Franz  Becker

Franz Becker


Pg_insights: Convenient SQL for Monitoring Postgres Database Health.


Convenient SQL for monitoring Postgres database health. This repository is inspired by commands from Heroku's pg_extras repository.

How to Use


You can run a script using psql's -f option. For example:

$ psql postgres -f sql/cache_hit_rate.sql

It also works with aliases you have setup with psql:

$ alias psql_my_db="psql -h -d my_db -U admin"
$ psql_my_db -f sql/cache_hit_rate.sql


You can also copy/paste any of the SQL in the sql/ directory and run with the Postgres client of your choice.


active_autovacuums.sql (admin permission)

  • Returns all running autovacuums operations.

analyze_stats.sql (read permission)

  • Returns autovacuum analyze stats for each table.

bloat.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the approximate bloat from dead tuples for each table.
  • This bloat can also be index bloat.

buffer_cache_usage.sql (admin permission)

  • Returns the distribution of shared buffers used for each table.
  • Requires the pg_buffercache extension.
  • Includes the total bytes of a table in shared buffers, the percentage of shared buffers a table is using, and the percentage of a table the exists in shared buffers.

cache_hit_rate.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the cache hit rate for indices and tables.
  • This is the rate of queries that only hit in-memory shared buffers rather than having to fetch from disk.
  • Note that a queries that are cache misses in Postgres's shared buffers may still hit the in-memory OS page cache, so a miss not technically go all the way to the disk.
  • Both of these rates should be 99+% ideally.

index_hit_rate.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the index hit rate for each table.
  • This rate represents the percentage of queries that utilize 1 or more indices when querying a table.
  • These rates should be 99+% ideally.

index_size.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the size of each index in bytes.

reset_stats.sql (admin permission)

  • Resets pg_stats statistics tables.

table_settings.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the table-specific settings of each table.

table_size.sql (read permission)

  • Returns the size of each table in bytes.
  • Does not include size of the tables' indices.

table_size_with_indices.sql (read permission)

  • Returns size of each table in bytes including all indices.

toast_size.sql (read permission)

  • Returns total size of all TOAST data in each table in bytes.

unused_indices.sql (read permission)

  • Returns indices that are rarely used.
  • Note that sometimes the query optimizer will elect to avoid using indices for tables with a very small number of rows because it can be more efficient.

vacuum_stats.sql (read permission)

  • Returns autovacuum stats for each table.


Pull requests for bug fixes, improvements, or new SQL are always welcome!

Author: lob
Source Code:
License: MIT License


What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Cayla  Erdman

Cayla Erdman


Introduction to Structured Query Language SQL pdf

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a scripting language expected to store, control, and inquiry information put away in social databases. The main manifestation of SQL showed up in 1974, when a gathering in IBM built up the principal model of a social database. The primary business social database was discharged by Relational Software later turning out to be Oracle.

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Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya


List of Available Database for Current User In SQL Server


When working in the SQL Server, we may have to check some other databases other than the current one which we are working. In that scenario we may not be sure that does we have access to those Databases?. In this article we discuss the list of databases that are available for the current logged user in SQL Server

Get the list of database

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Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya


System Databases in SQL Server


In SSMS, we many of may noticed System Databases under the Database Folder. But how many of us knows its purpose?. In this article lets discuss about the System Databases in SQL Server.

System Database

Fig. 1 System Databases

There are five system databases, these databases are created while installing SQL Server.

  • Master
  • Model
  • MSDB
  • Tempdb
  • Resource
  • This database contains all the System level Information in SQL Server. The Information in form of Meta data.
  • Because of this master database, we are able to access the SQL Server (On premise SQL Server)
  • This database is used as a template for new databases.
  • Whenever a new database is created, initially a copy of model database is what created as new database.
  • This database is where a service called SQL Server Agent stores its data.
  • SQL server Agent is in charge of automation, which includes entities such as jobs, schedules, and alerts.
  • The Tempdb is where SQL Server stores temporary data such as work tables, sort space, row versioning information and etc.
  • User can create their own version of temporary tables and those are stored in Tempdb.
  • But this database is destroyed and recreated every time when we restart the instance of SQL Server.
  • The resource database is a hidden, read only database that holds the definitions of all system objects.
  • When we query system object in a database, they appear to reside in the sys schema of the local database, but in actually their definitions reside in the resource db.

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Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya


What is SQL? And Where is it Used?

Define: SQL [pron. “sequel”] – stands for Structured Query Language (SQL), used by databases to model and manage tabular/relational datasets; a set of standardized Data Definition Language (DDL) functions to create tables, views, and define relational schema models, and Data Manipulation Language (DML) to query, insert, and modify data in the tables.

*Read-only select queries are technically part of its Data Query Language (DQL) group. Still, operationally, many refer to it as DML because it can do more than read-only queries.

Super Brief History of SQL

Who Uses SQL?

What Can a SQL Database Do?

What is a SQL Query?

Different SQL Database Platforms


Application Developers

SQL for Big Data

Further Reading

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 iOS App Dev

iOS App Dev


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