A Differentiated Approach to Scaling Kubernetes Cluster Management & Operations

How Team Rafay is extending Kubernetes to meet the needs of large enterprises and service providers

It’s been a fast-paced 2 years here at Rafay, with the company maturing into a healthy startup with engaged customers and a very busy engineering team focused on delivering . a turnkey solution for Multi-Cluster Management & Application Operations. Many of us on the team also get to directly interact with customers’ DevOps and Operations engineers. Version-1 of our core platform has racked up a lot of miles in the field, allowing the team to collect enough data about where vanilla Kubernetes falls short for enterprises.

Over the last 6 months, my colleagues and I have been working on a number of extensions to Kubernetes that address a myriad of use cases. Our customers have expressed a lot of interest in better understanding our implementation, specifically the components that reside on their Kubernetes clusters. As our work output rolls out as part of the platform’s Version-2 release, we would like to share the implementation’s core design with the community. We also intend to open-source our implementation.

High-Level Goals and Architecture

Our deep-rooted customer engagements helped us put together a clear list of requirements that needed to be addressed by the platform:

1. Must not need inbound ports to be opened on firewalls: Enterprises will operate Kubernetes clusters in heterogeneous environments. Be it in a VPC in Amazon or in a data center, enterprise security teams prefer to not have any entity requiring inbound access from the Internet. Furthermore, any artifact on a cluster that needs to reach out to an external service must be able to carry out all external interactions over HTTPS (tcp:443). Mutually authenticated TLS sessions are always desirable.

2. Must be able to federate multiple clusters into a manageable fleet: Enterprises tend to operate multiple Kubernetes clusters across public cloud regions, data centers, and the Edge. Customers must be able to manage all clusters as a fleet, not each cluster individually.

3. Must provide cluster bringup workflows with fleet-wide customization capabilities: If an enterprise has standardized on a certain methodology for logs & metrics collection (e.g. use fluentd and prometheus, respectively), TLS termination (e.g. use nginx as the ingress controller), etc., there must be an easy workflow for the DevOps team to apply such requirements across the entire fleet as needed, be it in the cloud, on premises, or at the Edge.

4. Must provide a way to normalize multiple configuration formats: An enterprise is likely to have multiple teams spread across multiple geographies and working independently on different applications. Enforcing a single configuration management framework across the enterprise may be highly impractical. Teams should be able to use their prefered format: Helm, Kustomize or k8s native YAML. The platform should be able to normalize across any configuration into a single format.

5. Must guarantee real-time reconciliation of configuration across clusters: When operating a fleet of Kubernetes clusters, ensuring that no single cluster experiences configuration drift (due to pilot error, for example), is a non-trivial task. The platform should be able to detect configuration drifts across the fleet and resolve them quickly.

In addition to the above objectives, we also wanted to keep our implementation’s footprint on the cluster as small as possible to maximize the resources available for the customer applications.

#kubernetes #kubernetes clusters #devops #helm #kustomize #k8s native yaml

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A Differentiated Approach to Scaling Kubernetes Cluster Management & Operations
Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1602964260

50+ Useful Kubernetes Tools for 2020 - Part 2

Introduction

Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.

According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

#blog #tools #amazon elastic kubernetes service #application security #aws kms #botkube #caylent #cli #container monitoring #container orchestration tools #container security #containers #continuous delivery #continuous deployment #continuous integration #contour #developers #development #developments #draft #eksctl #firewall #gcp #github #harbor #helm #helm charts #helm-2to3 #helm-aws-secret-plugin #helm-docs #helm-operator-get-started #helm-secrets #iam #json #k-rail #k3s #k3sup #k8s #keel.sh #keycloak #kiali #kiam #klum #knative #krew #ksniff #kube #kube-prod-runtime #kube-ps1 #kube-scan #kube-state-metrics #kube2iam #kubeapps #kubebuilder #kubeconfig #kubectl #kubectl-aws-secrets #kubefwd #kubernetes #kubernetes command line tool #kubernetes configuration #kubernetes deployment #kubernetes in development #kubernetes in production #kubernetes ingress #kubernetes interfaces #kubernetes monitoring #kubernetes networking #kubernetes observability #kubernetes plugins #kubernetes secrets #kubernetes security #kubernetes security best practices #kubernetes security vendors #kubernetes service discovery #kubernetic #kubesec #kubeterminal #kubeval #kudo #kuma #microsoft azure key vault #mozilla sops #octant #octarine #open source #palo alto kubernetes security #permission-manager #pgp #rafay #rakess #rancher #rook #secrets operations #serverless function #service mesh #shell-operator #snyk #snyk container #sonobuoy #strongdm #tcpdump #tenkai #testing #tigera #tilt #vert.x #wireshark #yaml

Maud  Rosenbaum

Maud Rosenbaum

1601051854

Kubernetes in the Cloud: Strategies for Effective Multi Cloud Implementations

Kubernetes is a highly popular container orchestration platform. Multi cloud is a strategy that leverages cloud resources from multiple vendors. Multi cloud strategies have become popular because they help prevent vendor lock-in and enable you to leverage a wide variety of cloud resources. However, multi cloud ecosystems are notoriously difficult to configure and maintain.

This article explains how you can leverage Kubernetes to reduce multi cloud complexities and improve stability, scalability, and velocity.

Kubernetes: Your Multi Cloud Strategy

Maintaining standardized application deployments becomes more challenging as your number of applications and the technologies they are based on increase. As environments, operating systems, and dependencies differ, management and operations require more effort and extensive documentation.

In the past, teams tried to get around these difficulties by creating isolated projects in the data center. Each project, including its configurations and requirements were managed independently. This required accurately predicting performance and the number of users before deployment and taking down applications to update operating systems or applications. There were many chances for error.

Kubernetes can provide an alternative to the old method, enabling teams to deploy applications independent of the environment in containers. This eliminates the need to create resource partitions and enables teams to operate infrastructure as a unified whole.

In particular, Kubernetes makes it easier to deploy a multi cloud strategy since it enables you to abstract away service differences. With Kubernetes deployments you can work from a consistent platform and optimize services and applications according to your business needs.

The Compelling Attributes of Multi Cloud Kubernetes

Multi cloud Kubernetes can provide multiple benefits beyond a single cloud deployment. Below are some of the most notable advantages.

Stability

In addition to the built-in scalability, fault tolerance, and auto-healing features of Kubernetes, multi cloud deployments can provide service redundancy. For example, you can mirror applications or split microservices across vendors. This reduces the risk of a vendor-related outage and enables you to create failovers.

#kubernetes #multicloud-strategy #kubernetes-cluster #kubernetes-top-story #kubernetes-cluster-install #kubernetes-explained #kubernetes-infrastructure #cloud

A Differentiated Approach to Scaling Kubernetes Cluster Management & Operations

How Team Rafay is extending Kubernetes to meet the needs of large enterprises and service providers

It’s been a fast-paced 2 years here at Rafay, with the company maturing into a healthy startup with engaged customers and a very busy engineering team focused on delivering . a turnkey solution for Multi-Cluster Management & Application Operations. Many of us on the team also get to directly interact with customers’ DevOps and Operations engineers. Version-1 of our core platform has racked up a lot of miles in the field, allowing the team to collect enough data about where vanilla Kubernetes falls short for enterprises.

Over the last 6 months, my colleagues and I have been working on a number of extensions to Kubernetes that address a myriad of use cases. Our customers have expressed a lot of interest in better understanding our implementation, specifically the components that reside on their Kubernetes clusters. As our work output rolls out as part of the platform’s Version-2 release, we would like to share the implementation’s core design with the community. We also intend to open-source our implementation.

High-Level Goals and Architecture

Our deep-rooted customer engagements helped us put together a clear list of requirements that needed to be addressed by the platform:

1. Must not need inbound ports to be opened on firewalls: Enterprises will operate Kubernetes clusters in heterogeneous environments. Be it in a VPC in Amazon or in a data center, enterprise security teams prefer to not have any entity requiring inbound access from the Internet. Furthermore, any artifact on a cluster that needs to reach out to an external service must be able to carry out all external interactions over HTTPS (tcp:443). Mutually authenticated TLS sessions are always desirable.

2. Must be able to federate multiple clusters into a manageable fleet: Enterprises tend to operate multiple Kubernetes clusters across public cloud regions, data centers, and the Edge. Customers must be able to manage all clusters as a fleet, not each cluster individually.

3. Must provide cluster bringup workflows with fleet-wide customization capabilities: If an enterprise has standardized on a certain methodology for logs & metrics collection (e.g. use fluentd and prometheus, respectively), TLS termination (e.g. use nginx as the ingress controller), etc., there must be an easy workflow for the DevOps team to apply such requirements across the entire fleet as needed, be it in the cloud, on premises, or at the Edge.

4. Must provide a way to normalize multiple configuration formats: An enterprise is likely to have multiple teams spread across multiple geographies and working independently on different applications. Enforcing a single configuration management framework across the enterprise may be highly impractical. Teams should be able to use their prefered format: Helm, Kustomize or k8s native YAML. The platform should be able to normalize across any configuration into a single format.

5. Must guarantee real-time reconciliation of configuration across clusters: When operating a fleet of Kubernetes clusters, ensuring that no single cluster experiences configuration drift (due to pilot error, for example), is a non-trivial task. The platform should be able to detect configuration drifts across the fleet and resolve them quickly.

In addition to the above objectives, we also wanted to keep our implementation’s footprint on the cluster as small as possible to maximize the resources available for the customer applications.

#kubernetes #kubernetes clusters #devops #helm #kustomize #k8s native yaml

Kubernetes Cluster Federation With Admiralty

Kubernetes today is a hugely prevalent tool in 2021, and more organizations are increasingly running their applications on multiple clusters of Kubernetes. But these multiple cluster architectures often have a combination of multiple cloud providers, multiple data centers, multiple regions, and multiple zones where the applications are running. So, deploying your application or service on clusters with such diverse resources is a complicated endeavor. This challenge is what the process of a federation is intended to help overcome. The fundamental use case of a federation is to scale applications on multiple clusters with ease. The process negates the need to perform the deployment step more than once. Instead, you perform one deployment, and the application is deployed on multiple clusters as listed in the federation list.

What Is Kubernetes Cluster Federation?

Essentially, the Kubernetes cluster federation is a mechanism to provide one way or one practice to distribute applications and services to multiple clusters. One of the most important things to note is that federation is not about cluster management, federation is about application management.

Cluster federation is a way of federating your existing clusters as one single curated cluster. So, if you are leveraging Kubernetes clusters in different zones in different countries, you can treat all of them as a single cluster.

In cluster federation, we optimize a host cluster and multiple-member clusters. The host cluster comprises all the configurations which pass on all the member clusters. Member clusters are the clusters that share the workloads. It is possible to have a host cluster also share the workload and act as a member cluster, but organizations tend to keep the host clusters separate for simplicity. On the host cluster, it’s important to install the cluster registry and the federated API. Now with the cluster registry, the host will have all the information to connect to the member Clusters. And with the federated API, you require all the controllers running on our host clusters to make sure they reconcile the federated resources. In a nutshell, the host cluster will act as a control plane and propagate and push configuration to the member clusters.

#kubernetes #cluster #cluster management #federation #federation techniques #cluster communication

Michel  Kub

Michel Kub

1596110100

Webinar: Things to consider to operate a Multi-Tenant Kubernetes Cluster

Using Kubernetes to serve multi tenants is not a trivial task. Kubernetes provides the tools that are necessary(RBAC, Rolebinding, Network Policy, ResourceQuota and etc) to provide isolation between tenants but building/implementing an architecture is solely upon users. In this webinar, we would like to introduce multiple approaches that can be taken to provide multi-tenancy in the kubernetes cluster. We will also talk about how others in the communities are doing to achieve multi-tenancy. We’ll analyze pros and cons of different approaches and share specific use-cases that fit each approach. Finally, we will look in to lessons we’ve learned and we have implemented these factors into our on-premise cloud environment.

#kubernetes #a multi-tenant kubernetes cluster #kubernetes cluster #on-premise cloud environment