Aurelio  Yost

Aurelio Yost

1636688460

Cross Browser Testing In PyTest Using LambdaTest: Part 5

This video is a part of PyTest Tutorial, and in this video, Carlos Kidman (@CarlosKidman) has explained how to perform Cross Browser testing using PyTest on the LambdaTest platform.

LambdaTest is a cloud-based cross-browser testing platform that helps in both manual and automated browser compatibility testing, of their website or web app on a combination of 2000+ different browsers and an operating system right from their own browser.

In this PyTest Selenium Python tutorial, we have covered the following topics:

➤ 00:00 Introduction to PyTest using LambdaTest - a Cross Browser Testing tool
➤ 01:40 How to create a free account on LambdaTest platform (https://bit.ly/2QcsHgM)
➤ 02:53 How to integrate or connect your automation script to run on LambdaTest’s cloud based Selenium Grid
➤ 04:22 How to get the Desired Capabilities to execute your test using RemoteDriver
➤ 05:52 Creating a test script using PyTest and Selenium WebDriver to perform automation testing with help of LambdaTest
➤ 10:05 Creating a test script using PyTest and Pylenium to perform automation testing with help of LambdaTest
➤ 13:50 Viewing the test execution result of running automation tests using PyTest on LambdaTest platform
➤ 15:23 Creating a test script in PyTest to perform cross-browser testing using LambdaTest
➤ 17:30 Creating multiple test scripts in PyTest to run on multiple browsers using LambdaTest
➤ 22:12 Creating a Parameterized test script in PyTest to run on multiple browsers using LambdaTest

#test #lambda #testing 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Cross Browser Testing In PyTest Using LambdaTest: Part 5
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

1667425440

Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

A Beginner’s Guide to Automated Cross-Browser Compatibility Testing

Benefits of Automated Cross-Browser Compatibility Testing

There are countless benefits of implementing a proper strategy for automated cross-browser compatibility testing for all your web applications or websites. Let’s dive deeper into the most crucial advantages

  • Seamless User Experience, Build’s Compatibility, and Quality Assurance
  • Mitigate Risks Early at Speed
  • Shorten Release Cycle and Ship Code Faster
  • Cost Efficiency, Time Efficiency, Test coverage, and Accuracy

Such a varying combination of browsers, devices, OS, and screen-resolutions provide better test coverage for your application. Automated cross-browser compatibility testing naturally helps avoid human-errors, thus availing better accuracy too.

#testing #beginners #automated cross-browser #browsers #cross-browser compatibility testing

Aurelio  Yost

Aurelio Yost

1636688460

Cross Browser Testing In PyTest Using LambdaTest: Part 5

This video is a part of PyTest Tutorial, and in this video, Carlos Kidman (@CarlosKidman) has explained how to perform Cross Browser testing using PyTest on the LambdaTest platform.

LambdaTest is a cloud-based cross-browser testing platform that helps in both manual and automated browser compatibility testing, of their website or web app on a combination of 2000+ different browsers and an operating system right from their own browser.

In this PyTest Selenium Python tutorial, we have covered the following topics:

➤ 00:00 Introduction to PyTest using LambdaTest - a Cross Browser Testing tool
➤ 01:40 How to create a free account on LambdaTest platform (https://bit.ly/2QcsHgM)
➤ 02:53 How to integrate or connect your automation script to run on LambdaTest’s cloud based Selenium Grid
➤ 04:22 How to get the Desired Capabilities to execute your test using RemoteDriver
➤ 05:52 Creating a test script using PyTest and Selenium WebDriver to perform automation testing with help of LambdaTest
➤ 10:05 Creating a test script using PyTest and Pylenium to perform automation testing with help of LambdaTest
➤ 13:50 Viewing the test execution result of running automation tests using PyTest on LambdaTest platform
➤ 15:23 Creating a test script in PyTest to perform cross-browser testing using LambdaTest
➤ 17:30 Creating multiple test scripts in PyTest to run on multiple browsers using LambdaTest
➤ 22:12 Creating a Parameterized test script in PyTest to run on multiple browsers using LambdaTest

#test #lambda #testing 

In 2021, the top 7 cross-browser testing tools

In today’s fast-paced market, web apps run on several browsers (Edge, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, etc.) on varied desktop or mobile devices with particular screen settings. This is the reason why we need to execute cross-browser tests. Cross Browser Testing scrutinizes the compatibility of a website or web apps on varied operating systems, devices, and browsers. Through Cross-browser Tests we ensure that the website or web app works smoothly and uniformly on the devices and browsers that your client may use
•  Devices: Laptop, Mobile, tablet, smart TV, desktop, etc.
•  Operating Systems: macOS, iOS, Android, Windows, etc.
• Browsers: Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Edge, Internet Explorer, Opera, UC Browser, etc.
Any user might be using any of the gadgets with any blend of Operating System or browser.

#cross browser testing #cross browser testing tool #testing

Mikel  Okuneva

Mikel Okuneva

1596804900

Guide To Cross Browser Testing On Older Browser Versions

“How do I perform website testing on older browser versions? Is it even necessary?”

Have you ever wondered about these questions? If you did, you’re not the only one. At some point, every web tester or web developer ponders on these. And it is logical to do so. After all, new browser versions are released every month. Which makes it difficult for testers & developers to maintain a record of emerging & deprecated features. Not to forget, the never-ending release requirements are constantly squeezing your bandwidth.

It can be an overwhelming task to ensure a cross-browser compatible website, that works seamlessly even on older browsers. Which is why some of our clients have also enquired if it is important for them to test on older browser versions? If so, which browsers should they consider for cross-browser testing? And I am going to help you get answers to these questions in this article.

Why Is It Important To Test On Older Browser Versions?

The past decade has witnessed an immense rise in internet usage. The internet traffic at a global level continues to rise significantly with each passing day. There was a time when surfing the internet meant double-clicking on the IE icon on your desktops.

But over the years we have been introduced to a wide array of browsers including, but not limited to Google Chrome, Opera, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge. As per StatCounter, Google Chrome and Safari dominate the browser market with a share of 65% and 17% each from June 2019 — June 2020.

Image for post

But did you notice something else here?

Internet Explorer & Edge legacy browsers are still having enough browser market share to have themselves listed among the top 10 most used browsers worldwide in the last year. And you might be surprised to realize that Internet Explorer has been deprecated in 2015 and hasn’t received any update since then.

The emergence of modern browsers led IE to its deathbed. A majority of us weren’t bothered by the death of IE because deep down the notorious IE has caused all of us a fair share of troubles. Remember those good old days when IE was used as a default browser? 🙂

Image for post

However, it is intriguing to notice that the IE community still exists. Even after Chris Jackson, Microsoft Security Chief insisted people to stop using IE.

Well, we have considered an example of the fallen king IE but what about the reigning king Google Chrome?

Earlier, we realized the browser market share. Now, let’s dig deeper and look into the browser version market share.

#manual-testing #browser-testing #browsers #testing