How To Install the Apache Web Server on CentOS 7

How To Install the Apache Web Server on CentOS 7

In this guide, you will install an Apache web server with virtual hosts on your CentOS 7 server.

In this guide, you will install an Apache web server with virtual hosts on your CentOS 7 server.

Introduction

The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.

Prerequisites

You will need the following to complete this guide:

Step 1 — Installing Apache

Apache is available within CentOS’s default software repositories, which means you an install it with the yum package manager.

As the non-root sudo user configured in the prerequisites, update the local Apache httpd package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

sudo yum update httpd


Once the packages are updated, install the Apache package:

sudo yum install httpd


After confirming the installation, yum will install Apache and all required dependencies. Once the installation completes, you are ready to start the service.

Step 2 — Checking your Web Server

Apache does not automatically start on CentOS once the installation completes. You will need to start the Apache process manually:

sudo systemctl start httpd


Verify that the service is running with the following command:

sudo systemctl status httpd


You will see an active status when the service is running:

OutputRedirecting to /bin/systemctl status httpd.service
● httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2019-02-20 01:29:08 UTC; 5s ago
     Docs: man:httpd(8)
           man:apachectl(8)
 Main PID: 1290 (httpd)
   Status: "Processing requests..."
   CGroup: /system.slice/httpd.service
           ├─1290 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─1291 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─1292 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─1293 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─1294 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           └─1295 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
...


As you can see from this output, the service appears to have started successfully. However, the best way to test this is to request a page from Apache.

You can access the default Apache landing page to confirm that the software is running properly through your IP address. If you do not know your server’s IP address, you can get it a few different ways from the command line.

Type this at your server’s command prompt:

hostname -I


This command will display all of the host’s network addresses, so you will get back a few IP addresses separated by spaces. You can try each in your web browser to see if they work.

Alternatively, you can use curl to request your IP from icanhazip.com, which will give you your public IPv4 address as seen from another location on the internet:

curl -4 icanhazip.com


When you have your server’s IP address, enter it into your browser’s address bar:

http://your_server_ip


You’ll see the default CentOS 7 Apache web page:

This page indicates that Apache is working correctly. It also includes some basic information about important Apache files and directory locations. Now that the service is installed and running, you can now use different systemctl commands to manage the service.

Step 3 — Managing the Apache Process

Now that you have your web server up and running, let’s go over some basic management commands.

To stop your web server, type:

sudo systemctl stop httpd


To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

sudo systemctl start httpd


To stop and then start the service again, type:

sudo systemctl restart httpd


If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

sudo systemctl reload httpd


By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

sudo systemctl disable httpd


To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

sudo systemctl enable httpd


Apache will now start automatically when the server boots again.

The default configuration for Apache will allow your server to host a single website. If you plan on hosting multiple domains on your server, you will need to configure virtual hosts on your Apache web server.

Step 4 — Setting Up Virtual Hosts (Recommended)

When using the Apache web server, you can use virtual hosts (similar to server blocks in Nginx) to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain from a single server. In this step, you will set up a domain called example.com, but you should replace this with your own domain name. To learn more about setting up a domain name with DigitalOcean, see our Introduction to DigitalOcean DNS.

Apache on CentOS 7 has one server block enabled by default that is configured to serve documents from the /var/www/html directory. While this works well for a single site, it can become unwieldy if you are hosting multiple sites. Instead of modifying /var/www/html, you will create a directory structure within /var/www for the example.com site, leaving /var/www/html in place as the default directory to be served if a client request doesn’t match any other sites.

Create the html directory for example.com as follows, using the -p flag to create any necessary parent directories:

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/example.com/html


Create an additional directory to store log files for the site:

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/example.com/log


Next, assign ownership of the html directory with the $USER environmental variable:

sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/example.com/html


Make sure that your web root has the default permissions set:

sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www


Next, create a sample index.html page using vi or your favorite editor:

sudo vi /var/www/example.com/html/index.html


Press i to switch to INSERT mode and add the following sample HTML to the file:

/var/www/example.com/html/index.html

<html>
  <head>
    <title>Welcome to Example.com!</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Success! The example.com virtual host is working!</h1>
  </body>
</html>


Save and close the file by pressing ESC, typing :wq, and pressing ENTER.

With your site directory and sample index file in place, you are almost ready to create the virtual host files. Virtual host files specify the configuration of your separate sites and tell the Apache web server how to respond to various domain requests.

Before you create your virtual hosts, you will need to create a sites-available directory to store them in. You will also create the sites-enabled directory that tells Apache that a virtual host is ready to serve to visitors. The sites-enabled directory will hold symbolic links to virtual hosts that we want to publish. Create both directories with the following command:

sudo mkdir /etc/httpd/sites-available /etc/httpd/sites-enabled


Next, you will tell Apache to look for virtual hosts in the sites-enabled directory. To accomplish this, edit Apache’s main configuration file and add a line declaring an optional directory for additional configuration files:

sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


Add this line to the end of the file:

IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf


Save and close the file when you are done adding that line. Now that you have your virtual host directories in place, you will create your virtual host file.

Start by creating a new file in the sites-available directory:

sudo vi /etc/httpd/sites-available/example.com.conf


Add in the following configuration block, and change the example.com domain to your domain name:

/etc/httpd/sites-available/example.com.conf

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName www.example.com
    ServerAlias example.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/example.com/html
    ErrorLog /var/www/example.com/log/error.log
    CustomLog /var/www/example.com/log/requests.log combined
</VirtualHost>


This will tell Apache where to find the root directly that holds the publicly accessible web documents. It also tells Apache where to store error and request logs for this particular site.

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Now that you have created the virtual host files, you will enable them so that Apache knows to serve them to visitors. To do this, create a symbolic link for each virtual host in the sites-enabled directory:

sudo ln -s /etc/httpd/sites-available/example.com.conf /etc/httpd/sites-enabled/example.com.conf


Your virtual host is now configured and ready to serve content. Before restarting the Apache service, let’s make sure that SELinux has the correct policies in place for your virtual hosts.

Step 5 — Adjusting SELinux Permissions for Virtual Hosts (Recommended)

SELinux is configured to work with the default Apache configuration. Since you set up a custom log directory in the virtual hosts configuration file, you will receive an error if you attempt to start the Apache service. To resolve this, you need to update the SELinux policies to allow Apache to write to the necessary files. SELinux brings heightened security to your CentOS 7 environment, therefore it is not recommended to completely disable the kernel module.

There are different ways to set policies based on your environment’s needs, as SELinux allows you to customize your security level. This step will cover two methods of adjusting Apache policies: universally and on a specific directory. Adjusting policies on directories is more secure, and is therefore the recommended approach.

Adjusting Apache Policies Universally

Setting the Apache policy universally will tell SELinux to treat all Apache processes identically by using the httpd_unified boolean. While this approach is more convenient, it will not give you the same level of control as an approach that focuses on a file or directory policy.

Run the following command to set a universal Apache policy:

sudo setsebool -P httpd_unified 1


The setsebool command changes SELinux boolean values. The -P flag will update the boot-time value, making this change persist across reboots. httpd_unified is the boolean that will tell SELinux to treat all Apache processes as the same type, so you enabled it with a value of 1.

Adjusting Apache Policies on a Directory

Individually setting SELinux permissions for the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory will give you more control over your Apache policies, but may also require more maintenance. Since this option is not universally setting policies, you will need to manually set the context type for any new log directories specified in your virtual host configurations.

First, check the context type that SELinux gave the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory:

sudo ls -dZ /var/www/example.com/log/


This command lists and prints the SELinux context of the directory. You will see output similar to the following:

Outputdrwxr-xr-x. root root unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 /var/www/example.com/log/


The current context is httpd_sys_content_t, which tells SELinux that the Apache process can only read files created in this directory. In this tutorial, you will change the context type of the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory to httpd_log_t. This type will allow Apache to generate and append to web application log files:

sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_log_t "/var/www/example.com/log(/.*)?"


Next, use the restorecon command to apply these changes and have them persist across reboots:

sudo restorecon -R -v /var/www/example.com/log


The -R flag runs this command recursively, meaning it will update any existing files to use the new context. The -v flag will print the context changes the command made. You will see the following output confirming the changes:

Outputrestorecon reset /var/www/example.com/log context unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0->unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_log_t:s0


You can list the contexts once more to see the changes:

sudo ls -dZ /var/www/example.com/log/


The output reflects the updated context type:

Outputdrwxr-xr-x. root root unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_log_t:s0 /var/www/example.com/log


Now that the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory is using the httpd_log_t type, you are ready to test your virtual host configuration.

Step 6 — Testing the Virtual Host (Recommended)

Once the SELinux context has been updated with either method, Apache will be able to write to the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory. You can now successfully restart the Apache service:

sudo systemctl restart httpd


List the contents of the /var/www/<span class="highlight">example.com</span>/log directory to see if Apache created the log files:

ls -lZ /var/www/example.com/log


You’ll see that Apache was able to create the error.log and requests.log files specified in the virtual host configuration:

Output-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Feb 26 22:54 error.log
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Feb 26 22:54 requests.log


Now that you have your virtual host set up and SELinux permissions updated, Apache will now serve your domain name. You can test this by navigating to [http://<span](http://<span "http://<span") class="highlight">example.com</span>, where you should see something like this:

This confirms that your virtual host is successfully configured and serving content. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to create new virtual hosts with SELinux permissions for additional domains.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you installed and managed the Apache web server. Now that you have your web server installed, you have many options for the type of content you can serve and the technologies you can use to create a richer experience.

Mobile App Development Company India | Ecommerce Web Development Company India

Mobile App Development Company India | Ecommerce Web Development Company India

Best Mobile App Development Company India, WebClues Global is one of the leading web and mobile app development company. Our team offers complete IT solutions including Cross-Platform App Development, CMS & E-Commerce, and UI/UX Design.

We are custom eCommerce Development Company working with all types of industry verticals and providing them end-to-end solutions for their eCommerce store development.

Know more about Top E-Commerce Web Development Company

CMS & Ecommerce Development Company | CMS & eCommerce Web Development Services

CMS & Ecommerce Development Company | CMS & eCommerce Web Development Services

Top [CMS & Ecommerce Web Development Company](https://www.webcluesglobal.com/cms-ecommerce-development "CMS & Ecommerce Web Development Company") –We are known for our cost-effective & on-time delivery. We assure to provide quality solutions for...

Top CMS & Ecommerce Web Development Company –We are known for our cost-effective & on-time delivery. We assure to provide quality solutions for your business needs.

Website Development - Top Reasons Why Your Business Need A Creative Website?

Website Development - Top Reasons Why Your Business Need A Creative Website?

Currently, most business owners want a website and expand their business to increase the selling on local to international markets. We give you the top reasons why you need a website.

Most of the entrepreneurs with innovative ideas about start-up businesses are unaware of all the opportunities the internet has for their business.

A major percentage of our population uses the internet to look for local businesses, and if the business does not have a website then most of their potential consumers won’t get to know about the website only. It gets difficult for beginners who have little knowledge about web development this is where the role of web development services comes into the picture. Having a website connects our business to all the parts of the world effortlessly and opens up various new platforms which were not available previously.

The power of a web page is simply incomparable to other expensive methods of advertising like print media. In the era of smartphones, tablets and PCs where everybody is constantly exposed to the internet at every point of life, the competition is brewing like coffee.

Your web page needs to stand out and connect with the consumers, all the web development services can help you to make your website look just as you want it to.

The purpose of your webpage is not only to serve your customer base, but also to attract new customers, so our website needs to be easily accessible and attractive and some of the ways in which a web development company would help you are by.

“The page should be navigable smoothly and effortlessly, and whatever information the customer needs he/she should be able to retrieve it easily through a search box, etc.”

Professional web developers are able to provide these services.

1. Search Engine Optimization
All the websites are competing to be on top of the list of search engine result pages, but only web developers know how to work on this with the help of proper keywords, image optimization, linking, etc.

2. Appropriate Visual Content
It is the need of the hour to provide the customers with relevant visuals to get a proper idea of your business. Hence, we need professional help to balance the text and visuals for your website so that the customer doesn’t get bored beforehand and leave the webpage

3. Online Transaction
Most of the consumers these days prefer cashless and online mode of payment. It becomes more convenient from the sales point of view too to keep a track of online sales records. Web development services ensure that your website has all required mediums for a transaction and also whether all of them are up to date or not.

4. Global Recognition
Once the brand name is out there, it is very important for the website to have a proper connection with the international client base as well as local customers, the format and design of the website helps is doing so.

5. Responsiveness
Anyone could set up an informative website, but to hold the customer’s attention the website also needs to responsive and interactive, Services are provided through which feedback of the customers can be collected and problems can be addressed as well.

6. Reducing Downtime
While the page is being formatted it is unavailable to the customers, this could result in a loss of attention span from many customers. Hence, webmasters make sure that they take as little time as possible to put up new blog posts or advertisements on the website and don’t make the customers wait.

7. Profit-Making Schemes
One of the ways in which our website might earn small profits is by allowing ads. However, it is a tedious job to also block inappropriate content. Web developers allow and block ads accordingly so that the ads don’t take up much space, but also harmlessly add up to the profits.

Read also: PHP Trends: 5 Best Framework For Web Development

The article gives an idea about how it is necessary for a business in the current world to have a webpage, but adding up all the features which would attract customers is not as easy as it looks and which is why web development services to help us.

Source by