Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein


How to Calculate Cohen's D To Determine If The Size in Statistics

This statistics video tutorial explains how to calculate Cohen's d to determine if the size of the effect is small, medium, or large based on the differences between two sample means.  This video also provides two ways to calculate the pooled standard deviation.

#statistics  #probability 

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How to Calculate Cohen's D To Determine If The Size in Statistics
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein


How to Calculate Cohen's D To Determine If The Size in Statistics

This statistics video tutorial explains how to calculate Cohen's d to determine if the size of the effect is small, medium, or large based on the differences between two sample means.  This video also provides two ways to calculate the pooled standard deviation.

#statistics  #probability 

How is Sample Size Related to Standard Error, Power, Confidence Level, and Effect Size?

When conducting statistical analysis, especially during experimental design, one practical issue that one cannot avoid is to determine the sample size for the experiment. For example, when designing the layout of a web page, we want to know whether increasing the size of the click button will increase the click-through probability. In this case, AB testing is an experimental method that is commonly used to solve this problem.

Moving to the details of this experiment, you will first decide how many users I will need to assign to the experiment group, and how many we need for the control group. The sample size is closely related to four variables, standard error of the sample, statistical power, confidence level, and the effect size of this experiment.

In this article, we will demonstrate their relationships with the sample size by graphs. Specifically, we will discuss different scenarios with one-tail hypothesis testing.

Standard Error and Sample Size

The standard error of a statistic corresponds with the standard deviation of a parameter. Since it is nearly impossible to know the population distribution in most cases, we can estimate the standard deviation of a parameter by calculating the standard error of a sampling distribution. The standard error measures the dispersion of the distribution. As the sample size gets larger, the dispersion gets smaller, and the mean of the distribution is closer to the population mean (Central Limit Theory). Thus, the sample size is negatively correlated with the standard error of a sample. The graph below shows how distributions shape differently with different sample sizes

#statistics #statistical-power #statistical-analysis #data-science #sample-size

CSS Boss

CSS Boss


How to create a calculator using javascript - Pure JS tutorials |Web Tutorials

In this video I will tell you How to create a calculator using javascript very easily.

#how to build a simple calculator in javascript #how to create simple calculator using javascript #javascript calculator tutorial #javascript birthday calculator #calculator using javascript and html

Nora Joy


Why unity 3D is best for game app development

We can see an exponential growth in the game development industry today and the market for game development will increase day by day ,thanks to the increasing number of smartphone users and the technological advancements.Unity 3D is the trending game app development framework to serve the best quality.This game development framework enables developers to conduct 2D or 3D rendering with more than 1 mobile game to assist them in ratcheting. Apart from this the great qualities like cross-platform integration with asset management, high-end visual quality, intuitive design, interface flexibility and gameplay can now be leveraged.India is the leading game development hub and now people are** hire dedicated unity 3D developers in India** to create a high performing game app with best quality at affordable price which you can spread your games to larger audience.Lets have a look at why unity a 3D is the best platform for game development.
Support cross-platform**

Cross platforms save time and money as a single script can be compiled and used for multiple platforms such as Android, iOS, PC, Web and even Mac etcFeatures such as agile methodology allow speedy prototyping and constant releases to speed up the process of game development.

Open source

The large open source community of Unity 3D with an easy-to-understand documentation allows developers to come up with the most accurate and precise code and it saves a lot of time.


Unity 3D can support graphic rendering from engines that use OpenGL ES, OpenGL and Direct 3D, as well as applications like 3DS Max, Blender and Adobe Photoshop. It enables high-quality audio and visual effects to be adapted without any distortion or compromise with quality.
Play mode feature
This feature allows easy and hassle free testing by allowing developers to look and play within the game instantly, evaluate and even review it,and also the Play or Play Plus mode can also be used to achieve frame to frame referencing.


With Unity game development, the analysis and modification is incredibly easier as all the game factors are seen during ongoing interaction, which helps the engineers to troubleshoot the process at runtime.

These advantages make unity as the best game development platform and people h**ire dedicated unity 3D developers** for the best output.With Unity, countless games have been made and some of them have become instant classics.Take a look at some of the all-time trending Unity games .

  • Kerbal Space Program

  • Firewatch

  • Subnautica

  • Hollow Knight

  • Arizona Sunshine

  • Cuphead

  • Ori And The Blind Forest

  • Hearthstone

  • Beat Saber

  • Cities Skylines

  • Getting Over It With Bennett Foddy
    In terms of graphics, gameplay, consistency and realism, technical advances and rise of new technologies like AR & VR and AI & ML make the game more ambitious day by day.Today the entire global game development is booming and mobile gaming business are hire unity 3D developers in India to meet this heavy market.**Hire dedicated unity 3D developers **will benefits the following,

  • International standard game app development at lower cost.

  • Skilled and experienced game developers

  • Faster time to market

  • Best infrastructure


Unity 3D has taken over the business and has altered the advancement of cross-platform app development paths. Unity 3D has already become the favourite of developers as they can import games created from iOS, PC, Play Store or other game consoles from other platforms and allow minimum game modifications to take full advantage of Unity 3D’s features. So if you have any game development hire unity 3D developers with great experience.

#hire unity 3 d developers in india #hire dedicated unity 3 d developers in india #hire unity 3 d programmers in india #hire unity 3 d developers #hire dedicated unity 3 d developers #hire unity 3 d programmers

Confidence Interval, Calculation, and Characteristics

The Confidence Interval (CI) is very important in statistics and data science. In this article, I am going to explain the confidence interval, how to calculate it, and the important characteristics of it.

The confidence interval (CI) is a range of values. It is expressed as a percentage and is expected to contain the best estimate of a statistical parameter. A confidence interval of 95% mean, it is 95% certain that our population parameter lies in between this confidence interval.

Interpretation of confidence intervals

Here is a statement:

“In a sample of 659 parents with toddlers, 540, about 85 percent, stated they use a car seat for all travel with their toddler. From these results, a 95% confidence interval was provided, going from about 82.3 percent up to 87.7 percent.”

This statement means, it is 95% certain that the population proportion that uses a car seat for all travel with their toddler is 82.3 and 87.7. If we take several subsamples from this population, 95% of the time, the population proportion that uses a car seat for all travel with their toddler will fall between 82.3% to 87.7%.

Can we say that the confidence interval (82.3, 87.7) contains the true population proportion? The answer is unknown. The population proportion is a fixed value but unknown. It is important to remember that 95% confidence does not mean a 95% probability.

Why Confidence Interval Is Important?

It is important because it is not possible to take data from every single person in a population most of the time. In the example above, the sample size was 659. We estimated the population proportion of the parents with toddlers who use a car seat for all travel from a sample of 659 parents. We could not get the data from all the parents with toddlers. So, we calculate the population proportion from our available sample and consider a margin of error. With that margin of error, we get a range. This range is called a confidence interval. A confidence interval is a way to express how well the sample data represent the total population. You can calculate a confidence interval of any number(less than 100%). But a 95% confidence interval is the most common.

How to Calculate the Confidence Interval

The formula for the confidence interval is:

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We normally want a high confidence level such as 75%, 95%, or 99%. Higher the confidence level(CL), lower the precision. In the example above, the best estimate is 85%. We can calculate the estimates SE from the following formula:

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In the equation, above p1 is the best estimate and n is the sample size. Here is a table for z- score for a few commonly used confidence level.

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Plugging in all the values,

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The confidence interval come out to be 82.3% and 87.7%.

The range of CI is higher for higher CL

In the same way, we can calculate a 99% confidence level. You only need to change the z-score. From the table above, the z-score for a 99% confidence level is 2.57. Plugging in that value in the confidence interval formula, the confidence interval for a 99% confidence level is 81.43% to 88.57%. The range of a confidence interval is higher for a higher confidence level.

#statistical-analysis #confidence-interval #statistics #statistical-learning #data-science #data analysis