What is disBalancer (DDOS) | What is DisBalancer token | What is DDOS token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the disBalancer project and DDOS token

Decentralizing the Nature of Website Security With disBalancer

disBalancer_ is a decentralized network that provides Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) resistance and load balancer services to help modern businesses avoid the increasing cost of such attacks in terms of lost revenue and data breaches._

It allows businesses to fight fire with fire, harnessing the same unused computer bandwidth and storage manipulated by malicious actors by incentivizing those vast resources to fight against DDoS issues rather than for them.

The disBalancer Platform

disBalancer aims to create a fully decentralized, peer-to-peer, and serverless node network to connect unused bandwidth and storage for businesses looking for DDoS protection and expedited content delivery for their websites.

Anyone owning a computer or smartphone can run the disBalancer peer client in the background of their device, renting out their unused bandwidth and storage, and earning disBalancer tokens (DDOS) as an incentive reward. Large pools with thousands of these device nodes can then work together to handle requests to validate website connections and block malicious activity.

Creating a Circular Economy

Businesses looking to protect their websites can simply create an account on the disBalancer platform, acquire DDOS tokens, and request services from the network in a matter of clicks.

Network nodes can be set up on any Linux, Windows, Android, iOS, or macOS device and will automatically run in the background when users choose to allow it. Users become part of local verification pools to handle demand closest to them, earning DDOS tokens as a reward from the shared pool for all traffic received and sent.

Users can then sell DDOS tokens back to websites to cover the costs of network usage or utilize them in other yield farming opportunities across the blockchain ecosystem, creating an economic cycle that promotes the growth of the disBalancer network.

A Decentralized, Accessible, and Affordable Alternative

The consequences of DDoS attacks can result in significant lost revenue for businesses, particularly online retailers who lose between  $8,000 and $74,000 for every hour of downtime.

Restoring services and managing operations offline are the most direct costs, though DDoS attacks also increase the cost of sales, customer service, and marketing. Beyond that, they can also damage customer trust and jeopardize future business opportunities.

The disBalancer model seeks to deliver a solution to this focussed around four key offerings:

  • Load balancer services for companies wanting attack protection.
  • Content Delivery Network (CDN) services to provide faster and more secure delivery and accessibility of internet content.
  • Confirmed user ownership of resources — providing DDoS resistance services for companies to test the sustainability of their website or infrastructure.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF) services to filter, monitor, and block traffic.

disBalancer’s goal is to create a decentralized network that will ensure continuous communication between computers to provide resilient and low-cost pools tailored to specific client needs. This will not only filter traffic but speed up access to content, changing the nature of website security forever.

As a result, disBalancer can save businesses hundreds of thousands of dollars in preventing attacks like this in the first place. It also opens up accessibility to an affordable pay-as-you-go decentralized alternative to the existing centralized and hackable solutions that tend to take a reactive rather than proactive approach.

Challenge

The volume of internet traffic circulating every minute in the global virtual environment is rapidly increasing. More and more companies use their websites to interact with existing customers and win new ones. By disrupting the functioning of the website, competitors or criminal cyber actors may cause financial and reputational damage to the targeted company so that the latter may lose its competitiveness in the market. One of the most frequently used methods to crash a website is the conduct of a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack. During such an attack a website is overwhelmed with requests overloading its infrastructure. The attacks come from multiple locations. DDoS attacks may be committed either by companies striving to beat their competitors or by criminal groups and individual hackers for requesting financial compensation.

The victims of DDoS attacks lose money since their sites don’t generate revenues when crashed as well as have to spend time and resources to resolve the issue. As a result, DDoS attacks make companies increase their expenditures while getting lower income. DDoS attacks may also cause server and hosting issues since the company’s failure to prevent DDoS attacks is likely to affect other websites that are functioning on the same server. Criminal groups may commit DDoS attacks to make the targeted website more vulnerable to hacks aimed at stealing data since there is a risk that security systems may also be put out due to DDoS attack.

On 1 September 2020, the company SwissSign, the provider of email encryption, digital identity, and document management services, reported on the limited availability of its products due to a number of experienced DDoS attacks. The magnitude of the DDoS attack amounted to 40 Gbps of internet traffic which their servers were unable to handle. The company’s specialists spent a few days restoring the functioning of its systems. Due to the attack, the company lost its major customer, the secure email provider ProtonMail. ProtonMail decided to start cooperating with the company Let’s Encrypt.

DDoS attacks have become a serious challenge for modern businesses worldwide and that is why innovative solutions that can protect websites from these types of virtual attacks are highly demanded in the market.

The disBalancer network

The use of disBalancer allows companies to prevent denial of service by transferring the load from their network to our decentralised network of nodes spread across the world.

Main Nodes

At the core of the network are the Main Nodes that ensure the effective functioning of the decentralized system. The Main Nodes will be spread across the globe and managed by the disBalancer team.

The verified users may also deploy their nodes that, in turn, may become the Main Node for the purpose of load balancing. As a result, when the Main Node is set up, the traffic comes through the node and the overwhelming of the server does not take place.

The solution constitutes the ecosystem in which website owners benefit from the possibility to distribute traffic among the nodes.

User Nodes

The last element of the network are users that want to participate in the disBalancer network by supplying their free computing power and bandwidth in exchange for tokens. An owner of a smartphone or personal computer becomes a Farmer by connecting to the deployed nodes, turning their own device into a new node. The application is run in the background. Tokens are credited to users when the network traffic comes through their resources.

The accrued tokens may be sold by farmers to the clients and the latter use the purchased tokens to pay for security services ordered within the ecosystem. Thus, the project functions under the principles of a circular model. The potential financial losses for websites due to DDoS attacks are much higher than the cost of DDoS-protection services described above.

How to use the network to protect your website

To start using the service a customer needs to change his website’s DNS records to redirect the incoming traffic to the nearest disBalancer network nodes. Every node, in turn, can redirect the traffic to other nearby nodes in case the existing load is not sufficient to prevent the overwhelming of the server. As a result, our pool encompassing hundreds of nodes will be able to handle all malicious traffic.

The detailed mechanism of work

DisBalancer protects the websites of customers in 4 stages:

The initial stage is detection that provides for distinguishing DDoS attack from normal traffic. To this end, the solution considers previous data, IP reputation as well as common attack patterns. DisBalancer applies HTTP fingerprinting and known AI/custom rule pattern matching to identify known threats in less than 2 milliseconds. As a result, disBalancer detects almost 99 per cent of all bad requests to customers’ APIs, websites, and mobile applications using these methods. Disbalancer detects new threats by analyzing information as browser tracking, browser automation detection, user event tracking, fake browser detection, and device detection. The solution detects layer application attacks via the use of Cookie challenge, JS test, and CAPTACHAs to monitor the behaviour of users, challenge unrecognized entities, and block known bad bots. Advanced new bots are detected in less than 100 milliseconds. When a particular threat is detected on the website of one of our customers, the protection algorithm is updated automatically so that the websites of other customers become protected from the type of DDoS attacks in question.

Normal traffic goes to the targeted website while malicious traffic as well as unusual traffic go through the Main Node and then the User Nodes. In case the unusual traffic is not detected as malicious upon analysis, it also goes to the targeted website.

Upon detecting an attack the solution provides a response aimed at dropping malicious traffic. To address layer (L7) attacks the solution applies WAF page rules while lower-level attacks (L3/L4) such as NTP amplification and Memcached attacks are handled via the application of other filtration processes. As a result, the solution does not allow a DDoS attack to result in the disruption of the website’s functioning.

At the third stage, the solution breaks the remaining traffic into manageable chunks through routing. Lastly, to effectively address DDoS attacks in the future, the solution can adapt to attack patterns by analyzing such traffic characteristics as country of origin, the improperly used protocols, and repeating offending IP blocks. The information about the malicious traffic is reported by a User Node to the Main Node.

How and Where to Buy disBalancer (DDOS) ?

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase DDOS from the Website: https://disbalancer.com*

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once DDOS gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
 ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
 ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
 ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
 ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information DDOS

WebsiteSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post is my OPINION and not financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #ddos #disbalancer

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

What is disBalancer (DDOS) | What is DisBalancer token | What is DDOS token

What is disBalancer (DDOS) | What is DisBalancer token | What is DDOS token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the disBalancer project and DDOS token

Decentralizing the Nature of Website Security With disBalancer

disBalancer_ is a decentralized network that provides Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) resistance and load balancer services to help modern businesses avoid the increasing cost of such attacks in terms of lost revenue and data breaches._

It allows businesses to fight fire with fire, harnessing the same unused computer bandwidth and storage manipulated by malicious actors by incentivizing those vast resources to fight against DDoS issues rather than for them.

The disBalancer Platform

disBalancer aims to create a fully decentralized, peer-to-peer, and serverless node network to connect unused bandwidth and storage for businesses looking for DDoS protection and expedited content delivery for their websites.

Anyone owning a computer or smartphone can run the disBalancer peer client in the background of their device, renting out their unused bandwidth and storage, and earning disBalancer tokens (DDOS) as an incentive reward. Large pools with thousands of these device nodes can then work together to handle requests to validate website connections and block malicious activity.

Creating a Circular Economy

Businesses looking to protect their websites can simply create an account on the disBalancer platform, acquire DDOS tokens, and request services from the network in a matter of clicks.

Network nodes can be set up on any Linux, Windows, Android, iOS, or macOS device and will automatically run in the background when users choose to allow it. Users become part of local verification pools to handle demand closest to them, earning DDOS tokens as a reward from the shared pool for all traffic received and sent.

Users can then sell DDOS tokens back to websites to cover the costs of network usage or utilize them in other yield farming opportunities across the blockchain ecosystem, creating an economic cycle that promotes the growth of the disBalancer network.

A Decentralized, Accessible, and Affordable Alternative

The consequences of DDoS attacks can result in significant lost revenue for businesses, particularly online retailers who lose between  $8,000 and $74,000 for every hour of downtime.

Restoring services and managing operations offline are the most direct costs, though DDoS attacks also increase the cost of sales, customer service, and marketing. Beyond that, they can also damage customer trust and jeopardize future business opportunities.

The disBalancer model seeks to deliver a solution to this focussed around four key offerings:

  • Load balancer services for companies wanting attack protection.
  • Content Delivery Network (CDN) services to provide faster and more secure delivery and accessibility of internet content.
  • Confirmed user ownership of resources — providing DDoS resistance services for companies to test the sustainability of their website or infrastructure.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF) services to filter, monitor, and block traffic.

disBalancer’s goal is to create a decentralized network that will ensure continuous communication between computers to provide resilient and low-cost pools tailored to specific client needs. This will not only filter traffic but speed up access to content, changing the nature of website security forever.

As a result, disBalancer can save businesses hundreds of thousands of dollars in preventing attacks like this in the first place. It also opens up accessibility to an affordable pay-as-you-go decentralized alternative to the existing centralized and hackable solutions that tend to take a reactive rather than proactive approach.

Challenge

The volume of internet traffic circulating every minute in the global virtual environment is rapidly increasing. More and more companies use their websites to interact with existing customers and win new ones. By disrupting the functioning of the website, competitors or criminal cyber actors may cause financial and reputational damage to the targeted company so that the latter may lose its competitiveness in the market. One of the most frequently used methods to crash a website is the conduct of a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack. During such an attack a website is overwhelmed with requests overloading its infrastructure. The attacks come from multiple locations. DDoS attacks may be committed either by companies striving to beat their competitors or by criminal groups and individual hackers for requesting financial compensation.

The victims of DDoS attacks lose money since their sites don’t generate revenues when crashed as well as have to spend time and resources to resolve the issue. As a result, DDoS attacks make companies increase their expenditures while getting lower income. DDoS attacks may also cause server and hosting issues since the company’s failure to prevent DDoS attacks is likely to affect other websites that are functioning on the same server. Criminal groups may commit DDoS attacks to make the targeted website more vulnerable to hacks aimed at stealing data since there is a risk that security systems may also be put out due to DDoS attack.

On 1 September 2020, the company SwissSign, the provider of email encryption, digital identity, and document management services, reported on the limited availability of its products due to a number of experienced DDoS attacks. The magnitude of the DDoS attack amounted to 40 Gbps of internet traffic which their servers were unable to handle. The company’s specialists spent a few days restoring the functioning of its systems. Due to the attack, the company lost its major customer, the secure email provider ProtonMail. ProtonMail decided to start cooperating with the company Let’s Encrypt.

DDoS attacks have become a serious challenge for modern businesses worldwide and that is why innovative solutions that can protect websites from these types of virtual attacks are highly demanded in the market.

The disBalancer network

The use of disBalancer allows companies to prevent denial of service by transferring the load from their network to our decentralised network of nodes spread across the world.

Main Nodes

At the core of the network are the Main Nodes that ensure the effective functioning of the decentralized system. The Main Nodes will be spread across the globe and managed by the disBalancer team.

The verified users may also deploy their nodes that, in turn, may become the Main Node for the purpose of load balancing. As a result, when the Main Node is set up, the traffic comes through the node and the overwhelming of the server does not take place.

The solution constitutes the ecosystem in which website owners benefit from the possibility to distribute traffic among the nodes.

User Nodes

The last element of the network are users that want to participate in the disBalancer network by supplying their free computing power and bandwidth in exchange for tokens. An owner of a smartphone or personal computer becomes a Farmer by connecting to the deployed nodes, turning their own device into a new node. The application is run in the background. Tokens are credited to users when the network traffic comes through their resources.

The accrued tokens may be sold by farmers to the clients and the latter use the purchased tokens to pay for security services ordered within the ecosystem. Thus, the project functions under the principles of a circular model. The potential financial losses for websites due to DDoS attacks are much higher than the cost of DDoS-protection services described above.

How to use the network to protect your website

To start using the service a customer needs to change his website’s DNS records to redirect the incoming traffic to the nearest disBalancer network nodes. Every node, in turn, can redirect the traffic to other nearby nodes in case the existing load is not sufficient to prevent the overwhelming of the server. As a result, our pool encompassing hundreds of nodes will be able to handle all malicious traffic.

The detailed mechanism of work

DisBalancer protects the websites of customers in 4 stages:

The initial stage is detection that provides for distinguishing DDoS attack from normal traffic. To this end, the solution considers previous data, IP reputation as well as common attack patterns. DisBalancer applies HTTP fingerprinting and known AI/custom rule pattern matching to identify known threats in less than 2 milliseconds. As a result, disBalancer detects almost 99 per cent of all bad requests to customers’ APIs, websites, and mobile applications using these methods. Disbalancer detects new threats by analyzing information as browser tracking, browser automation detection, user event tracking, fake browser detection, and device detection. The solution detects layer application attacks via the use of Cookie challenge, JS test, and CAPTACHAs to monitor the behaviour of users, challenge unrecognized entities, and block known bad bots. Advanced new bots are detected in less than 100 milliseconds. When a particular threat is detected on the website of one of our customers, the protection algorithm is updated automatically so that the websites of other customers become protected from the type of DDoS attacks in question.

Normal traffic goes to the targeted website while malicious traffic as well as unusual traffic go through the Main Node and then the User Nodes. In case the unusual traffic is not detected as malicious upon analysis, it also goes to the targeted website.

Upon detecting an attack the solution provides a response aimed at dropping malicious traffic. To address layer (L7) attacks the solution applies WAF page rules while lower-level attacks (L3/L4) such as NTP amplification and Memcached attacks are handled via the application of other filtration processes. As a result, the solution does not allow a DDoS attack to result in the disruption of the website’s functioning.

At the third stage, the solution breaks the remaining traffic into manageable chunks through routing. Lastly, to effectively address DDoS attacks in the future, the solution can adapt to attack patterns by analyzing such traffic characteristics as country of origin, the improperly used protocols, and repeating offending IP blocks. The information about the malicious traffic is reported by a User Node to the Main Node.

How and Where to Buy disBalancer (DDOS) ?

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase DDOS from the Website: https://disbalancer.com*

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once DDOS gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
 ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
 ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
 ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
 ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information DDOS

WebsiteSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post is my OPINION and not financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #ddos #disbalancer

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

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