assets.

 Explore indicators that use onchain datasets to unveil fundamental analyses for more than 500 crypto-assets.

  • Profitability Analysis: Understand the wallets making/losing money according to the cost at which they acquired a crypto-asset to anticipate possible points of support and resistance.
  • Addresses and transaction indicators: Analyze a crypto-asset’s growth and momentum according to its level of adoption and activity.
  • Exchange Flows: Measure the level of activity into/out of the top centralized exchanges to forecast price swings.
  • Investor Profile Analytics: Understand the composition of a crypto-asset’s owners in terms of concentration and holding period.

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

2.3. Market Analytics

Off-chain activity indicators for cryptoassets. Compare spot and derivatives trading data as well as market sentiment for any crypto-asset.

Spot exchange analytics: Order-book level indicators to compare the top exchanges in the market.

Derivative Insights: Metrics such as open interest, volume, and basis for perpetual swaps and futures for more than 32 derivative exchanges.

Social: Machine-learning powered sentiment analysis for Telegram and Twitter along with developer community involvement metrics and analysis of the most relevant news around a crypto-asset.

2.4. Defi Analytics

The most comprehensive set of DeFi Analytics

Detailed analysis of individual DeFi projects: You can view indicators and metrics for DeFi coins and tokens. 

Insights about the most important segments of the DeFi space: Market-level metrics on Lending, DEXes, Network, and other segments of the DeFi ecosystem.

Interactive tools: Impermanent loss calculators for certain DEXes and other tools for DeFi investors.

2.5. Capital Markets Insights

IntoTheBlock Capital Market Insights provides over 80 analytics that compares Bitcoin and Ethereum against the traditional capital market. You can filter markets as following:

  • Indices: eastern, western, or crypto-related.
  • Stocks: tech, finance, energy, crypto-related.
  • ETFs: tech, finance, energy.
  • Commodities: precious metals, industrial metals, energy.

Capital Markets Insights.

There are also 7 indicators available for comparing assets which are:

  • Price Performance: This indicator compares the price fluctuations between Bitcoin, Ethereum and the selected capital markets assets.
  • Correlation Matrix: The correlation matrix provides a quick glimpse into the statistical relationship between crypto prices and traditional assets at the current moment.
  • Historical Correlation: The historical correlation indicator tracks the correlation coefficient of the price of crypto and traditional assets over time.
  • Sharpe Ratio: The Sharpe ratio is one of the most used metrics in traditional finance to assess the risk-return performance.
  • Sortino Ratio: The Sortino ratio is another highly used metric in traditional finance to assess the risk-return performance.
  • Volatility: This indicator measures the rolling 30-day volatility of crypto and traditional assets over time
  • Average Intra-Day Move: The average intra-day move metric shows volatility from a different perspective. By displaying the average move for both crypto and traditional assets, users can observe how the returns of these have varied throughout the selected time frame.

2.6. Explore All Indicators

The most comprehensive library of advanced on-chain and derivatives data across a range of assets (1000+ Assets)

Holders Making Money at Current Price: It shows what percentage of addresses holding this crypto-asset are making profits (in the money), breaking even (at the money) and losing money (out of the money) given the current market price.

Concentration by Large Holders: It aggregates the percentage of circulating supply held by whales (addresses holding over 1% of supply) and investors (addresses holding between 0.1%-1%).

Price Correlation with Bitcoin: The 30-day statistical correlation between the price of Bitcoin and a specific crypto-asset.

Holders’ Composition by Time Held: This metric shows a crypto-asset’s ownership distribution by time held. All of the addresses holding this asset are classified as either a Hodler (holding this crypto for over a year), a Cruiser (holding for more than a month but less than a year) or a Trader (holding for less than a month).

Transactions Greater than $100k: Based on IntoTheBlock’s Large Transactions indicators, this metric shows the total volume transferred in transactions of over $100,000 USD (each) as well as the number of transactions surpassing that amount over the past 7 days.

Transactions Demographics: Based on the East vs West indicator, this shows the percentage of transactions that take place on eastern trading times (10PM - 10AM UTC), in comparison to those on western trading times (10AM - 10PM UTC) over the past 14 days.

Total Exchanges Inflows: This metric aggregates the total volume of a crypto-asset being deposited into top centralized exchanges over the past 7 days, based on IntoTheBlock’s Inflow Volume.

Total Exchanges Outflow: This indicator displays the total amount of a crypto-asset being withdrawn from top centralized exchanges over the past 7 days, based on IntoTheBlock’s Outflow Volume.

Telegram Members Change: It tracks the weekly change in the number of members in a crypto-asset’s official Telegram group.

Summary: A summary showing the market sentiment that results from the aggregation of the selected indicators.

In The Money: Using IntoTheBlock’s In/Out of the Money indicator, we are able to estimate the volume of tokens that are in the money, or profiting for a particular crypto-asset at a given price level. This model follows the 7-day moving average in the total volume of supply in the money and compares it to the value from the previous day.

Concentration: The concentration signal measures daily changes in the positions of whales, addresses that hold over 1% of circulating supply, and investors, addresses that hold between 0.1% and 1% of supply. If whales and investors are adding to their positions it is generally bullish, though the specific thresholds vary by crypto-asset.

Large Transactions: Based on IntoTheBlock’s large transactions metric, this signal analyzes shifts in the number of transactions of over $100,000, and acts as a proxy to institutional investors’ and high net-worth individuals’ activity. The model is optimized by tracking the convergence/divergence between the 21-day exponential moving average (EMA) and the 30-day EMA for large transactions.

Net Network Growth: This signal measures the change in the total number of addresses for a particular crypto-asset. Specifically, it tracks the variation relative to the previous week’s total addresses, optimizing the thresholds considered bullish or bearish to each asset’s nature.

Smart Price: This signal is a variation of the order book mid-price, where bid and ask prices are weighted by their inverse volumes. In other words, the Smart Price signal multiplies bid price times volume at the ask, sums this to the ask price times the volume at the bid, and divides all of this by the aggregate volume of the bid and ask.

Bid-Ask Volume Imbalance: This signal measures changes in the difference in the volume at the bid price and the volume at the ask price.

Futures Market Momentum: This is a multi-variate model that analyzes fluctuations in futures’ volume and open interest with respect to changes in price. The signal is based on research from traditional markets, where generally increases in volume and open interest along with price action are interpreted as bullish validation of the current trend. The signal analyzes all potential scenarios in variations of these three variables and assigns specific bullish/bearish thresholds for each supported crypto-asset.

Global In/Out of the Money: The Global In/Out of the Money (GIOM) classifies addresses based on if they are profiting (in the money), breaking even (at the money) or losing money (out of the money) on their positions at current price. IntoTheBlock calculates an address’ average cost based on the weighted average price at which it bought or received the tokens currently held by the address. IntoTheBlock categorizes addresses and tokens accordingly to obtain an aggregate view of profitability for a particular crypto asset.

In/Out of the Money Around Price: The In/Out of the Money Around Price (IOMAP) indicator is a zoomed in version of the GIOM covering the most relevant clusters within 15% of the current price in both directions. By doing so, the IOMAP spots key buying and selling areas that are expected to act as support and resistance.

Historical In/Out of the Money: The Historical In/Out of the Money (HIOM) provides the variation of holders’ profits over time. It shows the percentage of addresses that would have made money or lost money if they had sold at a particular point in time.

Break Even Price: The Break Even Price indicator looks at realized gains and losses based on on-chain data for addresses that are currently holding the crypto-asset. By adding the dollar value of all the sells of each address and subtracting from it the dollar value of all the buys, IntoTheBlock classifies the addresses that have realized profits and those that have realized losses. This is in contrast to In/Out of the Money indicators, which looks at unrealized profits/losses.

Historical Break Even Price: The Historical Break Even Price indicator tracks the number of addresses with realized profits and losses and its variation over time.

Number of Large Transactions: IntoTheBlock labels as large transactions those where an amount greater than $100,000 USD was transferred. In this case, the Number of Large Transactions indicator aggregates the total number of transactions that had a value greater than $100,000.

Large Transactions Volume: IntoTheBlock labels as large transactions those where an amount greater than $100,000 USD was transferred. In this case, the Large Transactions Volume indicator measures the aggregate amount in crypto terms transferred in such transactions.

Large Transactions Volume in USD: IntoTheBlock labels as large transactions those where an amount greater than $100,000 USD was transferred. In this case, the Large Transactions Volume in USD indicator measures the aggregate dollar amount transferred in such transactions.

Bulls And Bears: The Bulls and Bears indicator tracks the number of addresses that purchased or sold more than 1% of the total amount of volume traded on a given day. IntoTheBlock categorizes those that bought more than 1% of the total volume as bulls and those that sold more than 1% as bears.

Price: The Price indicator tracks the mid-price of a crypto-asset among top exchanges on a given day. To clarify, the mid-price is calculated as closing price plus opening price over two.

Average Transaction Size: The Average Transaction Size indicator measures the mean transaction value for a crypto-asset on any given day. This metric is calculated in dollar terms by taking timestamps of every on-chain transaction and multiplied by the asset’s price at that time, then summing the total dollar value and dividing it by the total number of transactions. Additionally, it can also be shown in crypto-terms.

Average Balance (in $): The Average Balance (in $) indicator calculates the mean value an address holds for a particular crypto-asset. IntoTheBlock measures this by dividing the market cap over the total number of addresses holding this crypto-asset. In other words, it excludes addresses with a balance of zero to arrive at the average holdings on-chain.

Volatility: The Volatility indicator measures the 30 or 60-day variations in price for a particular crypto-asset. This is calculated as the standard deviation of the period’s daily returns and annualizing the variation. Since crypto markets are 24/7 the annualization formula takes into account 365 days (as opposed to the 252 trading days generally available in stock markets).

Correlation to BTC: The Correlation to BTC indicator measures the price correlation between a crypto-asset’s price and Bitcoin’s price. In statistics, it is known as the correlation coefficient (r) and at IntoTheBlock we use the most common method Pearson’s correlation, which is in linear regressions to identify the statistical relationship between two variables.

3. Is IntoTheBlock Free?

IntoTheBlock offers a freemium service where you are allowed to use the platform without paying first.

However, to access all features, users would have to pay $10/mo or save 17% when they choose to pay for a year.  Subscription available in fiat or crypto

  • Unique insights to make better investment decisions.
  • 50+ signals and indicators for more than 800 crypto assets
  • A constantly growing intelligence ecosystem with a machine-learning first
    approach to on-chain and exchange data

Is Intotheblock an App?

IntoTheBlock doesn’t have an app you can install on your mobile device or laptop but they have a web application. To access their platform, use Chrome or any other internet browser you have.

4. Pros and cons of IntoTheBlock


  • Low-cost subscription.
  • 900+ supported coins and tokens.
  • comparing crypto assets to traditional assets.
  • live prices.


  • No free plan.

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Fundamental analysis is very important in the crypto space. Understanding the underlying factors that could affect a crypto asset you’re interested in would guide your decisions in the long run and IntoTheBlock is one of the top platforms for fundamental analysis today.

Read more: What is DappRadar | How to Use DappRadar | The World’s Dapp Store

Hopefully, this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#cryptocurrency #blockchain #bitcoin #IntoTheBlock 

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What is IntoTheBlock | How to Use IntoTheBlock | Crypto Data Analysis
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

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Author: swannman
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License: GPL-3.0 license


 iOS App Dev

iOS App Dev


Your Data Architecture: Simple Best Practices for Your Data Strategy

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you should probably think about your data architecture and possible best practices.

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you most probably need to think about your data architecture and consider possible best practices. Gaining a competitive edge, remaining customer-centric to the greatest extent possible, and streamlining processes to get on-the-button outcomes can all be traced back to an organization’s capacity to build a future-ready data architecture.

In what follows, we offer a short overview of the overarching capabilities of data architecture. These include user-centricity, elasticity, robustness, and the capacity to ensure the seamless flow of data at all times. Added to these are automation enablement, plus security and data governance considerations. These points from our checklist for what we perceive to be an anticipatory analytics ecosystem.

#big data #data science #big data analytics #data analysis #data architecture #data transformation #data platform #data strategy #cloud data platform #data acquisition

Gerhard  Brink

Gerhard Brink


How Are Data analysis and Data science Different From Each Other

With possibly everything that one can think of which revolves around data, the need for people who can transform data into a manner that helps in making the best of the available data is at its peak. This brings our attention to two major aspects of data – data science and data analysis. Many tend to get confused between the two and often misuse one in place of the other. In reality, they are different from each other in a couple of aspects. Read on to find how data analysis and data science are different from each other.

Before jumping straight into the differences between the two, it is critical to understand the commonalities between data analysis and data science. First things first – both these areas revolve primarily around data. Next, the prime objective of both of them remains the same – to meet the business objective and aid in the decision-making ability. Also, both these fields demand the person be well acquainted with the business problems, market size, opportunities, risks and a rough idea of what could be the possible solutions.

Now, addressing the main topic of interest – how are data analysis and data science different from each other.

As far as data science is concerned, it is nothing but drawing actionable insights from raw data. Data science has most of the work done in these three areas –

  • Building/collecting data
  • Cleaning/filtering data
  • Organizing data

#big data #latest news #how are data analysis and data science different from each other #data science #data analysis #data analysis and data science different

Gerhard  Brink

Gerhard Brink


Getting Started With Data Lakes

Frameworks for Efficient Enterprise Analytics

The opportunities big data offers also come with very real challenges that many organizations are facing today. Often, it’s finding the most cost-effective, scalable way to store and process boundless volumes of data in multiple formats that come from a growing number of sources. Then organizations need the analytical capabilities and flexibility to turn this data into insights that can meet their specific business objectives.

This Refcard dives into how a data lake helps tackle these challenges at both ends — from its enhanced architecture that’s designed for efficient data ingestion, storage, and management to its advanced analytics functionality and performance flexibility. You’ll also explore key benefits and common use cases.


As technology continues to evolve with new data sources, such as IoT sensors and social media churning out large volumes of data, there has never been a better time to discuss the possibilities and challenges of managing such data for varying analytical insights. In this Refcard, we dig deep into how data lakes solve the problem of storing and processing enormous amounts of data. While doing so, we also explore the benefits of data lakes, their use cases, and how they differ from data warehouses (DWHs).

This is a preview of the Getting Started With Data Lakes Refcard. To read the entire Refcard, please download the PDF from the link above.

#big data #data analytics #data analysis #business analytics #data warehouse #data storage #data lake #data lake architecture #data lake governance #data lake management

Ian  Robinson

Ian Robinson


Streamline Your Data Analysis With Automated Business Analysis

Have you ever visited a restaurant or movie theatre, only to be asked to participate in a survey? What about providing your email address in exchange for coupons? Do you ever wonder why you get ads for something you just searched for online? It all comes down to data collection and analysis. Indeed, everywhere you look today, there’s some form of data to be collected and analyzed. As you navigate running your business, you’ll need to create a data analytics plan for yourself. Data helps you solve problems , find new customers, and re-assess your marketing strategies. Automated business analysis tools provide key insights into your data. Below are a few of the many valuable benefits of using such a system for your organization’s data analysis needs.

Workflow integration and AI capability

Pinpoint unexpected data changes

Understand customer behavior

Enhance marketing and ROI

#big data #latest news #data analysis #streamline your data analysis #automated business analysis #streamline your data analysis with automated business analysis