Kubernetes is a powerful and extensible open-source platform for managing, scaling, and deploying containerized applications and services. It’s a system designed to handle the scheduling and coordinating of a container on a cluster and manage the workloads to ensure they run reliably. Kubernetes allows us, the users, to define the way our applications run, and how our application interacts with other applications. Kubernetes is a tool that allows us to manage our cloud infrastructure, and the complexities of having to manage a virtual machine or network so that we can focus on developing and scaling our application. Kubernetes provides a flexible and reliable platform to manage and scale containers with a simple, easy interface.
The Kubernetes project was created by Google, and has its roots in an internal project called BORG. Kubernetes was later donated to the Linux Foundation to form the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).
Kubernetes is supported by Google Cloud, AWS, Microsoft Azure, and several other cloud computing companies. It has been widely accepted and has steady adoption growth which gives it an important position in the world of container management and orchestration.
It’s important that a developer understands how Kubernetes works to be able to get the most out of it. Kubernetes is structured in a layer-like form, where the high layer is an abstraction of the intricacy in the lower layer. We’ll outline some of the layers and foundational terms used in Kubernetes and how they function. Kubernetes architecture includes the following:
A pod is the smallest deployable unit of Kubernetes. It consists of a container, or group of containers, that share allocated resources like memory, life-cycle, and storage. Pods have a single IP address that is applied to every container within the pod. A pod is literally a representation of one or more containers that should be treated as a single application. Users are usually advised not to manage pods directly, rather they should work on high-level objects that use the pods. Kubernetes can be configured to deploy new replicas of your pod to your cluster in situations where you need to scale and a single pod can not carry the load of your application. Meanwhile it is usually a standard to run multiple replicas of a pod ro allow load balancing and failure resistance.
The Replication Controller is considered to be a wrapper on a pod. Often abbreviated as an rc, the Replication Controller manages and ensures that a specified number of pods are running at a particular time. The Replication Controller maintains the pods that it manages, restarts them when they fail, or replaces them when they’re deleted or terminated.
The Replication Controller runs a reconciliation loop that monitors the number of running pods and also ensures that the specified number of replicas are always running. It maintains the replicas by either creating new replicas or deleting extra replicas where necessary.
The Replica Set is abbreviated as rs, and its job is to maintain a set of replica pods running at a given time. The replica set is considered a subset iteration of how the replication controller works, and it’s much more flexible with pods it’s meant to manage.
The deployments define how the user wants to run your application by allowing the user to set details of the pods and how the pods would be replicated via nodes. You can modify your Deployments by changing configurations, and Kubernetes will automatically adjust the replica set and manage the shift from different application versions. A deployment automatically spins up the requested number of pods and monitors them when added to a Kubernetes cluster. Also, it automatically recreates a pod when it dies.
The service is a collection of pods, more like an abstraction over the pods, that provides an interface for external consumers or another application to interact with them. The service provides a single IP address mapped to the pods but can be made available outside of the clusters using one of several strategies available.
A node is a virtual machine or physical server that runs and manages pods. It collects pods that work together just like pods collect containers that work together.
A node includes a container runtime, kube-proxy and kubelet. We could think of a node as a machine that allows us to insert different layers of abstraction. A Node is simply viewed as a machine with a set of CPU and RAM resources that can be utilized. Also, any machine can substitute any other machine in a Kubernetes cluster.
This serves as the main contact point for administrators and users to manage containers on the nodes. It accepts user requests through HTTP calls, or by running commands on the command-line.
A cluster is one or more nodes that run our application. A Kubernetes cluster can be seen as a pool of Nodes combined together to form a more powerful machine. When a program is deployed on a Kubernetes cluster, it is intuitive enough to handle the distribution of work to individual nodes. Also, if a node is removed or added to the cluster, it will automatically shift the work around and which individual machine or machines are running the coed won’t matter to the programmer.
#devops #kubernetes #k8s
Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.
According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.
And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.
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With more of us using smartphones, the popularity of mobile applications has exploded. In the digital era, the number of people looking for products and services online is growing rapidly. Smartphone owners look for mobile applications that give them quick access to companies’ products and services. As a result, mobile apps provide customers with a lot of benefits in just one device.
Likewise, companies use mobile apps to increase customer loyalty and improve their services. Mobile Developers are in high demand as companies use apps not only to create brand awareness but also to gather information. For that reason, mobile apps are used as tools to collect valuable data from customers to help companies improve their offer.
There are many types of mobile applications, each with its own advantages. For example, native apps perform better, while web apps don’t need to be customized for the platform or operating system (OS). Likewise, hybrid apps provide users with comfortable user experience. However, you may be wondering how long it takes to develop an app.
To give you an idea of how long the app development process takes, here’s a short guide.
_Average time spent: two to five weeks _
This is the initial stage and a crucial step in setting the project in the right direction. In this stage, you brainstorm ideas and select the best one. Apart from that, you’ll need to do some research to see if your idea is viable. Remember that coming up with an idea is easy; the hard part is to make it a reality.
All your ideas may seem viable, but you still have to run some tests to keep it as real as possible. For that reason, when Web Developers are building a web app, they analyze the available ideas to see which one is the best match for the targeted audience.
Targeting the right audience is crucial when you are developing an app. It saves time when shaping the app in the right direction as you have a clear set of objectives. Likewise, analyzing how the app affects the market is essential. During the research process, App Developers must gather information about potential competitors and threats. This helps the app owners develop strategies to tackle difficulties that come up after the launch.
The research process can take several weeks, but it determines how successful your app can be. For that reason, you must take your time to know all the weaknesses and strengths of the competitors, possible app strategies, and targeted audience.
The outcomes of this stage are app prototypes and the minimum feasible product.
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For a developer, becoming a team leader can be a trap or open up opportunities for creating software. Two years ago, when I was a developer, I was thinking, “I want to be a team leader. It’s so cool, he’s in charge of everything and gets more money. It’s the next step after a senior.” Back then, no one could tell me how wrong I was. I had to find it out myself.
I’m naturally very organized. Whatever I do, I try to put things in order, create systems and processes. So I’ve always been inclined to take on more responsibilities than just coding. My first startup job, let’s call it T, was complete chaos in terms of development processes.
Now I probably wouldn’t work in a place like that, but at the time, I enjoyed the vibe. Just imagine it — numerous clients and a team leader who set tasks to the developers in person (and often privately). We would often miss deadlines and had to work late. Once, my boss called and asked me to come back to work at 8 p.m. to finish one feature — all because the deadline was “the next morning.” But at T, we were a family.
We also did everything ourselves — or at least tried to. I’ll never forget how I had to install Ubuntu on a rack server that we got from one of our investors. When I would turn it on, it sounded like a helicopter taking off!
At T, I became a CTO and managed a team of 10 people. So it was my first experience as a team leader.
Then I came to work at D — as a developer. And it was so different in every way when it came to processes.
They employed classic Scrum with sprints, burndown charts, demos, story points, planning, and backlog grooming. I was amazed by the quality of processes, but at first, I was just coding and minding my own business. Then I became friends with the Scrum master. I would ask him lots of questions, and he would willingly answer them and recommend good books.
My favorite was Scrum and XP from the Trenches by Henrik Kniberg. The process at D was based on its methods. As a result, both managers and sellers knew when to expect the result.
Then I joined Skyeng, also as a developer. Unlike my other jobs, it excels at continuous integration with features shipped every day. Within my team, we used a Kanban-like method.
We were also lucky to have our team leader, Petya. At our F2F meetings, we could discuss anything, from missing deadlines to setting up a task tracker. Sometimes I would just give feedback or he would give me advice.
That’s how Petya got to know I’d had some management experience at T and learned Scrum at D.
So one day, he offered me to host a stand-up.
#software-development #developer #dev-team-leadership #agile-software-development #web-development #mobile-app-development #ios-development #android-development
With the rise of globalization and the worldwide lockdown due to the pandemic, most of the work has been done by remote working processes and professionals from their homes. This lockdown has proved the efficiency of remote development and enhanced the trust in offshore software development industry.
To make the most out of the benefits of offshore software development, you should understand the crucial factors that affect offshore development. This is why you should read this guide for the best practices when hiring an offshore software development company. Despite the size and the industry of the business, offshore software development is not beneficial for every entrepreneur in many aspects to make the optimum use of talents in technology across the globe.
Here are some of the top reasons why offshore development is beneficial for your business.
To avail of all these benefits, you should have clear goals, a list of requirements, and features that are mandatory for your software product.
Here are a few tips to help you find the best offshore software development company. Build a top-notch software application by following the listed best practices.
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