Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose

1660039380

Cosmos Ecosystem Overview | Top 100 Project Built on Cosmos (ATOM)

In this article, you'll learn Cosmos, Cosmos Ecosystem Overview | Top 100 Project Built on Cosmos (ATOM)

1. What is Cosmos?

Visit: https://cosmos.network/

  • Cosmos makes blockchains powerful and easy to develop with Tendermint BFT and the modularity of the Cosmos SDK.
  • Cosmos enables blockchains to transfer value with each other through IBC and Peg-Zones, while letting them retain their sovereignty.
  • Cosmos allows blockchain applications to scale to millions of users through horizontal and vertical scalability solutions.

More than anything, Cosmos is not a product but an ecosystem built on a set of modular, adaptable and interchangeable tools. Developers are encouraged to join the effort to improve existing tools and create new ones in order to make the promise of blockchain technology a reality. These tools are the foundation needed to create the decentralized internet and global financial system of tomorrow.

How does Cosmos fit in the broader blockchain ecosystem?

THE BITCOIN STORY (BLOCKCHAIN 1.0)

To understand how Cosmos fits in the blockchain ecosystem, we need to go back to the beginning of the blockchain story. The first blockchain was Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer digital currency created in 2008 that used a novel consensus mechanism known as Proof-of-Work (PoW). It was the first decentralized application on a blockchain. Soon, people started to realize the potential of decentralized applications and the desire to build new ones emerged in the community.

At the time, there were two options to develop decentralized applications: either fork the bitcoin codebase or build on top of it. However, the bitcoin codebase was very monolithic; all three layers—networking, consensus and application — were mixed together. Additionally, the Bitcoin scripting language was limited and not user-friendly. There was a need for better tools.

THE ETHEREUM STORY (BLOCKCHAIN 2.0)

In 2014, Ethereum came in with a new proposition for building decentralized applications. There would be a single blockchain where people would be able to deploy any kind of program. Ethereum achieved this by turning the Application layer into a virtual machine called the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). This virtual machine was able to process programs called smart contracts that any developer could deploy to the Ethereum blockchain in a permissionless fashion. This new approach allowed thousands of developers to start building decentralized applications (dApps). However, limitations to this approach soon became apparent and still persist to this day.

Scalability: The first limitation is scaling - decentralized applications built on top of Ethereum are inhibited by a shared rate of 15 transactions per second. This is due to the fact that Ethereum still uses Proof-of-Work and that Ethereum dApps compete for the limited resources of a single blockchain.

Usability: The second limitation is the relatively low flexibility granted to developers. Because the EVM is a sandbox that needs to accommodate all use cases, it optimizes for the average use case. This means that developers have to make compromises on the design and efficiency of their application (for example, requiring use of the account model in a payments platform where a UTXO model may be preferred). Among other things, they are limited to a few programming languages and cannot implement automatic execution of code.

Sovereignty: The third limitation is that each application is limited in sovereignty, because they all share the same underlying environment. Essentially, this creates two layers of governance: that of the application, and that of the underlying environment. The former is limited by the latter. If there is a bug in the application, nothing can be done about it without the approval of the governance of the Ethereum platform itself. If the application requires a new feature in the EVM, it again has to rely entirely on the governance of the Ethereum platform to accept it.

These limitations are not specific to Ethereum but to all blockchains trying to create a single platform that would fit all use cases. This is where Cosmos comes into play.

THE VISION OF COSMOS (BLOCKCHAIN 3.0)

The vision of Cosmos is to make it easy for developers to build blockchains and break the barriers between blockchains by allowing them to transact with each other. The end goal is to create an Internet of Blockchains, a network of blockchains able to communicate with each other in a decentralized way. With Cosmos, blockchains can maintain sovereignty, process transactions quickly and communicate with other blockchains in the ecosystem, making it optimal for a variety of use cases.

This vision is achieved through a set of open source tools like Tendermint, the Cosmos SDK and IBC designed to let people build custom, secure, scalable and interoperable blockchain applications quickly. Let us take a closer look at some of the most important tools in the ecosystem as well as the technical architecture of the Cosmos network. Note that Cosmos is an open source community project initially built by the Tendermint team. Everyone is welcome to build additional tools to enrich the greater developer ecosystem.

What is Tendermint BFT and the ABCI

Until recently, building a blockchain required building all three layers (Networking, Consensus, and Application) from the ground up. Ethereum simplified the development of decentralized applications by providing a Virtual-Machine blockchain on which anyone could deploy custom logic in the form of Smart Contracts. However, it did not simplify the development of blockchains themselves. Much like Bitcoin, Go-Ethereum remains a monolithic tech stack that is difficult to fork from and customize. This is where Tendermint, created by Jae Kwon in 2014, came in.

Tendermint BFT is a solution that packages the networking and consensus layers of a blockchain into a generic engine, allowing developers to focus on application development as opposed to the complex underlying protocol. As a result, Tendermint saves hundreds of hours of development time. Note that Tendermint also designates the name of the byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) consensus algorithm used within the Tendermint BFT engine. For more on the history of consensus protocols and BFT you can check this cool podcast by Tendermint co-founder Ethan Buchman.

The Tendermint BFT engine is connected to the application by a socket protocol called the Application Blockchain Interface (ABCI). This protocol can be wrapped in any programming language, making it possible for developers to choose a language that fits their needs.

But that is not all. Here are the properties that make Tendermint BFT a state-of-the-art blockchain engine:

  • Public or private blockchain ready: Tendermint BFT only handles networking and consensus for a blockchain, meaning that it helps nodes propagate transactions and validators agree on a set of transactions to append to the blockchain. It is the role of the application layer to define how the validator set
  • is constituted. Developers can therefore build both public and private blockchains on top of the Tendermint BFT engine. If the application defines that validators are elected based on how many tokens they have at stake, then the blockchain can be characterised as Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
  • . If however the application defines that only a restricted set of pre-authorized entities can be validators, then the blockchain can be characterised as permissioned or private. Developers have all the freedom to customize the rules that define how the validator set of their blockchain changes.
  • High Performance: Tendermint BFT can have a block time on the order of 1 second and handle up to thousands of transactions per second.
  • Instant finality: A property of the Tendermint consensus algorithm is instant finality. This means that forks are never created as long as more than a third of the validators are honest (byzantine). Users can be sure their transactions are finalized as soon as a block is created (which is not the case in Proof-of-Work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum).
  • Security: Tendermint consensus is not only fault tolerant, it is also accountable. If the blockchain forks, there is a way to determine liability.

Cosmos SDK and other application layer frameworks

Tendermint BFT reduces the development time of a blockchain from years to weeks, but building a secure ABCI-app from scratch remains a difficult task. This is why the Cosmos SDK exists.

The Cosmos SDK is a generalized framework that simplifies the process of building secure blockchain applications on top of Tendermint BFT. It is based on two major principles:

  • Modularity: The goal of the Cosmos SDK is to create an ecosystem of modules
  • that allows developers to easily spin up application-specific blockchains
  • without having to code each bit of functionality of their application from scratch. Anyone can create a module for the Cosmos SDK, and using ready built modules in your blockchain is as simple as importing them into your application. For example, the Tendermint team is building a set of basic modules that are needed for the Cosmos Hub
  • . These modules can be used by any developer as they build their own application. Additionally, developers can create new modules to customize their application. As the Cosmos network develops, the ecosystem of SDK modules will expand, making it increasingly easier to develop complex blockchain applications.
  • Capabilities-based security: Capabilities constrain the security boundaries between modules, enabling developers to better reason about the composability of modules and limit the scope of malicious or unexpected interactions.

The Cosmos SDK also comes with a set of useful developer tools for building command line interfaces (CLI), REST servers and a variety of other commonly used utility libraries.

One final remark: the Cosmos SDK, like all Cosmos tools, is designed to be modular. Today, it allows developers to build on top of Tendermint BFT. However, it can be used with any other consensus engines that implements the ABCI. As time goes by, we expect multiple SDKs to emerge, built with different architecture models and compatible with multiple consensus engines - all within a single ecosystem: the Cosmos Network.

ETHERMINT

The great thing about the Cosmos SDK is that its modularity allows developers to port virtually any existing blockchain codebase already in Golang on top of it. For example, Ethermint

is a project that ports the Ethereum Virtual Machine into an SDK module. Ethermint works exactly like Ethereum but also benefits from all the properties of Tendermint BFT. All the existing Ethereum tools (Truffle, Metamask, etc.) are compatible with Ethermint and you can port your smart contracts over without additional work.

Today are developed on top of Virtual Machine blockchains like Ethereum. First, it should be stated that the reason for this phenomenon is that up until now blockchains were much more difficult to develop than Smart Contracts. This is not the case anymore, thanks to the Cosmos SDK. Now, developers can easily develop entire application-specific blockchains, which have several advantages. Among others, they give more flexibility, security, performance and sovereignty. Of course, if you don’t want to build your own blockchain, you can still make your Smart Contracts compatible with Cosmos by deploying them on Ethermint.

Connecting Blockchains Together - IBC

Now that developers have a way to quickly build customized blockchains, let us see how to connect these blockchains together. The connection between blockchains is achieved through a protocol called Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC). IBC leverages the instant finality property of Tendermint consensus (although it can work with any “fast-finality” blockchain engine) to allow heterogeneous chains to transfer value (i.e. tokens) or data to each other.

WHAT ARE HETEROGENEOUS CHAINS?

Essentially it comes down to two things:

  • Different layers: Heterogeneous chains have different layers, meaning they can differ in how they implement the networking, consensus and application parts. To be compatible with IBC, a blockchain needs only follow a few requirements, the main one being that the consensus layer must have fast finality. Proof-of-Work chains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) do not fall in this category, as they have probabilistic finality.
  • Sovereignty: Every blockchain is maintained by a set of validators whose job is to agree on the next block to commit to the blockchain. In Proof-of-Work blockchains these validators are called miners. A sovereign blockchain is a blockchain with its own validator set. In many instances it is important for blockchains to be sovereign, as validators are ultimately responsible for modifying the state. In Ethereum, applications are all run by a common set of validators. Because of this, each application only has limited sovereignty.

IBC allows heterogeneous blockchains to transfer tokens and data to each other, meaning that blockchains with different applications and validator sets are interoperable. For example, it allows public and private blockchains to transfer tokens to each other. Currently, no other blockchain framework enables this level of interoperability.

HOW IBC WORKS

The principle behind IBC is fairly simple. Let us take an example where an account on chain A wants to send 10 tokens (let us call them ATOM) to chain B.

  • Tracking: Continuously, chain B receives the headers of chain A, and vice versa. This allows each chain to track the validator set of the other. In essence, each chain runs a light-client of the other.
  • Bonding: When the IBC transfer is initiated, the ATOM are locked up (bonded) on chain A.
  • Proof Relay: Then, a proof that the 10 ATOM are bonded is relayed from chain A to chain B.
  • Validation: The proof is verified on chain B against chain A’s header and, if it is valid, then 10 ATOM-vouchers are created on chain B.

How IBC Works #4

Note that the ATOM that have been created on chain B are not real ATOM, as ATOM only exist on chain A. They are a representation on B of ATOM from chain A, along with a proof that these ATOM are frozen on chain A. A similar mechanism is used to unlock ATOM when they come back to their origin chain. 

Designing the “Internet of Blockchains”

IBC is a protocol that allows two heterogeneous blockchains to transfer tokens to each other. From there, how do we create a network of blockchains?

One idea is to connect each blockchain in the network with every other via direct IBC connections. The main problem with this approach is that the number of connections in the network grows quadratically with the number of blockchains. If there are 100 blockchains in the network and each needs to maintain an IBC connection with every other, that is 4950 connections. This quickly gets out of hand.

To solve this, Cosmos proposes a modular architecture with two classes of blockchain: Hubs and Zones. Zones are regular heterogenous blockchains and Hubs are blockchains specifically designed to connect Zones together. When a Zone creates an IBC connection with a Hub, it can automatically access (i.e. send to and receive from) every other Zone that is connected to it. As a result, each Zone only needs to establish a limited number of connections with a restricted set of Hubs. Hubs also prevent double spending among Zones. This means that when a Zone receives a token from a Hub, it only needs to trust the origin Zone of this token and the Hub.

The first Hub launched in the Cosmos Network is the Cosmos Hub. The Cosmos Hub is a public Proof-of-Stake blockchain whose native staking token is called the ATOM, and where transactions fees will be payable in multiple tokens. The launch of the Hub also marks the launch of the Cosmos network.

Bridging non-Tendermint chains

So far, the architecture of Cosmos we have presented shows how Tendermint-based chains can interoperate. But Cosmos is not limited to Tendermint chains. In fact, any kind of blockchain can be connected to Cosmos.

We have two cases to distinguish: fast-finality chains and probabilistic-finality chains.

FAST-FINALITY CHAINS

Blockchains that use any fast-finality consensus algorithms can connect with Cosmos by adapting IBC. For example, if Ethereum were to switch to Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget), a direct connection could be established between it and the Cosmos Ecosystem by adapting IBC to work with Casper.

PROBABILISTIC-FINALITY CHAINS

For blockchains that do not have fast-finality, like Proof-of-Work chains, things get a bit trickier. For these chains we use a special kind of proxy-chain called a Peg-Zone. A Peg-Zone is a blockchain that tracks the state of another blockchain. The Peg-Zone itself has fast-finality and is therefore compatible with IBC. Its role is to establish finality for the blockchain it bridges. Let us look at the following example.

Example: Ethereum Peg-Zone

Interestingly enough, the Peg-Zone also allows users to send any token that lives on Cosmos to the Ethereum chain (the Cosmos tokens would be represented as ERC20 on the Ethereum chain). The Tendermint team is currently working on a Peg-Zone implementation for the Ethereum chain called Peggy.

Peg-Zones will need to be customized for the particular chain they bridge. Building an Ethereum Peg-Zone is relatively simple because Ethereum is account-based and has smart-contracts. However, building a Bitcoin Peg-Zone is a bit more challenging. Explaining how to build a Bitcoin-like Peg-Zone is out-of-scope for this intro but know that it is theoretically possible. If you want to learn more about Peg-Zones you can take a look at this spec.

Solving Scalability

Now that we can easily create and connect blockchains there is one final issue to tackle: Scalability. Cosmos leverages two types of scalability:

  • Vertical scalability: This encompasses the methods for scaling the blockchain itself. By moving away from Proof-of-Work and optimizing its components, Tendermint BFT can reach thousands of transactions per-second. The bottleneck factor is the application itself. For example, an application like a Virtual Machine (e.g. the Ethereum Virtual Machine) will impose a much lower limit on the transaction throughput than an application where transaction types and state transition
  • functions are directly embedded in it (e.g. a standard Cosmos SDK application). This is one of the reasons why application-specific blockchains make sense.
  • Horizontal scalability: Even if the consensus engine and the application are highly optimized, at some point the transaction throughput of a single chain inevitably hits a wall it cannot surpass. That is the limit of vertical scaling. To go beyond it, the solution is to move to multi-chain architectures. The idea is to have multiple parallel chains running the same application and operated by a common validator set, making blockchains theoretically infinitely scalable. Details about horizontal scalability are fairly complex and out-of-scope for this intro.

Cosmos will offer very good vertical scalability at launch, which will be a major improvement over current blockchain solutions in and of itself. Later, after the completion of the IBC module, horizontal scalability solutions will be implemented.

Top exchanges for ATOM trading. 

BinancePoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.io


2. Cosmos Ecosystem Overview

The Cosmos ecosystem is a decentralized network designed to connect various blockchains as part of an ambitious drive to power an ‘Internet of blockchains’. Using a novel technology called Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol, Cosmos is able to facilitate seamless interaction and exchange of information between chains in its ecosystem. At the same time, Cosmos also offers tools that can drastically streamline and speed up the development of purpose-built blockchains, as part of a bid to reimagine what building blockchain applications can really be. 

Ultimately, Cosmos seeks to solve the limitations of the current generation of blockchain tech and usher in a new era of increased scalability, usability and interoperability in the blockchain space. 

TypeNameDescribeTokenExchangeLink
Behind CosmosCosmos NetworkCosmos is an ever-expanding ecosystem of interconnected apps and services, built for a decentralized future.ATOM BinanceWebsite
Cosmos SDKThe worlds most popular blockchain framework. Over $6 billion in assets are managed by public blockchains built with the Cosmos SDK. Build yours today.ATOM BinanceWebsite
TendermintBuilding the most powerful tools for distributed networks.  Website
IBC ProtocollIBC is an interoperability protocol for communicating arbitrary data between arbitrary state machines. It provides an end-to-end, connection-oriented, stateful protocol for reliable, ordered, and authenticated communication between heterogeneous blockchains or off-chain protocols (rollups), and can accomodate for both known and dynamic validator topologies.  Website
DEX AMM SwapsThorchainDECENTRALIZED LIQUIDITY PROTOCOL Deposit native assets into Liquidity Pools to earn yield. The network is 100% autonomous and decentralized.RUNEBinanceWebsite
Injective ProtocolInjective enables access to unlimited decentralized finance markets. Users can create any financial market on Injective’s fast, cross-chain, zero gas fee, secure, and fully decentralized exchange protocol.INJBinanceWebsite
OsmosisOsmosis DEX for the Cosmos ecosystem.OSMOMEXCWebsite
VegaVega has designed fully automated processes for creating markets on and trading margined derivatives. Markets will be open and decentralised, with pseudonymous participants.VEGA Website
Gravity BridgeEnter the portal to cross-chain DeFi. Swap, transfer, and pool assets with Emeris. Manage assets across multiple chains all in one place, elevating your DeFi experience to the next level.  Website
Sommelier FinanceSommelier is a coprocessor for Ethereum that moves DeFi assets from Automated Money Markets into higher yields more quickly and cheaply than was previously possible through non automated yield farming across different protocols.SOMM Website
Bridges Cross Chain InteroperabilityIrisnetIRISnet (a.k.a IRIS Hub) is designed to be the foundation for the next generation distributed applications. Built with Cosmos-SDK, IRIS Hub enables cross-chain interoperability through a unified service model, while providing a variety of modules to support DeFi applications. 

IRIS Hub is designed to support not only token transfers across internet of blockchains, but also to allow consumption of data and computing resources across heterogenous systems mechanism, token economics, etc.)
IRISBinanceWebsite
Loomx NetworkLoom Network provides developers the scalability and usability they need to build high-performance user-facing dapps today. With seamless integrations to Bitcoin, Ethereum, Binance Chain, and all major blockchains, deploying once to Loom lets you future-proof your dapp by reaching the largest number of users possible.LOOMBinanceWebsite
UmeeUmee is a layer-one blockchain built on Cosmos designed to create a universal cross-chain DeFi hub. It serves as a base layer for future DApps and money legos. Thanks to the interoperability of the Tendermint Proof-of-stake consensus mechanism used, the Umee blockchain can be integrated with Cosmos, Ethereum, side chains, layer-two chains, and alternative base-layer protocols.UMEEFTXWebsite
InterchainWe believe that open-source, cryptographic, consensus-driven, economic networks hold the key to an anti-fragile global economic system and equal opportunity for all. Our current focus is on the interoperable blockchain technology of the Cosmos Network  Website
AxelarAxelar is an overlay network, delivering Turing-complete message passing via proof-of-stake and permissionless protocols. Developers use Axelar to go beyond bridges, creating dApps that securely integrate users, functions and assets across all of the decentralized web.AXL Website
Liquid StakingPersistencePersistence is enabling exposure to multiple asset classes such as Liquid Staking (pSTAKE), NFTs (Asset Mantle) and Synthetics (Comdex). Persistence’s mission is to create an ecosystem of multi-chain Web3 products designed to stimulate global liquidity and enable seamless value exchange.

Persistence’s Core mainnet is a Proof-of-Stake chain powered by Tendermint BFT consensus engine. Persistence’s multi-chain tech stack (currently supporting Cosmos, Ethereum and other Tendermint-based chains) abstracts away the complexities for developers and enables them to create DEXs, marketplaces, lending/borrowing platforms etc.
XPRTGateWebsite
Lido FinanceLido is a liquid staking protocol for POS blockchains. It gives you a liquid token that represents your staked collateral and earnings over time. Lido removes the need to run infrastructure and enabling continued participation in DeFi.

wstETH is a wrapped version of stETH. Instead of rebasing, or changing account holdings daily it is similar to a c-token. It represents a pro-rata ownership of the staked ETH (stETH). When someone exits wstETH they are returned principal stETH + stETH earnings.
 
WSTETHUniswapWebsite
Smart Contract EVMKadenaKadena is a proof-of-work blockchain that combines the PoW consensus mechanism from Bitcoin with directed acyclic graph (DAG) principles to offer a scalable version of Bitcoin. Kadena claims it can provide the security of Bitcoin while being able to offer unparalleled throughput that makes the blockchain usable to enterprises and entrepreneurs alike. Kadena's unique infrastructure is decentralized and built for mass adoption because of its multi-chain approach.KDABinanceWebsite
JunoJuno is a sovereign public blockchain in the Cosmos ecosystem, which provides an environment for the deployment of interoperable smart contracts. The network serves as a decentralized, permissionless & censorship resistant avenue for developers to efficiently and securely launch smart contracts using proven frameworks and compile them in various languages Rust & Go. Battle tested contract modules such as CosmWasm, allow for decentralized applications (dapps) to be compiled on robust and secure multi-chain smart contracts.
 
JUNOMEXCWebsite
EvmosEvmos is an Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol, a.k.a. IBC; the IP layer for blockchains. IBC is currently the safest and most secure and decentralized way to move assets across different blockchains, unlocking interoperability across multiple chains.

Evmos leverages the Cosmos SDK serves as the first IBC-compatible EVM-based chain, bringing composability, interoperability, and fast finality to Ethereum.
EVMOSMEXCWebsite
CronosCronos Chain. Get Instant DApp Portability with EVM Support.  Website
CosmwasmBuild your robust dApps on secure, multi-chain smart contracts!  Website
AgoricBuild Fast, Earn FastTM. A Proof-of-Stake chain utilizing secure JavaScript smart contracts to rapidly build and deploy DeFi.BLD Website
PrivacySecret NetworkSecret Network is the first blockchain with data privacy by default, allowing you to build and use applications that are both permissionless and privacy-preserving. This unique functionality protects users, secures applications, and unlocks hundreds of new use cases for Web 3.SCRTBinanceWebsite
Oasis ProtocolA new era of blockchain. The Oasis Network is a privacy-enabled blockchain platform for open finance and a responsible data economy.ROSEBinanceWebsite
Nym TechExisting internet protocols leak sensitive data that can be used without users knowledge — Nym is developing the infrastructure to prevent this data leakage by protecting every packet’s metadata at the network and application layers.NYMOKXWebsite
Anoma NetworkUndefining Money. A sovereign, proof-of-stake blockchain protocol that enables private, asset-agnostic cash and private bartering among any number of parties.  Website
IdentityStarnameIt enables users to receive crypto-currencies or to log in to blockchain applications in a seamless way. Transferring value becomes fast and easy.IOVHotbitWebsite
WetrustBuild, share, and manage your digital identity. Securely build your online profile and reputation.TRSTBancorWebsite
CheqdBuilding a private and secure SSI digital credentials network on Cosmos for the trusted data economy.CHEQGateWebsite
AI and CloudAkashDEPLOY FASTER. SCALE QUICKLY. Censorship-resistant, permissionless, and self-sovereign, Akash Network is the world’s first open source cloud.AKTGateWebsite
VitwitBuild. Automate. Scale. We build Intelligent & autonomous solutions for our clients as part of digital transformations in the AI era. We pioneer the technology to empower businesses with insights and intelligent systems.  Website
SustainabilityRegen NetworkRegen Ledger is a sovereign, proof-of-stake blockchain built on the Cosmos SDK. REGEN is a staking token, providing Regen Ledger with utility - namely, fees, gas, governance and security.REGENOsmosisWebsite
IXOThe ixo protocol defines a new open standard for producing verifiable claims about changes in the state of the world.
 
IOXOsmosisWebsite
Lend and BorrowKavaKava is a Layer-1 blockchain that combines the speed and interoperability of Cosmos with the developer power of Ethereum.

The Kava Network uses a developer-optimized co-chain architecture. The Ethereum Co-Chain enables support for EVM smart contracts while the Cosmos Co-Chain enables the lightning-fast Tendermint consensus engine and the Inter Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC).
 
KAVABinanceWebsite
Social MediaDesmos NetworkA blockchain which serves as the backbone to empower the development of user-centric social networks.DSMOsmosisWebsite
Data OraclesMicrotickDatapace is Blockchain powered data marketplace with technical and policy-based data verification, and access to the worldwide network of sensors.TICKOsmosisWebsite
FoamFOAM's mission is to build a consensus driven map of the world, empowering a fully decentralized web3 economy with verifiable location data. FOAM incentivizes the infrastructure needed for privacy-preserving and fraud-proof location verification. The starting point for FOAM is the FOAM Map, where a community of Cartographers curate geographic Points of Interest on the FOAM map. FOAMPoloniexWebsite
VPNSentinelSentinel (DVPN) is a cryptocurrency and operates on the Cosmos platform.DVPNMEXCWebsite
PaymentBitcannaBitCanna aims to become the global digital ancillary platform for the cannabis industry. The focus for the team lies on building an application that will serve both businesses as consumers from within the industry. Blockchain is the means as an infrastructure to build this application on top.
 
BCNAHotbitWebsite
DappCrypto com CROBinanceWebsite
CeFi & DeFiComdexComdex is a DeFi infrastructure layer for the Cosmos ecosystem. Comdex provides a variety of interoperable plug & play modules for projects to use to create their own DeFi platforms providing utility to the Cosmos community as well as DeFi users worldwide.CMDXOsmosisWebsite
Kira NetworkKIRA is a Layer 1 network enabling market access to any digital asset in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Users can earn block and fee rewards from staking any digital asset on multiple chains at the same time, while maintaining full liquidity and custody over their funds, whether trading on KIRA or using other DeFi apps simultaneously.
 
KEXGateWebsite
KI ChainBridging CeFi with DeFi Block by Block.  Website
NFTBitsongBitSong is a distributed (open source) blockchain music ecosystem born in December 2017, to create a decentralized and trustless hub that interconnects the various market players.

Artists, Fans, Managers and Labels in One Single Holistic Ecosystem: $BTSG. Earn real-time royalties, discover exclusive content, mint and trade fan tokens, buy & sell NFTs.
BTSGOsmosisWebsite
StargazeStargaze is a decentralized and community-owned network for NFTs. It is built as an app-specific Cosmos Proof-of_stake chain, running the Tendermint consensus engine. It’s goal is to be similar to OpenSea, except governed by a community via a curation DAO and a protocol DAO.

Stargaze will allow users to buy, sell, and trade NFTs. It will also allow trading NFTs across other IBC-enabled chains. It will also interoperate with Ethereum over Gravity Bridge.
STARSOsmosisWebsite
OmniflixDecentralized media and network layer for Creators & Sovereign Communities powered by NFTs and related distribution protocols.  Website
Pylons techWe believe that distributed consensus will power new forms of individual and corporate expression — leading to enhanced community interactions. Built on Cosmos, Pylons is a fast and interoperable system for brands and creators to build engaging products with meaningful NFT experiences.  Website
Web 3LikeCoinLikeCoin (LIKE) is the native token of the LikeCoin chain built from the Cosmos SDK. LikeCoin is a inter-chain protocol and framework for decentralized publishing. It is an application-specific blockchain for building and bridging media to Web 3. LIKEOsmosisWebsite
BostromDecentralized web 3.0 search engineBOOTOsmosisWebsite
BluzelleBluzelle delivers high security, un-matched availability, and is censorship resistant. Whether you are an artist, musician, scientist, publisher, or developer, Bluzelle protects the intellectual property of all creators. Bluzelle is data storage, file storage, oracles, and more. Its is specific for NFTs and DeFi.BLZBinanceWebsite
Cosmos WalletKeplrKeplr Wallet for the Cosmos Ecosystem  Website
CosmostationCosmos Wallet and Enterprise-level Proof-of-Stake validator node operation & end-user applications.  Website

Conclusions:

  • The Cosmos ecosystem experienced strong growth in 2021. The application-specific blockchain architecture is gaining popularity within the industry. While these trends are very encouraging, from an investment standpoint, it is not clear exactly who value will accrue to within the ecosystem.
  • Although there are now a plethora of EVM blockchains, EVMos is uniquely positioned to integrate the Ethereum and Cosmos ecosystems. It will be interesting to see how the dApp store model in EVMos’ tokenomics manifests into developer activity.
  • The recent Wormhole (a bridge between Ethereum and Solana) smart contract hack has raised a lot of questions as to the viability of cross-chain integration. EVMos has partnered with Nomad and Connext to bridge assets between Ethereum and Cosmos. Security of these bridges will be paramount for successful integration.
  • The CEVMos modular architecture breaks the blockchain into its three core functions, specializing for each. While still in development (Celestia has not yet launched testnet), the partnership is extremely promising, and could establish a new industry paradigm.

I hope this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

Read more: Ethereum Ecosystem Overview | Top 200 Project Built on Ethereum (ETH)

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #cosmos #atom 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Cosmos Ecosystem Overview | Top 100 Project Built on Cosmos (ATOM)
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick

1593867420

Top Android Projects with Source Code

Android Projects with Source Code – Your entry pass into the world of Android

Hello Everyone, welcome to this article, which is going to be really important to all those who’re in dilemma for their projects and the project submissions. This article is also going to help you if you’re an enthusiast looking forward to explore and enhance your Android skills. The reason is that we’re here to provide you the best ideas of Android Project with source code that you can choose as per your choice.

These project ideas are simple suggestions to help you deal with the difficulty of choosing the correct projects. In this article, we’ll see the project ideas from beginners level and later we’ll move on to intermediate to advance.

top android projects with source code

Android Projects with Source Code

Before working on real-time projects, it is recommended to create a sample hello world project in android studio and get a flavor of project creation as well as execution: Create your first android project

Android Projects for beginners

1. Calculator

build a simple calculator app in android studio source code

Android Project: A calculator will be an easy application if you have just learned Android and coding for Java. This Application will simply take the input values and the operation to be performed from the users. After taking the input it’ll return the results to them on the screen. This is a really easy application and doesn’t need use of any particular package.

To make a calculator you’d need Android IDE, Kotlin/Java for coding, and for layout of your application, you’d need XML or JSON. For this, coding would be the same as that in any language, but in the form of an application. Not to forget creating a calculator initially will increase your logical thinking.

Once the user installs the calculator, they’re ready to use it even without the internet. They’ll enter the values, and the application will show them the value after performing the given operations on the entered operands.

Source Code: Simple Calculator Project

2. A Reminder App

Android Project: This is a good project for beginners. A Reminder App can help you set reminders for different events that you have throughout the day. It’ll help you stay updated with all your tasks for the day. It can be useful for all those who are not so good at organizing their plans and forget easily. This would be a simple application just whose task would be just to remind you of something at a particular time.

To make a Reminder App you need to code in Kotlin/Java and design the layout using XML or JSON. For the functionality of the app, you’d need to make use of AlarmManager Class and Notifications in Android.

In this, the user would be able to set reminders and time in the application. Users can schedule reminders that would remind them to drink water again and again throughout the day. Or to remind them of their medications.

3. Quiz Application

Android Project: Another beginner’s level project Idea can be a Quiz Application in android. Here you can provide the users with Quiz on various general knowledge topics. These practices will ensure that you’re able to set the layouts properly and slowly increase your pace of learning the Android application development. In this you’ll learn to use various Layout components at the same time understanding them better.

To make a quiz application you’ll need to code in Java and set layouts using xml or java whichever you prefer. You can also use JSON for the layouts whichever preferable.

In the app, questions would be asked and answers would be shown as multiple choices. The user selects the answer and gets shown on the screen if the answers are correct. In the end the final marks would be shown to the users.

4. Simple Tic-Tac-Toe

android project tic tac toe game app

Android Project: Tic-Tac-Toe is a nice game, I guess most of you all are well aware of it. This will be a game for two players. In this android game, users would be putting X and O in the given 9 parts of a box one by one. The first player to arrange X or O in an adjacent line of three wins.

To build this game, you’d need Java and XML for Android Studio. And simply apply the logic on that. This game will have a set of three matches. So, it’ll also have a scoreboard. This scoreboard will show the final result at the end of one complete set.

Upon entering the game they’ll enter their names. And that’s when the game begins. They’ll touch one of the empty boxes present there and get their turn one by one. At the end of the game, there would be a winner declared.

Source Code: Tic Tac Toe Game Project

5. Stopwatch

Android Project: A stopwatch is another simple android project idea that will work the same as a normal handheld timepiece that measures the time elapsed between its activation and deactivation. This application will have three buttons that are: start, stop, and hold.

This application would need to use Java and XML. For this application, we need to set the timer properly as it is initially set to milliseconds, and that should be converted to minutes and then hours properly. The users can use this application and all they’d need to do is, start the stopwatch and then stop it when they are done. They can also pause the timer and continue it again when they like.

6. To Do App

Android Project: This is another very simple project idea for you as a beginner. This application as the name suggests will be a To-Do list holding app. It’ll store the users schedules and their upcoming meetings or events. In this application, users will be enabled to write their important notes as well. To make it safe, provide a login page before the user can access it.

So, this app will have a login page, sign-up page, logout system, and the area to write their tasks, events, or important notes. You can build it in android studio using Java and XML at ease. Using XML you can build the user interface as user-friendly as you can. And to store the users’ data, you can use SQLite enabling the users to even delete the data permanently.

Now for users, they will sign up and get access to the write section. Here the users can note down the things and store them permanently. Users can also alter the data or delete them. Finally, they can logout and also, login again and again whenever they like.

7. Roman to decimal converter

Android Project: This app is aimed at the conversion of Roman numbers to their significant decimal number. It’ll help to check the meaning of the roman numbers. Moreover, it will be easy to develop and will help you get your hands on coding and Android.

You need to use Android Studio, Java for coding and XML for interface. The application will take input from the users and convert them to decimal. Once it converts the Roman no. into decimal, it will show the results on the screen.

The users are supposed to just enter the Roman Number and they’ll get the decimal values on the screen. This can be a good android project for final year students.

8. Virtual Dice Roller

Android Project: Well, coming to this part that is Virtual Dice or a random no. generator. It is another simple but interesting app for computer science students. The only task that it would need to do would be to generate a number randomly. This can help people who’re often confused between two or more things.

Using a simple random number generator you can actually create something as good as this. All you’d need to do is get you hands-on OnClick listeners. And a good layout would be cherry on the cake.

The user’s task would be to set the range of the numbers and then click on the roll button. And the app will show them a randomly generated number. Isn’t it interesting ? Try soon!

9. A Scientific Calculator App

Android Project: This application is very important for you as a beginner as it will let you use your logical thinking and improve your programming skills. This is a scientific calculator that will help the users to do various calculations at ease.

To make this application you’d need to use Android Studio. Here you’d need to use arithmetic logics for the calculations. The user would need to give input to the application that will be in terms of numbers. After that, the user will give the operator as an input. Then the Application will calculate and generate the result on the user screen.

10. SMS App

Android Project: An SMS app is another easy but effective idea. It will let you send the SMS to various no. just in the same way as you use the default messaging application in your phone. This project will help you with better understanding of SMSManager in Android.

For this application, you would need to implement Java class SMSManager in Android. For the Layout you can use XML or JSON. Implementing SMSManager into the app is an easy task, so you would love this.

The user would be provided with the facility to text to whichever number they wish also, they’d be able to choose the numbers from the contact list. Another thing would be the Textbox, where they’ll enter their message. Once the message is entered they can happily click on the send button.

#android tutorials #android application final year project #android mini projects #android project for beginners #android project ideas #android project ideas for beginners #android projects #android projects for students #android projects with source code #android topics list #intermediate android projects #real-time android projects

Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose

1660039380

Cosmos Ecosystem Overview | Top 100 Project Built on Cosmos (ATOM)

In this article, you'll learn Cosmos, Cosmos Ecosystem Overview | Top 100 Project Built on Cosmos (ATOM)

1. What is Cosmos?

Visit: https://cosmos.network/

  • Cosmos makes blockchains powerful and easy to develop with Tendermint BFT and the modularity of the Cosmos SDK.
  • Cosmos enables blockchains to transfer value with each other through IBC and Peg-Zones, while letting them retain their sovereignty.
  • Cosmos allows blockchain applications to scale to millions of users through horizontal and vertical scalability solutions.

More than anything, Cosmos is not a product but an ecosystem built on a set of modular, adaptable and interchangeable tools. Developers are encouraged to join the effort to improve existing tools and create new ones in order to make the promise of blockchain technology a reality. These tools are the foundation needed to create the decentralized internet and global financial system of tomorrow.

How does Cosmos fit in the broader blockchain ecosystem?

THE BITCOIN STORY (BLOCKCHAIN 1.0)

To understand how Cosmos fits in the blockchain ecosystem, we need to go back to the beginning of the blockchain story. The first blockchain was Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer digital currency created in 2008 that used a novel consensus mechanism known as Proof-of-Work (PoW). It was the first decentralized application on a blockchain. Soon, people started to realize the potential of decentralized applications and the desire to build new ones emerged in the community.

At the time, there were two options to develop decentralized applications: either fork the bitcoin codebase or build on top of it. However, the bitcoin codebase was very monolithic; all three layers—networking, consensus and application — were mixed together. Additionally, the Bitcoin scripting language was limited and not user-friendly. There was a need for better tools.

THE ETHEREUM STORY (BLOCKCHAIN 2.0)

In 2014, Ethereum came in with a new proposition for building decentralized applications. There would be a single blockchain where people would be able to deploy any kind of program. Ethereum achieved this by turning the Application layer into a virtual machine called the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). This virtual machine was able to process programs called smart contracts that any developer could deploy to the Ethereum blockchain in a permissionless fashion. This new approach allowed thousands of developers to start building decentralized applications (dApps). However, limitations to this approach soon became apparent and still persist to this day.

Scalability: The first limitation is scaling - decentralized applications built on top of Ethereum are inhibited by a shared rate of 15 transactions per second. This is due to the fact that Ethereum still uses Proof-of-Work and that Ethereum dApps compete for the limited resources of a single blockchain.

Usability: The second limitation is the relatively low flexibility granted to developers. Because the EVM is a sandbox that needs to accommodate all use cases, it optimizes for the average use case. This means that developers have to make compromises on the design and efficiency of their application (for example, requiring use of the account model in a payments platform where a UTXO model may be preferred). Among other things, they are limited to a few programming languages and cannot implement automatic execution of code.

Sovereignty: The third limitation is that each application is limited in sovereignty, because they all share the same underlying environment. Essentially, this creates two layers of governance: that of the application, and that of the underlying environment. The former is limited by the latter. If there is a bug in the application, nothing can be done about it without the approval of the governance of the Ethereum platform itself. If the application requires a new feature in the EVM, it again has to rely entirely on the governance of the Ethereum platform to accept it.

These limitations are not specific to Ethereum but to all blockchains trying to create a single platform that would fit all use cases. This is where Cosmos comes into play.

THE VISION OF COSMOS (BLOCKCHAIN 3.0)

The vision of Cosmos is to make it easy for developers to build blockchains and break the barriers between blockchains by allowing them to transact with each other. The end goal is to create an Internet of Blockchains, a network of blockchains able to communicate with each other in a decentralized way. With Cosmos, blockchains can maintain sovereignty, process transactions quickly and communicate with other blockchains in the ecosystem, making it optimal for a variety of use cases.

This vision is achieved through a set of open source tools like Tendermint, the Cosmos SDK and IBC designed to let people build custom, secure, scalable and interoperable blockchain applications quickly. Let us take a closer look at some of the most important tools in the ecosystem as well as the technical architecture of the Cosmos network. Note that Cosmos is an open source community project initially built by the Tendermint team. Everyone is welcome to build additional tools to enrich the greater developer ecosystem.

What is Tendermint BFT and the ABCI

Until recently, building a blockchain required building all three layers (Networking, Consensus, and Application) from the ground up. Ethereum simplified the development of decentralized applications by providing a Virtual-Machine blockchain on which anyone could deploy custom logic in the form of Smart Contracts. However, it did not simplify the development of blockchains themselves. Much like Bitcoin, Go-Ethereum remains a monolithic tech stack that is difficult to fork from and customize. This is where Tendermint, created by Jae Kwon in 2014, came in.

Tendermint BFT is a solution that packages the networking and consensus layers of a blockchain into a generic engine, allowing developers to focus on application development as opposed to the complex underlying protocol. As a result, Tendermint saves hundreds of hours of development time. Note that Tendermint also designates the name of the byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) consensus algorithm used within the Tendermint BFT engine. For more on the history of consensus protocols and BFT you can check this cool podcast by Tendermint co-founder Ethan Buchman.

The Tendermint BFT engine is connected to the application by a socket protocol called the Application Blockchain Interface (ABCI). This protocol can be wrapped in any programming language, making it possible for developers to choose a language that fits their needs.

But that is not all. Here are the properties that make Tendermint BFT a state-of-the-art blockchain engine:

  • Public or private blockchain ready: Tendermint BFT only handles networking and consensus for a blockchain, meaning that it helps nodes propagate transactions and validators agree on a set of transactions to append to the blockchain. It is the role of the application layer to define how the validator set
  • is constituted. Developers can therefore build both public and private blockchains on top of the Tendermint BFT engine. If the application defines that validators are elected based on how many tokens they have at stake, then the blockchain can be characterised as Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
  • . If however the application defines that only a restricted set of pre-authorized entities can be validators, then the blockchain can be characterised as permissioned or private. Developers have all the freedom to customize the rules that define how the validator set of their blockchain changes.
  • High Performance: Tendermint BFT can have a block time on the order of 1 second and handle up to thousands of transactions per second.
  • Instant finality: A property of the Tendermint consensus algorithm is instant finality. This means that forks are never created as long as more than a third of the validators are honest (byzantine). Users can be sure their transactions are finalized as soon as a block is created (which is not the case in Proof-of-Work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum).
  • Security: Tendermint consensus is not only fault tolerant, it is also accountable. If the blockchain forks, there is a way to determine liability.

Cosmos SDK and other application layer frameworks

Tendermint BFT reduces the development time of a blockchain from years to weeks, but building a secure ABCI-app from scratch remains a difficult task. This is why the Cosmos SDK exists.

The Cosmos SDK is a generalized framework that simplifies the process of building secure blockchain applications on top of Tendermint BFT. It is based on two major principles:

  • Modularity: The goal of the Cosmos SDK is to create an ecosystem of modules
  • that allows developers to easily spin up application-specific blockchains
  • without having to code each bit of functionality of their application from scratch. Anyone can create a module for the Cosmos SDK, and using ready built modules in your blockchain is as simple as importing them into your application. For example, the Tendermint team is building a set of basic modules that are needed for the Cosmos Hub
  • . These modules can be used by any developer as they build their own application. Additionally, developers can create new modules to customize their application. As the Cosmos network develops, the ecosystem of SDK modules will expand, making it increasingly easier to develop complex blockchain applications.
  • Capabilities-based security: Capabilities constrain the security boundaries between modules, enabling developers to better reason about the composability of modules and limit the scope of malicious or unexpected interactions.

The Cosmos SDK also comes with a set of useful developer tools for building command line interfaces (CLI), REST servers and a variety of other commonly used utility libraries.

One final remark: the Cosmos SDK, like all Cosmos tools, is designed to be modular. Today, it allows developers to build on top of Tendermint BFT. However, it can be used with any other consensus engines that implements the ABCI. As time goes by, we expect multiple SDKs to emerge, built with different architecture models and compatible with multiple consensus engines - all within a single ecosystem: the Cosmos Network.

ETHERMINT

The great thing about the Cosmos SDK is that its modularity allows developers to port virtually any existing blockchain codebase already in Golang on top of it. For example, Ethermint

is a project that ports the Ethereum Virtual Machine into an SDK module. Ethermint works exactly like Ethereum but also benefits from all the properties of Tendermint BFT. All the existing Ethereum tools (Truffle, Metamask, etc.) are compatible with Ethermint and you can port your smart contracts over without additional work.

Today are developed on top of Virtual Machine blockchains like Ethereum. First, it should be stated that the reason for this phenomenon is that up until now blockchains were much more difficult to develop than Smart Contracts. This is not the case anymore, thanks to the Cosmos SDK. Now, developers can easily develop entire application-specific blockchains, which have several advantages. Among others, they give more flexibility, security, performance and sovereignty. Of course, if you don’t want to build your own blockchain, you can still make your Smart Contracts compatible with Cosmos by deploying them on Ethermint.

Connecting Blockchains Together - IBC

Now that developers have a way to quickly build customized blockchains, let us see how to connect these blockchains together. The connection between blockchains is achieved through a protocol called Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC). IBC leverages the instant finality property of Tendermint consensus (although it can work with any “fast-finality” blockchain engine) to allow heterogeneous chains to transfer value (i.e. tokens) or data to each other.

WHAT ARE HETEROGENEOUS CHAINS?

Essentially it comes down to two things:

  • Different layers: Heterogeneous chains have different layers, meaning they can differ in how they implement the networking, consensus and application parts. To be compatible with IBC, a blockchain needs only follow a few requirements, the main one being that the consensus layer must have fast finality. Proof-of-Work chains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) do not fall in this category, as they have probabilistic finality.
  • Sovereignty: Every blockchain is maintained by a set of validators whose job is to agree on the next block to commit to the blockchain. In Proof-of-Work blockchains these validators are called miners. A sovereign blockchain is a blockchain with its own validator set. In many instances it is important for blockchains to be sovereign, as validators are ultimately responsible for modifying the state. In Ethereum, applications are all run by a common set of validators. Because of this, each application only has limited sovereignty.

IBC allows heterogeneous blockchains to transfer tokens and data to each other, meaning that blockchains with different applications and validator sets are interoperable. For example, it allows public and private blockchains to transfer tokens to each other. Currently, no other blockchain framework enables this level of interoperability.

HOW IBC WORKS

The principle behind IBC is fairly simple. Let us take an example where an account on chain A wants to send 10 tokens (let us call them ATOM) to chain B.

  • Tracking: Continuously, chain B receives the headers of chain A, and vice versa. This allows each chain to track the validator set of the other. In essence, each chain runs a light-client of the other.
  • Bonding: When the IBC transfer is initiated, the ATOM are locked up (bonded) on chain A.
  • Proof Relay: Then, a proof that the 10 ATOM are bonded is relayed from chain A to chain B.
  • Validation: The proof is verified on chain B against chain A’s header and, if it is valid, then 10 ATOM-vouchers are created on chain B.

How IBC Works #4

Note that the ATOM that have been created on chain B are not real ATOM, as ATOM only exist on chain A. They are a representation on B of ATOM from chain A, along with a proof that these ATOM are frozen on chain A. A similar mechanism is used to unlock ATOM when they come back to their origin chain. 

Designing the “Internet of Blockchains”

IBC is a protocol that allows two heterogeneous blockchains to transfer tokens to each other. From there, how do we create a network of blockchains?

One idea is to connect each blockchain in the network with every other via direct IBC connections. The main problem with this approach is that the number of connections in the network grows quadratically with the number of blockchains. If there are 100 blockchains in the network and each needs to maintain an IBC connection with every other, that is 4950 connections. This quickly gets out of hand.

To solve this, Cosmos proposes a modular architecture with two classes of blockchain: Hubs and Zones. Zones are regular heterogenous blockchains and Hubs are blockchains specifically designed to connect Zones together. When a Zone creates an IBC connection with a Hub, it can automatically access (i.e. send to and receive from) every other Zone that is connected to it. As a result, each Zone only needs to establish a limited number of connections with a restricted set of Hubs. Hubs also prevent double spending among Zones. This means that when a Zone receives a token from a Hub, it only needs to trust the origin Zone of this token and the Hub.

The first Hub launched in the Cosmos Network is the Cosmos Hub. The Cosmos Hub is a public Proof-of-Stake blockchain whose native staking token is called the ATOM, and where transactions fees will be payable in multiple tokens. The launch of the Hub also marks the launch of the Cosmos network.

Bridging non-Tendermint chains

So far, the architecture of Cosmos we have presented shows how Tendermint-based chains can interoperate. But Cosmos is not limited to Tendermint chains. In fact, any kind of blockchain can be connected to Cosmos.

We have two cases to distinguish: fast-finality chains and probabilistic-finality chains.

FAST-FINALITY CHAINS

Blockchains that use any fast-finality consensus algorithms can connect with Cosmos by adapting IBC. For example, if Ethereum were to switch to Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget), a direct connection could be established between it and the Cosmos Ecosystem by adapting IBC to work with Casper.

PROBABILISTIC-FINALITY CHAINS

For blockchains that do not have fast-finality, like Proof-of-Work chains, things get a bit trickier. For these chains we use a special kind of proxy-chain called a Peg-Zone. A Peg-Zone is a blockchain that tracks the state of another blockchain. The Peg-Zone itself has fast-finality and is therefore compatible with IBC. Its role is to establish finality for the blockchain it bridges. Let us look at the following example.

Example: Ethereum Peg-Zone

Interestingly enough, the Peg-Zone also allows users to send any token that lives on Cosmos to the Ethereum chain (the Cosmos tokens would be represented as ERC20 on the Ethereum chain). The Tendermint team is currently working on a Peg-Zone implementation for the Ethereum chain called Peggy.

Peg-Zones will need to be customized for the particular chain they bridge. Building an Ethereum Peg-Zone is relatively simple because Ethereum is account-based and has smart-contracts. However, building a Bitcoin Peg-Zone is a bit more challenging. Explaining how to build a Bitcoin-like Peg-Zone is out-of-scope for this intro but know that it is theoretically possible. If you want to learn more about Peg-Zones you can take a look at this spec.

Solving Scalability

Now that we can easily create and connect blockchains there is one final issue to tackle: Scalability. Cosmos leverages two types of scalability:

  • Vertical scalability: This encompasses the methods for scaling the blockchain itself. By moving away from Proof-of-Work and optimizing its components, Tendermint BFT can reach thousands of transactions per-second. The bottleneck factor is the application itself. For example, an application like a Virtual Machine (e.g. the Ethereum Virtual Machine) will impose a much lower limit on the transaction throughput than an application where transaction types and state transition
  • functions are directly embedded in it (e.g. a standard Cosmos SDK application). This is one of the reasons why application-specific blockchains make sense.
  • Horizontal scalability: Even if the consensus engine and the application are highly optimized, at some point the transaction throughput of a single chain inevitably hits a wall it cannot surpass. That is the limit of vertical scaling. To go beyond it, the solution is to move to multi-chain architectures. The idea is to have multiple parallel chains running the same application and operated by a common validator set, making blockchains theoretically infinitely scalable. Details about horizontal scalability are fairly complex and out-of-scope for this intro.

Cosmos will offer very good vertical scalability at launch, which will be a major improvement over current blockchain solutions in and of itself. Later, after the completion of the IBC module, horizontal scalability solutions will be implemented.

Top exchanges for ATOM trading. 

BinancePoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.io


2. Cosmos Ecosystem Overview

The Cosmos ecosystem is a decentralized network designed to connect various blockchains as part of an ambitious drive to power an ‘Internet of blockchains’. Using a novel technology called Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol, Cosmos is able to facilitate seamless interaction and exchange of information between chains in its ecosystem. At the same time, Cosmos also offers tools that can drastically streamline and speed up the development of purpose-built blockchains, as part of a bid to reimagine what building blockchain applications can really be. 

Ultimately, Cosmos seeks to solve the limitations of the current generation of blockchain tech and usher in a new era of increased scalability, usability and interoperability in the blockchain space. 

TypeNameDescribeTokenExchangeLink
Behind CosmosCosmos NetworkCosmos is an ever-expanding ecosystem of interconnected apps and services, built for a decentralized future.ATOM BinanceWebsite
Cosmos SDKThe worlds most popular blockchain framework. Over $6 billion in assets are managed by public blockchains built with the Cosmos SDK. Build yours today.ATOM BinanceWebsite
TendermintBuilding the most powerful tools for distributed networks.  Website
IBC ProtocollIBC is an interoperability protocol for communicating arbitrary data between arbitrary state machines. It provides an end-to-end, connection-oriented, stateful protocol for reliable, ordered, and authenticated communication between heterogeneous blockchains or off-chain protocols (rollups), and can accomodate for both known and dynamic validator topologies.  Website
DEX AMM SwapsThorchainDECENTRALIZED LIQUIDITY PROTOCOL Deposit native assets into Liquidity Pools to earn yield. The network is 100% autonomous and decentralized.RUNEBinanceWebsite
Injective ProtocolInjective enables access to unlimited decentralized finance markets. Users can create any financial market on Injective’s fast, cross-chain, zero gas fee, secure, and fully decentralized exchange protocol.INJBinanceWebsite
OsmosisOsmosis DEX for the Cosmos ecosystem.OSMOMEXCWebsite
VegaVega has designed fully automated processes for creating markets on and trading margined derivatives. Markets will be open and decentralised, with pseudonymous participants.VEGA Website
Gravity BridgeEnter the portal to cross-chain DeFi. Swap, transfer, and pool assets with Emeris. Manage assets across multiple chains all in one place, elevating your DeFi experience to the next level.  Website
Sommelier FinanceSommelier is a coprocessor for Ethereum that moves DeFi assets from Automated Money Markets into higher yields more quickly and cheaply than was previously possible through non automated yield farming across different protocols.SOMM Website
Bridges Cross Chain InteroperabilityIrisnetIRISnet (a.k.a IRIS Hub) is designed to be the foundation for the next generation distributed applications. Built with Cosmos-SDK, IRIS Hub enables cross-chain interoperability through a unified service model, while providing a variety of modules to support DeFi applications. 

IRIS Hub is designed to support not only token transfers across internet of blockchains, but also to allow consumption of data and computing resources across heterogenous systems mechanism, token economics, etc.)
IRISBinanceWebsite
Loomx NetworkLoom Network provides developers the scalability and usability they need to build high-performance user-facing dapps today. With seamless integrations to Bitcoin, Ethereum, Binance Chain, and all major blockchains, deploying once to Loom lets you future-proof your dapp by reaching the largest number of users possible.LOOMBinanceWebsite
UmeeUmee is a layer-one blockchain built on Cosmos designed to create a universal cross-chain DeFi hub. It serves as a base layer for future DApps and money legos. Thanks to the interoperability of the Tendermint Proof-of-stake consensus mechanism used, the Umee blockchain can be integrated with Cosmos, Ethereum, side chains, layer-two chains, and alternative base-layer protocols.UMEEFTXWebsite
InterchainWe believe that open-source, cryptographic, consensus-driven, economic networks hold the key to an anti-fragile global economic system and equal opportunity for all. Our current focus is on the interoperable blockchain technology of the Cosmos Network  Website
AxelarAxelar is an overlay network, delivering Turing-complete message passing via proof-of-stake and permissionless protocols. Developers use Axelar to go beyond bridges, creating dApps that securely integrate users, functions and assets across all of the decentralized web.AXL Website
Liquid StakingPersistencePersistence is enabling exposure to multiple asset classes such as Liquid Staking (pSTAKE), NFTs (Asset Mantle) and Synthetics (Comdex). Persistence’s mission is to create an ecosystem of multi-chain Web3 products designed to stimulate global liquidity and enable seamless value exchange.

Persistence’s Core mainnet is a Proof-of-Stake chain powered by Tendermint BFT consensus engine. Persistence’s multi-chain tech stack (currently supporting Cosmos, Ethereum and other Tendermint-based chains) abstracts away the complexities for developers and enables them to create DEXs, marketplaces, lending/borrowing platforms etc.
XPRTGateWebsite
Lido FinanceLido is a liquid staking protocol for POS blockchains. It gives you a liquid token that represents your staked collateral and earnings over time. Lido removes the need to run infrastructure and enabling continued participation in DeFi.

wstETH is a wrapped version of stETH. Instead of rebasing, or changing account holdings daily it is similar to a c-token. It represents a pro-rata ownership of the staked ETH (stETH). When someone exits wstETH they are returned principal stETH + stETH earnings.
 
WSTETHUniswapWebsite
Smart Contract EVMKadenaKadena is a proof-of-work blockchain that combines the PoW consensus mechanism from Bitcoin with directed acyclic graph (DAG) principles to offer a scalable version of Bitcoin. Kadena claims it can provide the security of Bitcoin while being able to offer unparalleled throughput that makes the blockchain usable to enterprises and entrepreneurs alike. Kadena's unique infrastructure is decentralized and built for mass adoption because of its multi-chain approach.KDABinanceWebsite
JunoJuno is a sovereign public blockchain in the Cosmos ecosystem, which provides an environment for the deployment of interoperable smart contracts. The network serves as a decentralized, permissionless & censorship resistant avenue for developers to efficiently and securely launch smart contracts using proven frameworks and compile them in various languages Rust & Go. Battle tested contract modules such as CosmWasm, allow for decentralized applications (dapps) to be compiled on robust and secure multi-chain smart contracts.
 
JUNOMEXCWebsite
EvmosEvmos is an Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol, a.k.a. IBC; the IP layer for blockchains. IBC is currently the safest and most secure and decentralized way to move assets across different blockchains, unlocking interoperability across multiple chains.

Evmos leverages the Cosmos SDK serves as the first IBC-compatible EVM-based chain, bringing composability, interoperability, and fast finality to Ethereum.
EVMOSMEXCWebsite
CronosCronos Chain. Get Instant DApp Portability with EVM Support.  Website
CosmwasmBuild your robust dApps on secure, multi-chain smart contracts!  Website
AgoricBuild Fast, Earn FastTM. A Proof-of-Stake chain utilizing secure JavaScript smart contracts to rapidly build and deploy DeFi.BLD Website
PrivacySecret NetworkSecret Network is the first blockchain with data privacy by default, allowing you to build and use applications that are both permissionless and privacy-preserving. This unique functionality protects users, secures applications, and unlocks hundreds of new use cases for Web 3.SCRTBinanceWebsite
Oasis ProtocolA new era of blockchain. The Oasis Network is a privacy-enabled blockchain platform for open finance and a responsible data economy.ROSEBinanceWebsite
Nym TechExisting internet protocols leak sensitive data that can be used without users knowledge — Nym is developing the infrastructure to prevent this data leakage by protecting every packet’s metadata at the network and application layers.NYMOKXWebsite
Anoma NetworkUndefining Money. A sovereign, proof-of-stake blockchain protocol that enables private, asset-agnostic cash and private bartering among any number of parties.  Website
IdentityStarnameIt enables users to receive crypto-currencies or to log in to blockchain applications in a seamless way. Transferring value becomes fast and easy.IOVHotbitWebsite
WetrustBuild, share, and manage your digital identity. Securely build your online profile and reputation.TRSTBancorWebsite
CheqdBuilding a private and secure SSI digital credentials network on Cosmos for the trusted data economy.CHEQGateWebsite
AI and CloudAkashDEPLOY FASTER. SCALE QUICKLY. Censorship-resistant, permissionless, and self-sovereign, Akash Network is the world’s first open source cloud.AKTGateWebsite
VitwitBuild. Automate. Scale. We build Intelligent & autonomous solutions for our clients as part of digital transformations in the AI era. We pioneer the technology to empower businesses with insights and intelligent systems.  Website
SustainabilityRegen NetworkRegen Ledger is a sovereign, proof-of-stake blockchain built on the Cosmos SDK. REGEN is a staking token, providing Regen Ledger with utility - namely, fees, gas, governance and security.REGENOsmosisWebsite
IXOThe ixo protocol defines a new open standard for producing verifiable claims about changes in the state of the world.
 
IOXOsmosisWebsite
Lend and BorrowKavaKava is a Layer-1 blockchain that combines the speed and interoperability of Cosmos with the developer power of Ethereum.

The Kava Network uses a developer-optimized co-chain architecture. The Ethereum Co-Chain enables support for EVM smart contracts while the Cosmos Co-Chain enables the lightning-fast Tendermint consensus engine and the Inter Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC).
 
KAVABinanceWebsite
Social MediaDesmos NetworkA blockchain which serves as the backbone to empower the development of user-centric social networks.DSMOsmosisWebsite
Data OraclesMicrotickDatapace is Blockchain powered data marketplace with technical and policy-based data verification, and access to the worldwide network of sensors.TICKOsmosisWebsite
FoamFOAM's mission is to build a consensus driven map of the world, empowering a fully decentralized web3 economy with verifiable location data. FOAM incentivizes the infrastructure needed for privacy-preserving and fraud-proof location verification. The starting point for FOAM is the FOAM Map, where a community of Cartographers curate geographic Points of Interest on the FOAM map. FOAMPoloniexWebsite
VPNSentinelSentinel (DVPN) is a cryptocurrency and operates on the Cosmos platform.DVPNMEXCWebsite
PaymentBitcannaBitCanna aims to become the global digital ancillary platform for the cannabis industry. The focus for the team lies on building an application that will serve both businesses as consumers from within the industry. Blockchain is the means as an infrastructure to build this application on top.
 
BCNAHotbitWebsite
DappCrypto com CROBinanceWebsite
CeFi & DeFiComdexComdex is a DeFi infrastructure layer for the Cosmos ecosystem. Comdex provides a variety of interoperable plug & play modules for projects to use to create their own DeFi platforms providing utility to the Cosmos community as well as DeFi users worldwide.CMDXOsmosisWebsite
Kira NetworkKIRA is a Layer 1 network enabling market access to any digital asset in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Users can earn block and fee rewards from staking any digital asset on multiple chains at the same time, while maintaining full liquidity and custody over their funds, whether trading on KIRA or using other DeFi apps simultaneously.
 
KEXGateWebsite
KI ChainBridging CeFi with DeFi Block by Block.  Website
NFTBitsongBitSong is a distributed (open source) blockchain music ecosystem born in December 2017, to create a decentralized and trustless hub that interconnects the various market players.

Artists, Fans, Managers and Labels in One Single Holistic Ecosystem: $BTSG. Earn real-time royalties, discover exclusive content, mint and trade fan tokens, buy & sell NFTs.
BTSGOsmosisWebsite
StargazeStargaze is a decentralized and community-owned network for NFTs. It is built as an app-specific Cosmos Proof-of_stake chain, running the Tendermint consensus engine. It’s goal is to be similar to OpenSea, except governed by a community via a curation DAO and a protocol DAO.

Stargaze will allow users to buy, sell, and trade NFTs. It will also allow trading NFTs across other IBC-enabled chains. It will also interoperate with Ethereum over Gravity Bridge.
STARSOsmosisWebsite
OmniflixDecentralized media and network layer for Creators & Sovereign Communities powered by NFTs and related distribution protocols.  Website
Pylons techWe believe that distributed consensus will power new forms of individual and corporate expression — leading to enhanced community interactions. Built on Cosmos, Pylons is a fast and interoperable system for brands and creators to build engaging products with meaningful NFT experiences.  Website
Web 3LikeCoinLikeCoin (LIKE) is the native token of the LikeCoin chain built from the Cosmos SDK. LikeCoin is a inter-chain protocol and framework for decentralized publishing. It is an application-specific blockchain for building and bridging media to Web 3. LIKEOsmosisWebsite
BostromDecentralized web 3.0 search engineBOOTOsmosisWebsite
BluzelleBluzelle delivers high security, un-matched availability, and is censorship resistant. Whether you are an artist, musician, scientist, publisher, or developer, Bluzelle protects the intellectual property of all creators. Bluzelle is data storage, file storage, oracles, and more. Its is specific for NFTs and DeFi.BLZBinanceWebsite
Cosmos WalletKeplrKeplr Wallet for the Cosmos Ecosystem  Website
CosmostationCosmos Wallet and Enterprise-level Proof-of-Stake validator node operation & end-user applications.  Website

Conclusions:

  • The Cosmos ecosystem experienced strong growth in 2021. The application-specific blockchain architecture is gaining popularity within the industry. While these trends are very encouraging, from an investment standpoint, it is not clear exactly who value will accrue to within the ecosystem.
  • Although there are now a plethora of EVM blockchains, EVMos is uniquely positioned to integrate the Ethereum and Cosmos ecosystems. It will be interesting to see how the dApp store model in EVMos’ tokenomics manifests into developer activity.
  • The recent Wormhole (a bridge between Ethereum and Solana) smart contract hack has raised a lot of questions as to the viability of cross-chain integration. EVMos has partnered with Nomad and Connext to bridge assets between Ethereum and Cosmos. Security of these bridges will be paramount for successful integration.
  • The CEVMos modular architecture breaks the blockchain into its three core functions, specializing for each. While still in development (Celestia has not yet launched testnet), the partnership is extremely promising, and could establish a new industry paradigm.

I hope this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

Read more: Ethereum Ecosystem Overview | Top 200 Project Built on Ethereum (ETH)

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #cosmos #atom 

Shawn  Durgan

Shawn Durgan

1595547778

10 Writing steps to create a good project brief - Mobile app development

Developing a mobile application can often be more challenging than it seems at first glance. Whether you’re a developer, UI designer, project lead or CEO of a mobile-based startup, writing good project briefs prior to development is pivotal. According to Tech Jury, 87% of smartphone users spend time exclusively on mobile apps, with 18-24-year-olds spending 66% of total digital time on mobile apps. Of that, 89% of the time is spent on just 18 apps depending on individual users’ preferences, making proper app planning crucial for success.

Today’s audiences know what they want and don’t want in their mobile apps, encouraging teams to carefully write their project plans before they approach development. But how do you properly write a mobile app development brief without sacrificing your vision and staying within the initial budget? Why should you do so in the first place? Let’s discuss that and more in greater detail.

Why a Good Mobile App Project Brief Matters?

Why-a-Good-Mobile-App-Project-Brief-Matters

It’s worth discussing the significance of mobile app project briefs before we tackle the writing process itself. In practice, a project brief is used as a reference tool for developers to remain focused on the client’s deliverables. Approaching the development process without written and approved documentation can lead to drastic, last-minute changes, misunderstanding, as well as a loss of resources and brand reputation.

For example, developing a mobile app that filters restaurants based on food type, such as Happy Cow, means that developers should stay focused on it. Knowing that such and such features, UI elements, and API are necessary will help team members collaborate better in order to meet certain expectations. Whether you develop an app under your brand’s banner or outsource coding and design services to would-be clients, briefs can provide you with several benefits:

  • Clarity on what your mobile app project “is” and “isn’t” early in development
  • Point of reference for developers, project leads, and clients throughout the cycle
  • Smart allocation of available time and resources based on objective development criteria
  • Streamlined project data storage for further app updates and iterations

Writing Steps to Create a Good Mobile App Project Brief

Writing-Steps-to-Create-a-Good-Mobile-App-Project-Brief

1. Establish the “You” Behind the App

Depending on how “open” your project is to the public, you will want to write a detailed section about who the developers are. Elements such as company name, address, project lead, project title, as well as contact information, should be included in this introductory segment. Regardless of whether you build an in-house app or outsource developers to a client, this section is used for easy document storage and access.

#android app #ios app #minimum viable product (mvp) #mobile app development #web development #how do you write a project design #how to write a brief #how to write a project summary #how to write project summary #program brief example #project brief #project brief example #project brief template #project proposal brief #simple project brief template

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1623348300

Top 8 Java Open Source Projects You Should Get Your Hands-on [2021]

Learning about Java is no easy feat. It’s a prevalent and in-demand programming language with applications in numerous sectors. We all know that if you want to learn a new skill, the best way to do so is through using it. That’s why we recommend working on projects.

So if you’re a Java student, then you’ve come to the right place as this article will help you learn about the most popular Java open source projects. This way, you’d have a firm grasp of industry trends and the programming language’s applications.

However, before we discuss its various projects, it’s crucial to examine the place where you can get those projects – GitHub. Let’s begin.

#full stack development #java open source projects #java projects #open source projects #top 8 java open source projects #java open source projects

Angelina roda

Angelina roda

1622228400

How To Stack Cosmos (ATOM) on Binance | ATOM POS Locked Stacking - Cosmos mining

In this video I will show you how you can stake Cosmos (ATOM) on Binance.
Tutorial on how to Stack Cosmos (ATOM) on Binance. ATOM POS Locked Stacking. Cosmos mining ATOM Passive income
📺 The video in this post was made by Crypto Therapy
The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sv_G4gG7NLw
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
☞ **-----CLICK HERE-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐
(There is no limit to the amount of credit you can earn through referrals)
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #binance #atom #cosmos #atom pos