Agnes  Sauer

Agnes Sauer

1595405220

Zero-Shot Action Recognition in Videos: A Survey

Zero Shot Learning (ZSL), aims at recognizing objects from unseen classes, it is about the ability of a learner to identify different classes from observed data without never having observed such type of data during the training phase.

We all know how taxing the process of collecting, annotating, and

labeling data for training purposes is. Therefore there are a lot of requirements/demands for methods to make use of methods that could classify instances from classes that are not present in training samples, especially in Videos.

In this article, I aim to provide an overall review of how ZLS, especially in Videos, reads and relates to classes available for training purposes using Visual and Semantic Embeddings.

The learner in ZSL reads the data and relates to the classes available from the training and does an error estimation to provide an accurate output. In simple terms, ZSL recognizes an action by its closest estimation to the available data class. Hence, the accuracy of the technique will be limited by the availability of data classes from the training model. To overcome this obstacle, ZSL makes use of both Visual Embedding Labels and Semantic Embedding Labels in tandem with the help of different mapping techniques.

Let us elaborate on what the above statement means:

Visual Embedding Labels: Visual Embedding is the ability to understand imagery and convert it into a machine-readable code. After training from a large data set of images, the model usually identifies different actions and tries to classify it into available classes to provide a result.

Semantic Embedding Labels: Semantic embedding is like Visual Embedding with the only difference that the model tries to read words instead of images and classify it after comparing it with the available data set.

Now how do both come into play when it comes to Zero-Shot Learning?

Image for post

As illustrated in the picture above, what ZSL does is that it extracts both the visual and semantic information, identifies them in classes, and performs a mapping function. The mapping function outputs a class that is estimated against the available classes and the estimation with minimum error is identified as the unseen class.

#deep-learning #zero-shot-learning #deep learning

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Zero-Shot Action Recognition in Videos: A Survey

Perl Critic: The Leading Static analyzer for Perl

BUILD STATUS

NAME

Perl::Critic - Critique Perl source code for best-practices.

SYNOPSIS

use Perl::Critic;
my $file = shift;
my $critic = Perl::Critic->new();
my @violations = $critic->critique($file);
print @violations;

DESCRIPTION

Perl::Critic is an extensible framework for creating and applying coding standards to Perl source code. Essentially, it is a static source code analysis engine. Perl::Critic is distributed with a number of Perl::Critic::Policy modules that attempt to enforce various coding guidelines. Most Policy modules are based on Damian Conway's book Perl Best Practices. However, Perl::Critic is not limited to PBP and will even support Policies that contradict Conway. You can enable, disable, and customize those Polices through the Perl::Critic interface. You can also create new Policy modules that suit your own tastes.

For a command-line interface to Perl::Critic, see the documentation for perlcritic. If you want to integrate Perl::Critic with your build process, Test::Perl::Critic provides an interface that is suitable for test programs. Also, Test::Perl::Critic::Progressive is useful for gradually applying coding standards to legacy code. For the ultimate convenience (at the expense of some flexibility) see the criticism pragma.

If you'd like to try Perl::Critic without installing anything, there is a web-service available at http://perlcritic.com. The web-service does not yet support all the configuration features that are available in the native Perl::Critic API, but it should give you a good idea of what it does.

Also, ActivePerl includes a very slick graphical interface to Perl-Critic called perlcritic-gui. You can get a free community edition of ActivePerl from http://www.activestate.com.

PREREQUISITES

Perl::Critic runs on Perl back to Perl 5.6.1. It relies on the PPI module to do the heavy work of parsing Perl.

INTERFACE SUPPORT

The Perl::Critic module is considered to be a public class. Any changes to its interface will go through a deprecation cycle.

CONSTRUCTOR

new( [ -profile => $FILE, -severity => $N, -theme => $string, -include => \@PATTERNS, -exclude => \@PATTERNS, -top => $N, -only => $B, -profile-strictness => $PROFILE_STRICTNESS_{WARN|FATAL|QUIET}, -force => $B, -verbose => $N ], -color => $B, -pager => $string, -allow-unsafe => $B, -criticism-fatal => $B)

new()

Returns a reference to a new Perl::Critic object. Most arguments are just passed directly into Perl::Critic::Config, but I have described them here as well. The default value for all arguments can be defined in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "CONFIGURATION" section for more information about that. All arguments are optional key-value pairs as follows:

-profile is a path to a configuration file. If $FILE is not defined, Perl::Critic::Config attempts to find a .perlcriticrc configuration file in the current directory, and then in your home directory. Alternatively, you can set the PERLCRITIC environment variable to point to a file in another location. If a configuration file can't be found, or if $FILE is an empty string, then all Policies will be loaded with their default configuration. See "CONFIGURATION" for more information.

-severity is the minimum severity level. Only Policy modules that have a severity greater than $N will be applied. Severity values are integers ranging from 1 (least severe violations) to 5 (most severe violations). The default is 5. For a given -profile, decreasing the -severity will usually reveal more Policy violations. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. Users can redefine the severity level for any Policy in their .perlcriticrc file. See "CONFIGURATION" for more information.

If it is difficult for you to remember whether severity "5" is the most or least restrictive level, then you can use one of these named values:

  SEVERITY NAME   ...is equivalent to...   SEVERITY NUMBER
  --------------------------------------------------------
  -severity => 'gentle'                     -severity => 5
  -severity => 'stern'                      -severity => 4
  -severity => 'harsh'                      -severity => 3
  -severity => 'cruel'                      -severity => 2
  -severity => 'brutal'                     -severity => 1

The names reflect how severely the code is criticized: a gentle criticism reports only the most severe violations, and so on down to a brutal criticism which reports even the most minor violations.

-theme is special expression that determines which Policies to apply based on their respective themes. For example, the following would load only Policies that have a 'bugs' AND 'pbp' theme:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new( -theme => 'bugs && pbp' );

Unless the -severity option is explicitly given, setting -theme silently causes the -severity to be set to 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "POLICY THEMES" section for more information about themes.

-include is a reference to a list of string @PATTERNS. Policy modules that match at least one m/$PATTERN/ixms will always be loaded, irrespective of all other settings. For example:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new(-include => ['layout'], -severity => 4);

This would cause Perl::Critic to apply all the CodeLayout::* Policy modules even though they have a severity level that is less than 4. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. You can also use -include in conjunction with the -exclude option. Note that -exclude takes precedence over -include when a Policy matches both patterns.

-exclude is a reference to a list of string @PATTERNS. Policy modules that match at least one m/$PATTERN/ixms will not be loaded, irrespective of all other settings. For example:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new(-exclude => ['strict'], -severity => 1);

This would cause Perl::Critic to not apply the RequireUseStrict and ProhibitNoStrict Policy modules even though they have a severity level that is greater than 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. You can also use -exclude in conjunction with the -include option. Note that -exclude takes precedence over -include when a Policy matches both patterns.

-single-policy is a string PATTERN. Only one policy that matches m/$PATTERN/ixms will be used. Policies that do not match will be excluded. This option has precedence over the -severity, -theme, -include, -exclude, and -only options. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-top is the maximum number of Violations to return when ranked by their severity levels. This must be a positive integer. Violations are still returned in the order that they occur within the file. Unless the -severity option is explicitly given, setting -top silently causes the -severity to be set to 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-only is a boolean value. If set to a true value, Perl::Critic will only choose from Policies that are mentioned in the user's profile. If set to a false value (which is the default), then Perl::Critic chooses from all the Policies that it finds at your site. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-profile-strictness is an enumerated value, one of "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_WARN" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants (the default), "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_FATAL" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants, and "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_QUIET" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants. If set to "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_FATAL" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants, Perl::Critic will make certain warnings about problems found in a .perlcriticrc or file specified via the -profile option fatal. For example, Perl::Critic normally only warns about profiles referring to non-existent Policies, but this value makes this situation fatal. Correspondingly, "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_QUIET" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants makes Perl::Critic shut up about these things.

-force is a boolean value that controls whether Perl::Critic observes the magical "## no critic" annotations in your code. If set to a true value, Perl::Critic will analyze all code. If set to a false value (which is the default) Perl::Critic will ignore code that is tagged with these annotations. See "BENDING THE RULES" for more information. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-verbose can be a positive integer (from 1 to 11), or a literal format specification. See Perl::Critic::Violation for an explanation of format specifications. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-unsafe directs Perl::Critic to allow the use of Policies that are marked as "unsafe" by the author. Such policies may compile untrusted code or do other nefarious things.

-color and -pager are not used by Perl::Critic but is provided for the benefit of perlcritic.

-criticism-fatal is not used by Perl::Critic but is provided for the benefit of criticism.

-color-severity-highest, -color-severity-high, -color-severity- medium, -color-severity-low, and -color-severity-lowest are not used by Perl::Critic, but are provided for the benefit of perlcritic. Each is set to the Term::ANSIColor color specification to be used to display violations of the corresponding severity.

-files-with-violations and -files-without-violations are not used by Perl::Critic, but are provided for the benefit of perlcritic, to cause only the relevant filenames to be displayed.

METHODS

critique( $source_code )

Runs the $source_code through the Perl::Critic engine using all the Policies that have been loaded into this engine. If $source_code is a scalar reference, then it is treated as a string of actual Perl code. If $source_code is a reference to an instance of PPI::Document, then that instance is used directly. Otherwise, it is treated as a path to a local file containing Perl code. This method returns a list of Perl::Critic::Violation objects for each violation of the loaded Policies. The list is sorted in the order that the Violations appear in the code. If there are no violations, this method returns an empty list.

add_policy( -policy => $policy_name, -params => \%param_hash )

Creates a Policy object and loads it into this Critic. If the object cannot be instantiated, it will throw a fatal exception. Otherwise, it returns a reference to this Critic.

-policy is the name of a Perl::Critic::Policy subclass module. The 'Perl::Critic::Policy' portion of the name can be omitted for brevity. This argument is required.

-params is an optional reference to a hash of Policy parameters. The contents of this hash reference will be passed into to the constructor of the Policy module. See the documentation in the relevant Policy module for a description of the arguments it supports.

policies()

Returns a list containing references to all the Policy objects that have been loaded into this engine. Objects will be in the order that they were loaded.

config()

Returns the Perl::Critic::Config object that was created for or given to this Critic.

statistics()

Returns the Perl::Critic::Statistics object that was created for this Critic. The Statistics object accumulates data for all files that are analyzed by this Critic.

FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE

For those folks who prefer to have a functional interface, The critique method can be exported on request and called as a static function. If the first argument is a hashref, its contents are used to construct a new Perl::Critic object internally. The keys of that hash should be the same as those supported by the Perl::Critic::new() method. Here are some examples:

use Perl::Critic qw(critique);

# Use default parameters...
@violations = critique( $some_file );

# Use custom parameters...
@violations = critique( {-severity => 2}, $some_file );

# As a one-liner
%> perl -MPerl::Critic=critique -e 'print critique(shift)' some_file.pm

None of the other object-methods are currently supported as static functions. Sorry.

CONFIGURATION

Most of the settings for Perl::Critic and each of the Policy modules can be controlled by a configuration file. The default configuration file is called .perlcriticrc. Perl::Critic will look for this file in the current directory first, and then in your home directory. Alternatively, you can set the PERLCRITIC environment variable to explicitly point to a different file in another location. If none of these files exist, and the -profile option is not given to the constructor, then all the modules that are found in the Perl::Critic::Policy namespace will be loaded with their default configuration.

The format of the configuration file is a series of INI-style blocks that contain key-value pairs separated by '='. Comments should start with '#' and can be placed on a separate line or after the name-value pairs if you desire.

Default settings for Perl::Critic itself can be set before the first named block. For example, putting any or all of these at the top of your configuration file will set the default value for the corresponding constructor argument.

severity  = 3                                     #Integer or named level
only      = 1                                     #Zero or One
force     = 0                                     #Zero or One
verbose   = 4                                     #Integer or format spec
top       = 50                                    #A positive integer
theme     = (pbp || security) && bugs             #A theme expression
include   = NamingConventions ClassHierarchies    #Space-delimited list
exclude   = Variables  Modules::RequirePackage    #Space-delimited list
criticism-fatal = 1                               #Zero or One
color     = 1                                     #Zero or One
allow-unsafe = 1                                  #Zero or One
pager     = less                                  #pager to pipe output to

The remainder of the configuration file is a series of blocks like this:

[Perl::Critic::Policy::Category::PolicyName]
severity = 1
set_themes = foo bar
add_themes = baz
maximum_violations_per_document = 57
arg1 = value1
arg2 = value2

Perl::Critic::Policy::Category::PolicyName is the full name of a module that implements the policy. The Policy modules distributed with Perl::Critic have been grouped into categories according to the table of contents in Damian Conway's book Perl Best Practices. For brevity, you can omit the 'Perl::Critic::Policy' part of the module name.

severity is the level of importance you wish to assign to the Policy. All Policy modules are defined with a default severity value ranging from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe). However, you may disagree with the default severity and choose to give it a higher or lower severity, based on your own coding philosophy. You can set the severity to an integer from 1 to 5, or use one of the equivalent names:

SEVERITY NAME ...is equivalent to... SEVERITY NUMBER
----------------------------------------------------
gentle                                             5
stern                                              4
harsh                                              3
cruel                                              2
brutal                                             1

The names reflect how severely the code is criticized: a gentle criticism reports only the most severe violations, and so on down to a brutal criticism which reports even the most minor violations.

set_themes sets the theme for the Policy and overrides its default theme. The argument is a string of one or more whitespace-delimited alphanumeric words. Themes are case-insensitive. See "POLICY THEMES" for more information.

add_themes appends to the default themes for this Policy. The argument is a string of one or more whitespace-delimited words. Themes are case- insensitive. See "POLICY THEMES" for more information.

maximum_violations_per_document limits the number of Violations the Policy will return for a given document. Some Policies have a default limit; see the documentation for the individual Policies to see whether there is one. To force a Policy to not have a limit, specify "no_limit" or the empty string for the value of this parameter.

The remaining key-value pairs are configuration parameters that will be passed into the constructor for that Policy. The constructors for most Policy objects do not support arguments, and those that do should have reasonable defaults. See the documentation on the appropriate Policy module for more details.

Instead of redefining the severity for a given Policy, you can completely disable a Policy by prepending a '-' to the name of the module in your configuration file. In this manner, the Policy will never be loaded, regardless of the -severity given to the Perl::Critic constructor.

A simple configuration might look like this:

#--------------------------------------------------------------
# I think these are really important, so always load them

[TestingAndDebugging::RequireUseStrict]
severity = 5

[TestingAndDebugging::RequireUseWarnings]
severity = 5

#--------------------------------------------------------------
# I think these are less important, so only load when asked

[Variables::ProhibitPackageVars]
severity = 2

[ControlStructures::ProhibitPostfixControls]
allow = if unless  # My custom configuration
severity = cruel   # Same as "severity = 2"

#--------------------------------------------------------------
# Give these policies a custom theme.  I can activate just
# these policies by saying `perlcritic -theme larry`

[Modules::RequireFilenameMatchesPackage]
add_themes = larry

[TestingAndDebugging::RequireTestLables]
add_themes = larry curly moe

#--------------------------------------------------------------
# I do not agree with these at all, so never load them

[-NamingConventions::Capitalization]
[-ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitMagicNumbers]

#--------------------------------------------------------------
# For all other Policies, I accept the default severity,
# so no additional configuration is required for them.

For additional configuration examples, see the perlcriticrc file that is included in this examples directory of this distribution.

Damian Conway's own Perl::Critic configuration is also included in this distribution as examples/perlcriticrc-conway.

THE POLICIES

A large number of Policy modules are distributed with Perl::Critic. They are described briefly in the companion document Perl::Critic::PolicySummary and in more detail in the individual modules themselves. Say "perlcritic -doc PATTERN" to see the perldoc for all Policy modules that match the regex m/PATTERN/ixms

There are a number of distributions of additional policies on CPAN. If Perl::Critic doesn't contain a policy that you want, some one may have already written it. See the "SEE ALSO" section below for a list of some of these distributions.

POLICY THEMES

Each Policy is defined with one or more "themes". Themes can be used to create arbitrary groups of Policies. They are intended to provide an alternative mechanism for selecting your preferred set of Policies. For example, you may wish disable a certain subset of Policies when analyzing test programs. Conversely, you may wish to enable only a specific subset of Policies when analyzing modules.

The Policies that ship with Perl::Critic have been broken into the following themes. This is just our attempt to provide some basic logical groupings. You are free to invent new themes that suit your needs.

THEME             DESCRIPTION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
core              All policies that ship with Perl::Critic
pbp               Policies that come directly from "Perl Best Practices"
bugs              Policies that that prevent or reveal bugs
certrec           Policies that CERT recommends
certrule          Policies that CERT considers rules
maintenance       Policies that affect the long-term health of the code
cosmetic          Policies that only have a superficial effect
complexity        Policies that specifically relate to code complexity
security          Policies that relate to security issues
tests             Policies that are specific to test programs

Any Policy may fit into multiple themes. Say "perlcritic -list" to get a listing of all available Policies and the themes that are associated with each one. You can also change the theme for any Policy in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "CONFIGURATION" section for more information about that.

Using the -theme option, you can create an arbitrarily complex rule that determines which Policies will be loaded. Precedence is the same as regular Perl code, and you can use parentheses to enforce precedence as well. Supported operators are:

Operator    Alternative    Example
-----------------------------------------------------------------
&&          and            'pbp && core'
||          or             'pbp || (bugs && security)'
!           not            'pbp && ! (portability || complexity)'

Theme names are case-insensitive. If the -theme is set to an empty string, then it evaluates as true all Policies.

BENDING THE RULES

Perl::Critic takes a hard-line approach to your code: either you comply or you don't. In the real world, it is not always practical (nor even possible) to fully comply with coding standards. In such cases, it is wise to show that you are knowingly violating the standards and that you have a Damn Good Reason (DGR) for doing so.

To help with those situations, you can direct Perl::Critic to ignore certain lines or blocks of code by using annotations:

require 'LegacyLibaray1.pl';  ## no critic
require 'LegacyLibrary2.pl';  ## no critic

for my $element (@list) {

    ## no critic

    $foo = "";               #Violates 'ProhibitEmptyQuotes'
    $barf = bar() if $foo;   #Violates 'ProhibitPostfixControls'
    #Some more evil code...

    ## use critic

    #Some good code...
    do_something($_);
}

The "## no critic" annotations direct Perl::Critic to ignore the remaining lines of code until a "## use critic" annotation is found. If the "## no critic" annotation is on the same line as a code statement, then only that line of code is overlooked. To direct perlcritic to ignore the "## no critic" annotations, use the --force option.

A bare "## no critic" annotation disables all the active Policies. If you wish to disable only specific Policies, add a list of Policy names as arguments, just as you would for the "no strict" or "no warnings" pragmas. For example, this would disable the ProhibitEmptyQuotes and ProhibitPostfixControls policies until the end of the block or until the next "## use critic" annotation (whichever comes first):

## no critic (EmptyQuotes, PostfixControls)

# Now exempt from ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitEmptyQuotes
$foo = "";

# Now exempt ControlStructures::ProhibitPostfixControls
$barf = bar() if $foo;

# Still subjected to ValuesAndExpression::RequireNumberSeparators
$long_int = 10000000000;

Since the Policy names are matched against the "## no critic" arguments as regular expressions, you can abbreviate the Policy names or disable an entire family of Policies in one shot like this:

## no critic (NamingConventions)

# Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
my $camelHumpVar = 'foo';

# Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
sub camelHumpSub {}

The argument list must be enclosed in parentheses or brackets and must contain one or more comma-separated barewords (e.g. don't use quotes). The "## no critic" annotations can be nested, and Policies named by an inner annotation will be disabled along with those already disabled an outer annotation.

Some Policies like Subroutines::ProhibitExcessComplexity apply to an entire block of code. In those cases, the "## no critic" annotation must appear on the line where the violation is reported. For example:

sub complicated_function {  ## no critic (ProhibitExcessComplexity)
    # Your code here...
}

Policies such as Documentation::RequirePodSections apply to the entire document, in which case violations are reported at line 1.

Use this feature wisely. "## no critic" annotations should be used in the smallest possible scope, or only on individual lines of code. And you should always be as specific as possible about which Policies you want to disable (i.e. never use a bare "## no critic"). If Perl::Critic complains about your code, try and find a compliant solution before resorting to this feature.

THE Perl::Critic PHILOSOPHY

Coding standards are deeply personal and highly subjective. The goal of Perl::Critic is to help you write code that conforms with a set of best practices. Our primary goal is not to dictate what those practices are, but rather, to implement the practices discovered by others. Ultimately, you make the rules -- Perl::Critic is merely a tool for encouraging consistency. If there is a policy that you think is important or that we have overlooked, we would be very grateful for contributions, or you can simply load your own private set of policies into Perl::Critic.

EXTENDING THE CRITIC

The modular design of Perl::Critic is intended to facilitate the addition of new Policies. You'll need to have some understanding of PPI, but most Policy modules are pretty straightforward and only require about 20 lines of code. Please see the Perl::Critic::DEVELOPER file included in this distribution for a step-by-step demonstration of how to create new Policy modules.

If you develop any new Policy modules, feel free to send them to <team@perlcritic.com> and I'll be happy to consider putting them into the Perl::Critic distribution. Or if you would like to work on the Perl::Critic project directly, you can fork our repository at https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic.git.

The Perl::Critic team is also available for hire. If your organization has its own coding standards, we can create custom Policies to enforce your local guidelines. Or if your code base is prone to a particular defect pattern, we can design Policies that will help you catch those costly defects before they go into production. To discuss your needs with the Perl::Critic team, just contact <team@perlcritic.com>.

PREREQUISITES

Perl::Critic requires the following modules:

B::Keywords

Config::Tiny

Exception::Class

File::Spec

File::Spec::Unix

File::Which

IO::String

List::SomeUtils

List::Util

Module::Pluggable

Perl::Tidy

Pod::Spell

PPI

Pod::PlainText

Pod::Select

Pod::Usage

Readonly

Scalar::Util

String::Format

Task::Weaken

Term::ANSIColor

Text::ParseWords

version

CONTACTING THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM

You are encouraged to subscribe to the public mailing list at https://groups.google.com/d/forum/perl-critic. At least one member of the development team is usually hanging around in irc://irc.perl.org/#perlcritic and you can follow Perl::Critic on Twitter, at https://twitter.com/perlcritic.

SEE ALSO

There are a number of distributions of additional Policies available. A few are listed here:

Perl::Critic::More

Perl::Critic::Bangs

Perl::Critic::Lax

Perl::Critic::StricterSubs

Perl::Critic::Swift

Perl::Critic::Tics

These distributions enable you to use Perl::Critic in your unit tests:

Test::Perl::Critic

Test::Perl::Critic::Progressive

There is also a distribution that will install all the Perl::Critic related modules known to the development team:

Task::Perl::Critic

BUGS

Scrutinizing Perl code is hard for humans, let alone machines. If you find any bugs, particularly false-positives or false-negatives from a Perl::Critic::Policy, please submit them at https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic/issues. Thanks.

CREDITS

Adam Kennedy - For creating PPI, the heart and soul of Perl::Critic.

Damian Conway - For writing Perl Best Practices, finally :)

Chris Dolan - For contributing the best features and Policy modules.

Andy Lester - Wise sage and master of all-things-testing.

Elliot Shank - The self-proclaimed quality freak.

Giuseppe Maxia - For all the great ideas and positive encouragement.

and Sharon, my wife - For putting up with my all-night code sessions.

Thanks also to the Perl Foundation for providing a grant to support Chris Dolan's project to implement twenty PBP policies. http://www.perlfoundation.org/april_1_2007_new_grant_awards

Thanks also to this incomplete laundry list of folks who have contributed to Perl::Critic in some way: Gregory Oschwald, Mike O'Regan, Tom Hukins, Omer Gazit, Evan Zacks, Paul Howarth, Sawyer X, Christian Walde, Dave Rolsky, Jakub Wilk, Roy Ivy III, Oliver Trosien, Glenn Fowler, Matt Creenan, Alex Balhatchet, Sebastian Paaske Tørholm, Stuart A Johnston, Dan Book, Steven Humphrey, James Raspass, Nick Tonkin, Harrison Katz, Douglas Sims, Mark Fowler, Alan Berndt, Neil Bowers, Sergey Romanov, Gabor Szabo, Graham Knop, Mike Eldridge, David Steinbrunner, Kirk Kimmel, Guillaume Aubert, Dave Cross, Anirvan Chatterjee, Todd Rinaldo, Graham Ollis, Karen Etheridge, Jonas Brømsø, Olaf Alders, Jim Keenan, Slaven Rezić, Szymon Nieznański.

AUTHOR

Jeffrey Ryan Thalhammer jeff@imaginative-software.com

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2005-2018 Imaginative Software Systems. All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. The full text of this license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.


Download Details:

Author: Perl-Critic
Source Code: https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic

License: View license

#perl 

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The NineHertz

1630909606

How to Hire Video Game Developers For Video Game Development Company?

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Read Complete Blog Here -  https://theninehertz.com/blog/how-to-hire-video-game-developers-video-game-development


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Stuti .

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Top 10 Video Calling & Conferencing APIs & SDKs { july 2022 }

Top Video Calling API & SDK and Video Conferencing API & SDK for Developers are integrated and embeddable video calling API, and programmable live video Conferencing API, in just a few lines of code.

video calling api

A video calling feature can be easily integrated into any existing application, allowing to leverage the functionality in order to improve productivity. This is a great idea for saving money and development time. To do so all we need to do is integrate the API or SDK for video calling into the existing software.

In the rapidly modernizing world, technology has advanced in a hurtle. The use of mobile gadgets has surged a lot. The world is growing digital and everything is accessible from a single place. In the company of modernization, there is a huge increase in digitalization. Virtual communication has been nowadays an important tool to keep up with people. Due to virtual video communication, we can today talk face-to-face overseas too. Such a great invention to make work easy.

Many companies work on the aspect of virtual communication. The video calls we do to communicate with our clients, corporates, and family are developed with the help of Software Development Kits (SDKs). Companies align with competition and design their SDKs to support their video calling applications and websites. These days conferencing has become so efficient without any lags or errors or issues. This is just because of the effective product delivery of the companies who have landed themselves to make an effective approach towards real-time communication.

What is Video Calling API?

Video Calling API are app development kits that complement apps that support video calling features on their applications to connect their customers with the community. These SDKs are developed by companies with their effective creative SDK ideas, built with interfaces designed in a lucrative way to make them attract users.

The rise in remote working has also led to a rise in video conferencing in companies in both internal and external environments. To detail a video SDK, let us understand the significance to develop a clear idea of how SDK works. Video conferencing is considered to be one of the most important tools for business considering the pandemic situation, video SDK makes it efficient.

Video Calling API makes efficient use of resources. It helps to lower the costs in many direct and indirect ways. The tangible costs are cut. The designed SDKs help in eliminating costs with their integrated functions.

Video Calling  API helps in faster delivery, saving a lot of time. They help in creating video conferences for businesses with their integrated.

Video Calling  API are a stable platform build-up for apps with video conferencing. They make video conferencing flexible and accessible from any place and any time.

Video SDK allows conferencing on a large scale helping businesses achieve their desired objectives.

Video conferencing has become significant over time and for that reason, a strong SDK build-up is now an urge for each company. Being the product providers, the companies who build these SDKs look to deliver all their innovations in it so that the end customer finds it very much involved and attractive. An ideal Video SDK must have these features.

Video conferencing

The very basic feature a Video SDK must have is an effective video conferencing interface. It must be compatible for one-to-one communication as well as communication on a mass scale. This is the foremost feature to address while choosing a video-conferencing application.

Real-time chats and messaging

A video conferencing application must be designed to provide real-time chats in an ongoing meeting. This helps to supplement clarity during the meeting virtually, through multimedia channels.

Audio and video recording

In an ideal video conferencing, the users generally believe to have a backup of that communication for the future. This is the top-notch requirement for a company to build up a stable domain.

Sharing the screen

A screen share enables viewing access to the participants of the meeting, developing a clear perspective of ideas thought to the ideas delivered.
Push notifications
An attractive Video SDK must support enabling notifications while the conference to make discussions acknowledged at the right time. This helps in running a business conference smoothly.

Effective flexibility and scalability

A video SDK must provide effective scalability so that it can be addressed with any supportive device without a screen of less clarity. It must be flexible enough to support all the devices for its accessibility.
In the market of real-time communication, various companies offer customizable video SDK interfaces for their clients. Due to the current pandemic situation, the real-time communication industry has increased a lot. People have made virtual communication as the most used method to communicate, rather it is their professional or personal life. Many companies have launched their Video SDKs with customizable features.

Here are Top 10  Video Calling APIs & SDKs Provider Choose India, US, Canada

1. Video SDK Embed Live Video Calling & Conferencing API & SDK 

Video SDK is a web-RTC company that looks into creating lucrative Video SDKs and APIs for their clients. It looks for better engagement of their clients by supporting them with providing the best products for the end-users. Video SDK production, delivering sub 100ms to 150ms low latency streaming in the real-time community creating its image as the ideal platform for video conferencing due to its flexible and scalable SDKs. They aim at delivering some of the best experiences to their clients with their customizable SDKs.

2. ZujoNow Live Video Calling Solution for Business Collaboration

Zujonow is a company that develops its product on cutting-edge technologies. It delivers products for its clients based on video conferencing with effective scalability and customizable SDKs. They also deal in products like live streaming, on-demand videos, and real-time communication. Zujonow work is a well-crafted platform for education and other related industries.

3. EnableX Live Video Calling API for Web & App

EnableX works on the development of communication APIs. it focuses on communication solutions and provides services in real-time communication for its clients. It delivers its products with SMS and chat interfaces too. EnableX works on developing educational APIs for students and also maintaining portfolios.

4. Daily.co Powerful Live Video Calling API

Daily.co is a real-time audio and video API developer, working on focusing on the best scalable video conferencing api for its clients. Daily.co works on developing global infrastructure delivering the best call quality on a timely basis, considering their web-RTC to be a source of service to the clients.

5. Eyeson Live Video Calling Solution for Business Collaboration

Eyeson masters into high-performing API including managed hosting and scaling for web-based business workflows on any device. It has a patented single Stream Technology merges any live media, data and participants in real-time into a single video and audio stream. The cloud services at eyeson can immediately be used for world wide scaling. It provides a world-class facility for its clients with guaranteed privacy.

6. Agora  Live video calling api

Agora.io is a web real-time communication company that develops SDKs and APIs. It works on engagement for the users by real-time voice, video call javascript  messaging, and live streaming products. They also have set up classrooms for students for learning with an interactive whiteboard.

7. Twilio cloud-based Live Video Calling APIs and SDK

Twilio develops video applications that are fully customizable, scalable, and flexible for usage. It constructs applications and connectivity and has its build-up. It makes channels for video, chats, and programmable chats. Twilio also looks at SMS build-up for its clients. It provides solutions based on real-time communication and scalability and video calling api 

8. PubNub Live Video Calling and Realtime Communication Platform

Pubnub is an in-app chat for real-time chat engagement. It retains full control, functionality, and customization without the time and expense of building in-house. It provides outsourcing to clients with the products like custom chat, effortless scalability, in-class integrations, and Chat UI support. They have a strong research window that looks for developing APIs for their clients.

9. Cometchat  Live Video Calling api Provider

Cometchat is designed for providing APIs and SDKs for various solutions for ed-tech, healthcare, dating, and social community. It is also devised for on-demand videos and live streaming. It allows its users to customize their Whitelabel as per their needs to make it feel like ownership. Cometchat is adaptive to all languages and has effective work data too.

10. Sinch  WebRTC- Live Video Conferencing API Solution

Sinch works on managing different APIs for messaging and calling. It puts forward the products for video calling, voice calls, SMS verification, and other engagement platforms. It provides solutions to different industries like health, retail, telecommunications, media and entertainment, and more. It provided operators opportunities for monetizing wholesale, preventing fraud, and other activities.

11. Apphitect  video and chat calling api

Apphitect focuses on mobile app development for android and iOS. It also engages its clients with different solutions concerning messaging. Apphitect delivers app testings and mobile. It develops everything from wireframe to pixel. Apphitact is currently working in 40+ cities with its headquarters in UAE.

12. Vidyo audio and Live Video Calling API providers

Vidyo provides solutions to services like Branding and white-labeling and hybrid cloud expansion. It also works with solutions for deployment services and project management services. It works for several industries like health, education, government, finance, retail; and more. It promotes connectivity and engagement for the users and also focuses on video conferencing systems for businesses.

 

 

Due to the current pandemic, real-time communication has took a massive hype for its flexible availability. All the businesses, corporates, schools, and organisations had to run over the web. Even earlier video conferencing was an all time favorable option for corporates to abide with communicating with clients, over a distance. But in the latter period, recently, the whole world has become dependent on it. For the same cause, it led to emergence of various innovative ideas for bringing people closer together even at a distance. Video conferencing has today become vital and above all it is appreciable for the companies who have invested in bringing up ideas by developing customisable video SDKs for their clients to promote belongingness. The APIs and SDKs designed by the companies have made it easier to use by the end consumers too. Overall, video conferencing makes work flexible and accessible to all, making itself categorise into an principal element of businesses.

#video-conferencing-api#video-sdk #videoapi #video-conferencing #video-sdk-comparison  #video-calling-api

Agnes  Sauer

Agnes Sauer

1595405220

Zero-Shot Action Recognition in Videos: A Survey

Zero Shot Learning (ZSL), aims at recognizing objects from unseen classes, it is about the ability of a learner to identify different classes from observed data without never having observed such type of data during the training phase.

We all know how taxing the process of collecting, annotating, and

labeling data for training purposes is. Therefore there are a lot of requirements/demands for methods to make use of methods that could classify instances from classes that are not present in training samples, especially in Videos.

In this article, I aim to provide an overall review of how ZLS, especially in Videos, reads and relates to classes available for training purposes using Visual and Semantic Embeddings.

The learner in ZSL reads the data and relates to the classes available from the training and does an error estimation to provide an accurate output. In simple terms, ZSL recognizes an action by its closest estimation to the available data class. Hence, the accuracy of the technique will be limited by the availability of data classes from the training model. To overcome this obstacle, ZSL makes use of both Visual Embedding Labels and Semantic Embedding Labels in tandem with the help of different mapping techniques.

Let us elaborate on what the above statement means:

Visual Embedding Labels: Visual Embedding is the ability to understand imagery and convert it into a machine-readable code. After training from a large data set of images, the model usually identifies different actions and tries to classify it into available classes to provide a result.

Semantic Embedding Labels: Semantic embedding is like Visual Embedding with the only difference that the model tries to read words instead of images and classify it after comparing it with the available data set.

Now how do both come into play when it comes to Zero-Shot Learning?

Image for post

As illustrated in the picture above, what ZSL does is that it extracts both the visual and semantic information, identifies them in classes, and performs a mapping function. The mapping function outputs a class that is estimated against the available classes and the estimation with minimum error is identified as the unseen class.

#deep-learning #zero-shot-learning #deep learning

studio52 dubai

studio52 dubai

1621769539

How to find the best video production company in Dubai?

How to find the best video production company in Dubai?We are the best video production company in Dubai, UAE. We offer Corporate Video, event video, animation video, safety video and timelapse video in most engaging and creative ways.

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