Best of Crypto

Best of Crypto

1648079400

A General Purpose OpenAPI Code Generator for Algorand

generator

This is a general purpose OpenAPI code generator. It is currently used to completely generate the HTTP code in the Java SDK, and generate some of the HTTP code in our Golang SDK.

Usage

We currently have two HTTP endpoints. One for algod and one for indexer, so in most cases, this tool would be run once with each OpenAPI spec.

Build as a self-executing jar:

~$ mvn package -DskipTests
~$ java -jar target/generator-*-jar-with-dependencies.jar -h

You'll see that there are a number of subcommands:

  • java - the original Java SDK generator.
  • responses - generate randomized test files for SDK unit tests.
  • template - a generator that uses velocity templates rather than Java code to configure the code generation.

Code layout

The command line interface uses JCommander to define the command line interface. See Main.java.

The main code involves an OpenAPI parser / event generator and several listeners for the actual generation.

object layout

Templates

The template subcommand is using Apache Velocity as the underlying template engine. Things like variables, loops, and statements are all supported. So business logic can technically be implemented in the template if it's actually necessary.

Template files

There are three phases: client, query, and model. Each phase must provide two templates, one for the file generation and one to specify the filename to be used. If all results should go to the same file. For query and model generation the template will be executed once for each query / model. If you want to put everything in one file return the same filename twice in a row and the processing will exit early.

phasefilenamepurpose
clientclient.vmClient class with functions to call each query.
clientclient_filename.vmFile to write to the client output directory.
queryquery.vmTemplate to use for generating query files.
queryquery_filename.vmFile to write to the query output directory.
modelmodel.vmTemplate to use for generating model files.
modelmodel_filename.vmFile to write to the model output directory.

Output directories

The template command will only run the templates which have an output directory is provided. So if you just want to regenerate models, only use the -m option.

  -c, --clientOutputDir
    Directory to write client file(s).
  -m, --modelsOutputDir
    Directory to write model file(s).
  -q, --queryOutputDir
    Directory to write query file(s).

Property files

The template subcommand accepts a --propertyFiles option. It can be provided multiple times, or as a comma separated list of files. Property files will be processed and bound to a velocity variable available to templates.

template variables

For details on a type you can put it directly into your template. It will be serialized along with its fields for your reference. Here is a high level description of what is available:

templatevariabletypepurpose
allstrStringHelpers.javaSome string utilities are available. See StringHelpers.java for details. There are simple things like $str.capitalize("someData") -> SomeData, and also some more complex helpers like $str.formatDoc($query.doc, "// ") which will split the document at the word boundary nearest to 80 characters without going over, and add a prefix to each new line.
allorderOrderHelpers.javaSome ordering utilities available. See OrderHelpers.java for details. An example utility function is $order.propertiesWithOrdering($props, $preferred_order), where $props is a list of properties and $preferred_order is a string list to use when ordering the properties list.
allpropFilePropertiesThe contents of all property files are available with this variable. For example if package=com.algorand.v2.algod is in the property file, the template may use ${propFile.package}.
allmodelsHashMap<StructDef, List<TypeDef>>A list of all models.
allqueriesList<QueryDef>A list of all queries.
queryqQueryDefThe current query definition.
modeldefStructDefThe current model definition if multiple files are being generated.
modelpropsList<TypeDef>A list of properties for the current model.

Example usage

In the following example, we are careful to generate the algod code first because the algod models are a strict subset of the indexer models. For that reason, we are able to reuse some overlapping models from indexer in algod.

~$ java -jar generator*jar template
        -s algod.oas2.json
        -t go_templates
        -c algodClient
        -m allModels
        -q algodQueries
        -p common_config.properties,algod_config.properties
~$ java -jar generator*jar template
        -s indexer.oas2.json
        -t go_templates
        -c indexerClient
        -m allModels
        -q indexerQueries
        -p common_config.properties,indexer_config.properties

Test Template

There is a test template that gives you some basic usage in the test_templates directory.

You can generate the test code in the output directory with the following commands:

~$ mkdir output
~$ java -jar target/generator-*-jar-with-dependencies.jar \
    template \
    -s /path/to/a/spec/file/indexer.oas2.json \
    -t test_templates/ \
    -m output \
    -q output \
    -c output \
    -p test_templates/my.properties

Golang Template

The Golang templates are in the go_templates directory.

The Golang HTTP API is only partially generated. The hand written parts were not totally consistent with the spec and that makes it difficult to regenerate them. Regardless, an attempt has been made. In the templates there are some macros which map "generated" values to the hand written ones. For example the query types have this mapping:

#macro ( queryType )
#if ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "SearchForAccounts" )
SearchAccounts## The hand written client doesn't quite match the spec...
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetStatus" )
Status##
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetPendingTransactionsByAddress" )
PendingTransactionInformationByAddress##
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetPendingTransactions" )
PendingTransactions##
#else
${str.capitalize($q.name)}##
#end
#end

Other mappings are more specific to the language, such as the OpenAPI type to SDK type:

#macro ( toQueryType $param )##
#if ( $param.algorandFormat == "RFC3339 String" )
string##
#elseif ( $param.type == "integer" )
uint64##
#elseif ( $param.type == "string" )
string##
#elseif ( $param.type == "boolean" )
bool##
#elseif( $param.type == "binary" )
string##
#else
UNHANDLED TYPE
- ref: $!param.refType
- type: $!param.type
- array type: $!param.arrayType
- algorand format: $!param.algorandFormat
- format: $!param.format
##$unknown.type ## force a template failure because $unknown.type does not exist.
#end
#end

Because of this, we are phasing in code generation gradually by skipping some types. The skipped types are specified in the property files:

common_config.properties

model_skip=AccountParticipation,AssetParams,RawBlockJson,etc,...

algod_config.properties

query_skip=Block,BlockRaw,SendRawTransaction,SuggestedParams,etc,...

indexer_config.properties

query_skip=LookupAssetByID,LookupAccountTransactions,SearchForAssets,LookupAssetBalances,LookupAssetTransactions,LookupBlock,LookupTransactions,SearchForTransactions

Java Template

The Java templates are in the java_templates directory.

These are not used yet, they are the initial experiments for the template engine. Since the Java SDK has used code generation from the beginning, we should be able to fully migrate to the template engine eventually.

Automation

Preparing an external repository for automatic code generation

In general, the automation pipeline will build and run whatever Dockerfile is found in a repository's templates directory. For instructions on how to configure the templates directory, look at the repository template directory example.

If you are trying to verify that automatic code generation works as intended, we recommend creating a testing branch from that repository and using the SKIP_PR=true environment variable to avoid creating pull requests. If all goes according to plan, generated files should be available in the container's /repo directory.

Setting up the automatic generator

The automatic generator scripts depend on certain prerequisites that are listed in automation/REQUIREMENTS.md. Once those conditions have been satisfied, automatically generating code for external repositories should be as easy as building and running a particular SDK's templates/Dockerfile file.


Download Details:
Author: algorand
Source Code: https://github.com/algorand/generator
License:

#algorand  #blockchain  #cryptocurrency #java #golang #openapi 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

A General Purpose OpenAPI Code Generator for Algorand
Best of Crypto

Best of Crypto

1648079400

A General Purpose OpenAPI Code Generator for Algorand

generator

This is a general purpose OpenAPI code generator. It is currently used to completely generate the HTTP code in the Java SDK, and generate some of the HTTP code in our Golang SDK.

Usage

We currently have two HTTP endpoints. One for algod and one for indexer, so in most cases, this tool would be run once with each OpenAPI spec.

Build as a self-executing jar:

~$ mvn package -DskipTests
~$ java -jar target/generator-*-jar-with-dependencies.jar -h

You'll see that there are a number of subcommands:

  • java - the original Java SDK generator.
  • responses - generate randomized test files for SDK unit tests.
  • template - a generator that uses velocity templates rather than Java code to configure the code generation.

Code layout

The command line interface uses JCommander to define the command line interface. See Main.java.

The main code involves an OpenAPI parser / event generator and several listeners for the actual generation.

object layout

Templates

The template subcommand is using Apache Velocity as the underlying template engine. Things like variables, loops, and statements are all supported. So business logic can technically be implemented in the template if it's actually necessary.

Template files

There are three phases: client, query, and model. Each phase must provide two templates, one for the file generation and one to specify the filename to be used. If all results should go to the same file. For query and model generation the template will be executed once for each query / model. If you want to put everything in one file return the same filename twice in a row and the processing will exit early.

phasefilenamepurpose
clientclient.vmClient class with functions to call each query.
clientclient_filename.vmFile to write to the client output directory.
queryquery.vmTemplate to use for generating query files.
queryquery_filename.vmFile to write to the query output directory.
modelmodel.vmTemplate to use for generating model files.
modelmodel_filename.vmFile to write to the model output directory.

Output directories

The template command will only run the templates which have an output directory is provided. So if you just want to regenerate models, only use the -m option.

  -c, --clientOutputDir
    Directory to write client file(s).
  -m, --modelsOutputDir
    Directory to write model file(s).
  -q, --queryOutputDir
    Directory to write query file(s).

Property files

The template subcommand accepts a --propertyFiles option. It can be provided multiple times, or as a comma separated list of files. Property files will be processed and bound to a velocity variable available to templates.

template variables

For details on a type you can put it directly into your template. It will be serialized along with its fields for your reference. Here is a high level description of what is available:

templatevariabletypepurpose
allstrStringHelpers.javaSome string utilities are available. See StringHelpers.java for details. There are simple things like $str.capitalize("someData") -> SomeData, and also some more complex helpers like $str.formatDoc($query.doc, "// ") which will split the document at the word boundary nearest to 80 characters without going over, and add a prefix to each new line.
allorderOrderHelpers.javaSome ordering utilities available. See OrderHelpers.java for details. An example utility function is $order.propertiesWithOrdering($props, $preferred_order), where $props is a list of properties and $preferred_order is a string list to use when ordering the properties list.
allpropFilePropertiesThe contents of all property files are available with this variable. For example if package=com.algorand.v2.algod is in the property file, the template may use ${propFile.package}.
allmodelsHashMap<StructDef, List<TypeDef>>A list of all models.
allqueriesList<QueryDef>A list of all queries.
queryqQueryDefThe current query definition.
modeldefStructDefThe current model definition if multiple files are being generated.
modelpropsList<TypeDef>A list of properties for the current model.

Example usage

In the following example, we are careful to generate the algod code first because the algod models are a strict subset of the indexer models. For that reason, we are able to reuse some overlapping models from indexer in algod.

~$ java -jar generator*jar template
        -s algod.oas2.json
        -t go_templates
        -c algodClient
        -m allModels
        -q algodQueries
        -p common_config.properties,algod_config.properties
~$ java -jar generator*jar template
        -s indexer.oas2.json
        -t go_templates
        -c indexerClient
        -m allModels
        -q indexerQueries
        -p common_config.properties,indexer_config.properties

Test Template

There is a test template that gives you some basic usage in the test_templates directory.

You can generate the test code in the output directory with the following commands:

~$ mkdir output
~$ java -jar target/generator-*-jar-with-dependencies.jar \
    template \
    -s /path/to/a/spec/file/indexer.oas2.json \
    -t test_templates/ \
    -m output \
    -q output \
    -c output \
    -p test_templates/my.properties

Golang Template

The Golang templates are in the go_templates directory.

The Golang HTTP API is only partially generated. The hand written parts were not totally consistent with the spec and that makes it difficult to regenerate them. Regardless, an attempt has been made. In the templates there are some macros which map "generated" values to the hand written ones. For example the query types have this mapping:

#macro ( queryType )
#if ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "SearchForAccounts" )
SearchAccounts## The hand written client doesn't quite match the spec...
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetStatus" )
Status##
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetPendingTransactionsByAddress" )
PendingTransactionInformationByAddress##
#elseif ( ${str.capitalize($q.name)} == "GetPendingTransactions" )
PendingTransactions##
#else
${str.capitalize($q.name)}##
#end
#end

Other mappings are more specific to the language, such as the OpenAPI type to SDK type:

#macro ( toQueryType $param )##
#if ( $param.algorandFormat == "RFC3339 String" )
string##
#elseif ( $param.type == "integer" )
uint64##
#elseif ( $param.type == "string" )
string##
#elseif ( $param.type == "boolean" )
bool##
#elseif( $param.type == "binary" )
string##
#else
UNHANDLED TYPE
- ref: $!param.refType
- type: $!param.type
- array type: $!param.arrayType
- algorand format: $!param.algorandFormat
- format: $!param.format
##$unknown.type ## force a template failure because $unknown.type does not exist.
#end
#end

Because of this, we are phasing in code generation gradually by skipping some types. The skipped types are specified in the property files:

common_config.properties

model_skip=AccountParticipation,AssetParams,RawBlockJson,etc,...

algod_config.properties

query_skip=Block,BlockRaw,SendRawTransaction,SuggestedParams,etc,...

indexer_config.properties

query_skip=LookupAssetByID,LookupAccountTransactions,SearchForAssets,LookupAssetBalances,LookupAssetTransactions,LookupBlock,LookupTransactions,SearchForTransactions

Java Template

The Java templates are in the java_templates directory.

These are not used yet, they are the initial experiments for the template engine. Since the Java SDK has used code generation from the beginning, we should be able to fully migrate to the template engine eventually.

Automation

Preparing an external repository for automatic code generation

In general, the automation pipeline will build and run whatever Dockerfile is found in a repository's templates directory. For instructions on how to configure the templates directory, look at the repository template directory example.

If you are trying to verify that automatic code generation works as intended, we recommend creating a testing branch from that repository and using the SKIP_PR=true environment variable to avoid creating pull requests. If all goes according to plan, generated files should be available in the container's /repo directory.

Setting up the automatic generator

The automatic generator scripts depend on certain prerequisites that are listed in automation/REQUIREMENTS.md. Once those conditions have been satisfied, automatically generating code for external repositories should be as easy as building and running a particular SDK's templates/Dockerfile file.


Download Details:
Author: algorand
Source Code: https://github.com/algorand/generator
License:

#algorand  #blockchain  #cryptocurrency #java #golang #openapi 

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1621137960

Guidelines for Java Code Reviews

Get a jump-start on your next code review session with this list.

Having another pair of eyes scan your code is always useful and helps you spot mistakes before you break production. You need not be an expert to review someone’s code. Some experience with the programming language and a review checklist should help you get started. We’ve put together a list of things you should keep in mind when you’re reviewing Java code. Read on!

1. Follow Java Code Conventions

2. Replace Imperative Code With Lambdas and Streams

3. Beware of the NullPointerException

4. Directly Assigning References From Client Code to a Field

5. Handle Exceptions With Care

#java #code quality #java tutorial #code analysis #code reviews #code review tips #code analysis tools #java tutorial for beginners #java code review

Houston  Sipes

Houston Sipes

1604088000

How to Find the Stinky Parts of Your Code (Part II)

There are more code smells. Let’s keep changing the aromas. We see several symptoms and situations that make us doubt the quality of our development. Let’s look at some possible solutions.

Most of these smells are just hints of something that might be wrong. They are not rigid rules.

This is part II. Part I can be found here.

Code Smell 06 - Too Clever Programmer

The code is difficult to read, there are tricky with names without semantics. Sometimes using language’s accidental complexity.

_Image Source: NeONBRAND on _Unsplash

Problems

  • Readability
  • Maintainability
  • Code Quality
  • Premature Optimization

Solutions

  1. Refactor the code
  2. Use better names

Examples

  • Optimized loops

Exceptions

  • Optimized code for low-level operations.

Sample Code

Wrong

function primeFactors(n){
	  var f = [],  i = 0, d = 2;  

	  for (i = 0; n >= 2; ) {
	     if(n % d == 0){
	       f[i++]=(d); 
	       n /= d;
	    }
	    else{
	      d++;
	    }     
	  }
	  return f;
	}

Right

function primeFactors(numberToFactor){
	  var factors = [], 
	      divisor = 2,
	      remainder = numberToFactor;

	  while(remainder>=2){
	    if(remainder % divisor === 0){
	       factors.push(divisor); 
	       remainder = remainder/ divisor;
	    }
	    else{
	      divisor++;
	    }     
	  }
	  return factors;
	}

Detection

Automatic detection is possible in some languages. Watch some warnings related to complexity, bad names, post increment variables, etc.

#pixel-face #code-smells #clean-code #stinky-code-parts #refactor-legacy-code #refactoring #stinky-code #common-code-smells

I am Developer

1597817005

Bar Code Generator In Laravel 7.x

Bar Code Generate in Laravel 7, 6. In this post, i will show you simple and easy steps to generate bar/qr code in laravel.

Generate Bar codes in Laravel

Use the below given steps and generate bAR/QR codes in laravel Projects:

  1. Install Laravel Fresh Setup
  2. Set database Credentials In .env File
  3. Install simple-QRcode Package
  4. Register Package
  5. Test Qr Code
  6. Conclusion

https://www.tutsmake.com/laravel-6-simple-generate-or-create-qr-codes-example/

#laravel 7 bar code generator #barcode generator laravel 7 #barcode generator laravel 6 #laravel 7 qr code generator #laravel simple/barcode example