Rusty Chains: A Basic Blockchain Implementation Written in Pure Rust

What is inside the story?

In this article, I will take you a bit along my journey into blockchain. The next project at my work will be fueled by blockchain technology. Since I had (have) no real idea about that topic apart from some general high level ideas, I started to grind for information on the topic and finally decided that the best way to overcome the level of just repeating buzzwords and to get an actual level of understanding is to get the hands dirty: Implementing the thing from scratch.

Not everything which would be needed to deploy your own public blockchain, but a working part of the base technology which already resembles a fully functional (local) blockchain. We will use the rather new programming language Rust to do so. Since the language does not have a huge user base like Java, C++ or Python, that module will be very detailed in the implementation part by not only showcasing the code but explaining its ideas and syntax.

There is a lot to cover. When following up, you will have a natural **understanding of blockchains by creating an extensible blockchain prototype **and learn some usable basics in Rust. Who knows what that might be good for in the future? But don’t worry, I will try to guide you step by step through the whole thing instead of just dropping code snippets.

Prerequisites

To understand the article the only thing you will have to bring with you is a basic level of programming experience and the wish to dive into the topic of blockchains. Working knowledge specifically in Rust is not strictly necessary. I will explain the relevant concepts on the go.

However, an installation of Rust[1] and a proper code editor would be a plus (e.g…, CLion or Visual Studio Code) if you want to try the code and follow up with the details is recommended.

Fast Track 🏃

Here are the relevant pieces:

Fundamentals

The first part of the article will guide you through some basics and my personal view of the technology in order to have everyone at the same page.

What is a Blockchain?

First things first: let us talk a little bit about the blockchain itself (no really: first get yourself a coffee or tea ☕ we have work to do). If we want to talk about blockchains, we first should talk about Distributed Ledgers. You have probably heard this term in the same breath as blockchain.

Maybe you have come around the peer-to-peer filesharing protocol BitTorrent[2]. This protocol enables filesharing in a **decentralized **manner. Normally, when downloading a file from somewhere over the internet, you will send a request to a specific server which stores the whole file and transmits the data to your device. This is classical **client server architecture. **BitTorrent however will share a single file across multiple actors / peers at the same time. If you download a file from the Torrent network, you effectively will download it from multiple sources and eventually becoming a source yourself by participating in the network.

Distributed ledgers share some common characteristics. The data (i.e., the ledger) - which generally is not just a simple file but rather a kind of database or really whatever you want it to be - is **distributed across multiple actors / peers. **There is no single authority in charge for keeping, modifying or distributing that ledger. Rather, all the connected peers keep a copy of the very same ledger.

This idea comes with a lot of problems and questions like: Who can add information to the network? Who can edit it? Who can read it? How much data can be added? Who pays for the storage? Who pays for the processing? Which data is added first? How to recognize failures? How to prevent malicious participants?

How authentication is managed? What about network latency? That’s a lot of complicated tech to cover. All those questions need some form of **consensus **which all participating peers agree on. Consensus is a rather long topic on its own. There are different types of consensus algorithms suiting different use cases[3] all having their own advantages and disadvantages.

In this article we will implement a sort of a **Proof of Work **variant, which is used in known public blockchains like Ethereum (might switch to Proof of Stake in future versions) or **Bitcoin. **We will come back on that in Chapter II of the writeup.

Having that said, what is the connection between distributed ledgers and blockchains? To be honest: Taxonomy wise — it’s not that simple[4]:

The term blockchain is an ill-defined buzzword

If we want to visualize the relationship in a Venn diagram it might look like that:

1

So, is a blockchain a distributed ledger? Well it might be; sort of. Does it need to be? Not necessarily. My take on it:

The blockchain_ itself is just a special kind of _ledger

It is a special kind of ledger which remembers all states-transitions it ever went through. Imagine having a regular database, where every change / transaction you commit will be recorded such that the final state of the database can always be obtained by executing all the recorded transactions in order. The final state in the context of blockchains is referred as World State.

Since this state does not contain the whole history of transactions, it is typically much smaller than the actual blockchain. However, it is not strictly necessary to store the world state since it always could be retrieved by replaying all transactions. This chain **of ordered transactions **is secured in a way that it is impossible to change any intermediate transaction (previous chain parts) without breaking the whole thing apart. This is often referred as immutable state.

If you share that blockchain around multiple parties (including the whole world if public) by taking in account the previously mentioned features on consensus, well then you have a distributed ledger where the ledger is that blockchain.

But why is it that people talk about blockchains when they are talking about concrete realizations like Bitcoin or Ethereum? Well, the blockchain itself is a part of all of them. I would rather refer to them as **Blockchain Frameworks and Blockchain Ecosystems. **

The common understanding of blockchain actually refers to blockchain frameworks and blockchain ecosystems

Marketing decided that this is the same, but keep in mind: it really isn’t. Blockchain Frameworks and Ecosystems typically offer a lot of technology and software, mostly together with a couple of of additional **components **offering different sets of **features, **possibly also with an existing user base / network. There are a lot of blockchain frameworks in the wild, which may or may not be compatible to another.

Next to the already mentioned Ethereum and Bitcoin, there are prominent representatives like Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Besu, Substrate, Quora or Corda just to name a view; all having different features and use cases / audiences[5].

What we need blockchains for? (Use Cases)

This question is not so easy to answer and might also be somewhat opinionated. Blockchain Frameworks can be categorized into at least two different flavors: public blockchains and private blockchains. Those are not fundamentally different, but their components and use cases differ.

Public blockchains are basically accessible by anyone. People can join and participate if they speak the same language, i.e., following the same protocols (having the same consensus). Therefore, there exists a multitude of clients for specific blockchains.

Ethereum has more than 10 active projects listed[6] which are implemented in all sorts of programming languages including in Rust (Parity Ethereum).

The most obvious use case for public blockchains is providing means to supply and store digital value. Bitcoin, the most prominent player in the field, is doing exactly that by providing a digital currency: The Bitcoin (BTC). Due to the limited amount of coins, the immutability of the ledger and the decentralized nature, those values can neither be randomly appearing, disappearing nor can anybody embezzle anything.

They are unique and steady. Changes are not opaque anymore. And here is the important takeaway: there is no need for any participant to trust in anybody. Everyone is watching. It is almost impossible to manipulate the system since it doesn’t depend only on a single actor.

That also means, you cannot DDoS[7] the network. Those attack vectors just disappear. Security comes by design.

Surely enough, currency and coins are not the only thing that can be stored. Contracts and Wills saved forever immutably? Land Registry[8]? Proofing possession of digital goods? Your poem being stored forever? Publication of information that no one ever can destroy?

Blockchain got you covered. With features like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM[9]) it is even possible to deploy logic (i.e., code that does state transitions) onto the chain. There possibilities and challenges seem promising for the future.

What might smart and creative people come up with using blockchain tech in the future?

**Private Blockchains **are basically not different from public blockchains. They use the same technology but come with additional features, which are not common in public chains. Private blockchains are not meant to be joined by anyone but a regulated audience. Those could be different organizations which are sharing some joint workflows, possessions or values.

To enable a collaboration like that, frameworks also needs features like authentication, authorization, permissioning (user roles), rights management, deployment, networking, monitoring and so forth. But why should anyone want to deal with such complicated technology just to share a chain of transactions and data between some limited companies?

Well, the audience seems way smaller. Remember the shared state which all the participants store and the consensus which the participants agree on? There is no central authority which you just have to trust. No one can just manipulate data. There are no two valid realities existing at a time. Also, since every party stores at least one copy of the ledger, there is no risk on loosing access to the data. If you share some interest with someone else but you cannot absolutely trust on the integrity of the company, private blockchains may have you covered.

I hope that introduction has helped you a bit on gaining a feeling of the technology itself and got us on the same page. If you feel like something is missing or are disagreeing on some statements, please do not hesitate to drop me a message. I really appreciate discussions.

#blockchain #rust #coding #hashing #data-structures #programming #crypto #hackernoon-top-story

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Buddha Community

Rusty Chains: A Basic Blockchain Implementation Written in Pure Rust

Rusty Chains: A Basic Blockchain Implementation Written in Pure Rust

What is inside the story?

In this article, I will take you a bit along my journey into blockchain. The next project at my work will be fueled by blockchain technology. Since I had (have) no real idea about that topic apart from some general high level ideas, I started to grind for information on the topic and finally decided that the best way to overcome the level of just repeating buzzwords and to get an actual level of understanding is to get the hands dirty: Implementing the thing from scratch.

Not everything which would be needed to deploy your own public blockchain, but a working part of the base technology which already resembles a fully functional (local) blockchain. We will use the rather new programming language Rust to do so. Since the language does not have a huge user base like Java, C++ or Python, that module will be very detailed in the implementation part by not only showcasing the code but explaining its ideas and syntax.

There is a lot to cover. When following up, you will have a natural **understanding of blockchains by creating an extensible blockchain prototype **and learn some usable basics in Rust. Who knows what that might be good for in the future? But don’t worry, I will try to guide you step by step through the whole thing instead of just dropping code snippets.

Prerequisites

To understand the article the only thing you will have to bring with you is a basic level of programming experience and the wish to dive into the topic of blockchains. Working knowledge specifically in Rust is not strictly necessary. I will explain the relevant concepts on the go.

However, an installation of Rust[1] and a proper code editor would be a plus (e.g…, CLion or Visual Studio Code) if you want to try the code and follow up with the details is recommended.

Fast Track 🏃

Here are the relevant pieces:

Fundamentals

The first part of the article will guide you through some basics and my personal view of the technology in order to have everyone at the same page.

What is a Blockchain?

First things first: let us talk a little bit about the blockchain itself (no really: first get yourself a coffee or tea ☕ we have work to do). If we want to talk about blockchains, we first should talk about Distributed Ledgers. You have probably heard this term in the same breath as blockchain.

Maybe you have come around the peer-to-peer filesharing protocol BitTorrent[2]. This protocol enables filesharing in a **decentralized **manner. Normally, when downloading a file from somewhere over the internet, you will send a request to a specific server which stores the whole file and transmits the data to your device. This is classical **client server architecture. **BitTorrent however will share a single file across multiple actors / peers at the same time. If you download a file from the Torrent network, you effectively will download it from multiple sources and eventually becoming a source yourself by participating in the network.

Distributed ledgers share some common characteristics. The data (i.e., the ledger) - which generally is not just a simple file but rather a kind of database or really whatever you want it to be - is **distributed across multiple actors / peers. **There is no single authority in charge for keeping, modifying or distributing that ledger. Rather, all the connected peers keep a copy of the very same ledger.

This idea comes with a lot of problems and questions like: Who can add information to the network? Who can edit it? Who can read it? How much data can be added? Who pays for the storage? Who pays for the processing? Which data is added first? How to recognize failures? How to prevent malicious participants?

How authentication is managed? What about network latency? That’s a lot of complicated tech to cover. All those questions need some form of **consensus **which all participating peers agree on. Consensus is a rather long topic on its own. There are different types of consensus algorithms suiting different use cases[3] all having their own advantages and disadvantages.

In this article we will implement a sort of a **Proof of Work **variant, which is used in known public blockchains like Ethereum (might switch to Proof of Stake in future versions) or **Bitcoin. **We will come back on that in Chapter II of the writeup.

Having that said, what is the connection between distributed ledgers and blockchains? To be honest: Taxonomy wise — it’s not that simple[4]:

The term blockchain is an ill-defined buzzword

If we want to visualize the relationship in a Venn diagram it might look like that:

1

So, is a blockchain a distributed ledger? Well it might be; sort of. Does it need to be? Not necessarily. My take on it:

The blockchain_ itself is just a special kind of _ledger

It is a special kind of ledger which remembers all states-transitions it ever went through. Imagine having a regular database, where every change / transaction you commit will be recorded such that the final state of the database can always be obtained by executing all the recorded transactions in order. The final state in the context of blockchains is referred as World State.

Since this state does not contain the whole history of transactions, it is typically much smaller than the actual blockchain. However, it is not strictly necessary to store the world state since it always could be retrieved by replaying all transactions. This chain **of ordered transactions **is secured in a way that it is impossible to change any intermediate transaction (previous chain parts) without breaking the whole thing apart. This is often referred as immutable state.

If you share that blockchain around multiple parties (including the whole world if public) by taking in account the previously mentioned features on consensus, well then you have a distributed ledger where the ledger is that blockchain.

But why is it that people talk about blockchains when they are talking about concrete realizations like Bitcoin or Ethereum? Well, the blockchain itself is a part of all of them. I would rather refer to them as **Blockchain Frameworks and Blockchain Ecosystems. **

The common understanding of blockchain actually refers to blockchain frameworks and blockchain ecosystems

Marketing decided that this is the same, but keep in mind: it really isn’t. Blockchain Frameworks and Ecosystems typically offer a lot of technology and software, mostly together with a couple of of additional **components **offering different sets of **features, **possibly also with an existing user base / network. There are a lot of blockchain frameworks in the wild, which may or may not be compatible to another.

Next to the already mentioned Ethereum and Bitcoin, there are prominent representatives like Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Besu, Substrate, Quora or Corda just to name a view; all having different features and use cases / audiences[5].

What we need blockchains for? (Use Cases)

This question is not so easy to answer and might also be somewhat opinionated. Blockchain Frameworks can be categorized into at least two different flavors: public blockchains and private blockchains. Those are not fundamentally different, but their components and use cases differ.

Public blockchains are basically accessible by anyone. People can join and participate if they speak the same language, i.e., following the same protocols (having the same consensus). Therefore, there exists a multitude of clients for specific blockchains.

Ethereum has more than 10 active projects listed[6] which are implemented in all sorts of programming languages including in Rust (Parity Ethereum).

The most obvious use case for public blockchains is providing means to supply and store digital value. Bitcoin, the most prominent player in the field, is doing exactly that by providing a digital currency: The Bitcoin (BTC). Due to the limited amount of coins, the immutability of the ledger and the decentralized nature, those values can neither be randomly appearing, disappearing nor can anybody embezzle anything.

They are unique and steady. Changes are not opaque anymore. And here is the important takeaway: there is no need for any participant to trust in anybody. Everyone is watching. It is almost impossible to manipulate the system since it doesn’t depend only on a single actor.

That also means, you cannot DDoS[7] the network. Those attack vectors just disappear. Security comes by design.

Surely enough, currency and coins are not the only thing that can be stored. Contracts and Wills saved forever immutably? Land Registry[8]? Proofing possession of digital goods? Your poem being stored forever? Publication of information that no one ever can destroy?

Blockchain got you covered. With features like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM[9]) it is even possible to deploy logic (i.e., code that does state transitions) onto the chain. There possibilities and challenges seem promising for the future.

What might smart and creative people come up with using blockchain tech in the future?

**Private Blockchains **are basically not different from public blockchains. They use the same technology but come with additional features, which are not common in public chains. Private blockchains are not meant to be joined by anyone but a regulated audience. Those could be different organizations which are sharing some joint workflows, possessions or values.

To enable a collaboration like that, frameworks also needs features like authentication, authorization, permissioning (user roles), rights management, deployment, networking, monitoring and so forth. But why should anyone want to deal with such complicated technology just to share a chain of transactions and data between some limited companies?

Well, the audience seems way smaller. Remember the shared state which all the participants store and the consensus which the participants agree on? There is no central authority which you just have to trust. No one can just manipulate data. There are no two valid realities existing at a time. Also, since every party stores at least one copy of the ledger, there is no risk on loosing access to the data. If you share some interest with someone else but you cannot absolutely trust on the integrity of the company, private blockchains may have you covered.

I hope that introduction has helped you a bit on gaining a feeling of the technology itself and got us on the same page. If you feel like something is missing or are disagreeing on some statements, please do not hesitate to drop me a message. I really appreciate discussions.

#blockchain #rust #coding #hashing #data-structures #programming #crypto #hackernoon-top-story

Devin Pinto

1606217442

Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Training Course | Blockchain Council

In all the market sectors, Blockchain technology has contributed to the redesign. The improvements that were once impossible have been pushed forward. Blockchain is one of the leading innovations with the ability to influence the various sectors of the industry. It also has the ability to be one of the career-influencing innovations at the same time. We have seen an increasing inclination towards the certification of the Blockchain in recent years, and there are obvious reasons behind it. Blockchain has everything to offer, from good packages to its universal application and futuristic development. Let’s address the reasons why one should go for Blockchain certification.

5 advantages of certification by Blockchain:

1. Lucrative packages- Everyone who completes their education or upskills themselves wants to end up with a good bundle, not only is one assured of a good learning experience with Blockchain, but the packages are drool-worthy at the same time. A Blockchain developer’s average salary varies between $150,000 and $175,000 per annum. Comparatively, a software developer gets a $137,000 per year salary. For a Blockchain developer, the San Francisco Bay area provides the highest bundle, amounting to $162,288 per annum. There’s no point arguing that learning about Blockchain is a smart decision with such lucrative packages.

2. Growing industry- When you select any qualification course, it becomes important that you choose a growing segment or industry that promises potential in the future. You should anticipate all of these with Blockchain. The size of the blockchain market is expected to rise from USD 3.0 billion in 2020 to USD 39.7 billion by 2025. This will see an incredible 67.3 percent CAGR between 2020-2025. To help business processes, several businesses are outsourcing Blockchain technologies. This clearly demonstrates that there will be higher demand in the future for Blockchain developers and certified Blockchain professionals.

3. Universal application- One of the major reasons for the success of Blockchain is that it has a global application. It is not sector-specific. Blockchain usage cases are discovered by almost all market segments. In addition, other innovations such as AI, big data, data science and much more are also supported by Blockchain. It becomes easier to get into a suitable industry once you know about Blockchain.

**4. Work protection-**Surely you would like to invest in an ability that ensures job security. You had the same chance for Blockchain. Since this is the technology of the future, understanding that Blockchain can keep up with futuristic developments will help in a successful and safe job.

**5.**After a certain point of your professional life, you are expected to learn about new abilities that can help enhance your skills. Upskilling is paramount. Upskilling oneself has become the need for the hour, and choosing a path that holds a lot of potential for the future is the best way to do this. For all computer geeks and others who want to gain awareness of emerging technology, Blockchain is a good option.

Concluding thoughts- opting for Blockchain certification is a successful career move with all these advantages. You will be able to find yourself in a safe and secured work profile once you have all the knowledge and information. Link for Blockchain certification programme with the Blockchain Council.

#blockchain certificate #blockchain training #blockchain certification #blockchain developers #blockchain #blockchain council

ybobby young

ybobby young

1621403017

Blockchain to help improve the meat supply chains right from the farm to the retailer!

This blog is all about how the meat supply chains integrate blockchain technology in their business operations in a way that every participant (producers, consumers / end users and the industry welfare group) of the network wishes for.
Before getting in depth into the concept, let’s have a recap on what actually is a meat supply chain and how it contributes to the market share of the industry….
A meat supply chain is a network responsible for the production, supply and the delivery of meat products to the consumers or the end users. Even though the supply chain series for the meat commodities seem to vary at a greater scale every now and then, the overall hierarchy of the product flow remains fairly constant and same for all types of meat varieties.
It just gets kick-started with the birth of the animal followed by its maturity, butcher, slaughter, processing, and distribution and so on. All these procedures are somewhat alike in moving towards the goal of consumer product delivery and this is how the meat supply chains work right away in satisfying the demands of the end users.
Processing points in a meat supply chain:
Farms, abattoirs, dead stock collection nodes, border points, quarantine stations, warehousing nodes, cold storages,Blockchain Technology For Beef, production and distribution centres, grocery points, retail stores, end consumption points like restaurants or some others.
What makes meat supply chains dominant in the industry?
As humans, a majority of us are fond of eating meat products right from our first ancestral community. The immense interest that we are showing in meat consumption to meet our daily food requirements is one of the major causesfor enhanced meat production and supply over the years. Here is where the meat supply chains find their importance in gaining popularity among the public and profit among the investor groups. In fact, they come up to bridge the gap that exist between the supply and demand for meat products in the market resulting in an improved meat consumption among the end users.
Key market insights of the meat industry:
As per the recent statistics, the global meat market size was accounted to be something around 500+ billion US Dollars in the year 2019. It is also predicted that by the year of 2027, the same would be something that could reach 850+ billion US Dollars. In addition, the total CAGR rate for the forecast period 2020 to 2027 is approximately 6.24%. Now let us imagine how far we can invest in meat supply chains for better profit reap.
Rising consumer demands for ready to cook and eat meat products:
Both in the developing and developed economies of the world, there exist a rise in demand for meat consumption especially in the form of ready-to-cook and ready-to-eat meat commodities. The global meat market is driven continuously towards the growth peak especially by today’s fast-paced consumers’ lifestyle and the increasing interest over meat usage. Several meat manufacturers also are taking part in creating meat product demand right with the introduction of several innovative meat supply ideologies, which further helps boost up the demand among the consumers.
Processes involved in beef supply chain management:
Product feeding, shipping of products to the processing plants, reception of products by the processing plants, minimal processing of meat products, extraction of non-meat ingredients, finished product packaging, shipping of products to the distributors, reception of products by the distributors, shipping of products to the food service outlets or retailer points, reception of products by the food service outlets or retailer points, retail POS operations.
A glimpse on benefits of blockchain for beef business:
The animal meat industry is not that efficient as we think.
Why blockchain intrusion is essential for the improvement of efficiency in meat supply chains?
If we take any product supply chain inclusive of the meat supply chains, there comes a lot of contamination and quality threats due to some unavoidable reasons. The consumers on the other end are not satisfied with those threats thus demanding for quality boosted meat products for them to buy in the market. Here is where the significance of blockchain comes in and it ensures traceability and transparency in the meat products available for sale.
Transparency paves way for the ends users to gain the overall information regarding the product processing thus making everything transparent in the system constituting a wide range of network participants. This results in an enhanced level of trust for the products moving to and fro in the meat supply chains. Whereas, traceability accounts for helping the users track the product details right from its origin to the supply phase thus bridging the gaps in product purchase by the consumers.
Nowadays, the end users demand for such product details before they have gone to buy any meat product in the market.Blockchain solution for beef The major reason for this is the increasing contamination with processed and packaged meat products these days. Thus, with the help of blockchain’s innate features namely the transparency and traceability, anyone can buy products free from contamination lack of trust.
With the subsequent rise in quality and trust levels in the meat product deliveries, the efficiency levels of meat supply chains will also get improved gradually on the go with ease thus resulting in bringing brand new supply chains for the future meat consumption. This is how the technology of blockchain works right away for the meat industry.

In simple terms, we can say that blockchain is the one and only disruptive technology that brings out safer, efficient, transparent, traceable and sustainable supply chains belonging to the meat sector.
No matter whether you are a business person already having your own supply chain traceability system or a newbie entrepreneur who is looking out for the best traceability solutions out there in the industry. We welcome you onboard to avail our excellent blockchain in meat supply chain solutions so that you could either build or rebuild your meat supply chain business with a brand-new traceability solution from our side.
If you are the one who is in a dilemma that your current supply chain blockchain system is not good enough to carry forward for your future business operations, then you are certainly at the right place. Being a blockchain technology partner, tracefood can help leverage the tougher supply chain complexities to come out with better business results. This is how our ultimate food traceability especially the meat traceability series could help you out.
We know that with today’s modern cum complex meat supply chain systems organizing product recalls every now and then, it is always difficult to manage the overall system functioning and operations and here is where our blockchain for beef business stand out.
We make you get all the essential tools that could help digitize and standardize your sensitive business data once you approach us for any solution. Because we firmly believe that data is the key component in any kind of supply chain business and meat industry is no more an exception here. Hence the data needs to be kept safe, private and confidential in order for you as an entrepreneur to punch your foot prints in the industry by generating tones and tones of profit ever.
Tracefood – the one stop arena for your meat supply chain business needs:
At tracefood, we help people integrate value-rich blockchain solutions for beef to come out with excellent business ROIs of their choice. If you are the one who is interested in having blockchain in your meat supply, then we are glad to meet and help you out. We make you gain an improved level of prominence in meat supply and delivery right with the integration of potential blockchain for meat supply chains.

#meat supply chain blockchain #blockchain and the pork chain #blockchain beef traceability #blockchain for beef business #blockchain in pork industry

5 Blockchain Applications That Have Transformed the World of Technology

The blockchain is the decentralized database of the blocks of information, which gets recorded in the chain format and linked in a secured crypto graphical manner. This technology ensures proper safety of the data due to its secure nature, and it totally changes how people carry out transactions. It also brings about a faster and secure process of validating information needed to establish reliability.

Though blockchain technology came into the market to carry out only digital transactions, it is now used in various industries like supply chain, finance, health care, and many more.

The blockchain technology has made its position in mobile app development as well. Blockchain applications are transparent and accountable. From getting easy access to medical records and buying insurance, you can see blockchain applications everywhere.

Here are some of the areas where you can see the use of blockchain applications and how they have changed various industries.

1. Ripple

Ripple is useful for increasing banking transactions. The implementation of blockchain technology in the financial sector is much more profound than any other sector. Ripple proves this. It is one of the greatest tools to record and complete financial transactions.

It develops a large network despite strict physical boundaries. As there is no such third-party involvement present, the cost of these transactions is lower than usual. At the same time, the network also remains transparent and quite secured.

It is normally seen that financial transactions that happen globally are

error-prone and take a lot of time. In addition to this, when the transaction

fees and exchange rates get added up, the total cost usually gets high.

However, Ripple offers real-time international transactions without spending too much money. It has the network of about 200+ institutions making the process affordable, secure, and fast for all sorts of international transactions.

2. Etherisc

This blockchain application helps in automating flight insurance. Insurance is another area where blockchain is gaining popularity. Through this application, insurers can make smart contracts rather than getting involved in the traditional contracts that are usually complex. Etherisc is the blockchain application that helps customers buy flight insurance. If the flight gets canceled or delayed, they do not have to wait for months to get the payment back. This application ensures an on-time payout.

#blockchain #blockchain-technology #blockchain-development #blockchain-use-cases #blockchain-a #blockchain-technologies #technology #decentralization

Serde Rust: Serialization Framework for Rust

Serde

*Serde is a framework for serializing and deserializing Rust data structures efficiently and generically.*

You may be looking for:

Serde in action

Click to show Cargo.toml. Run this code in the playground.

[dependencies]

# The core APIs, including the Serialize and Deserialize traits. Always
# required when using Serde. The "derive" feature is only required when
# using #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)] to make Serde work with structs
# and enums defined in your crate.
serde = { version = "1.0", features = ["derive"] }

# Each data format lives in its own crate; the sample code below uses JSON
# but you may be using a different one.
serde_json = "1.0"

 

use serde::{Serialize, Deserialize};

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    let point = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };

    // Convert the Point to a JSON string.
    let serialized = serde_json::to_string(&point).unwrap();

    // Prints serialized = {"x":1,"y":2}
    println!("serialized = {}", serialized);

    // Convert the JSON string back to a Point.
    let deserialized: Point = serde_json::from_str(&serialized).unwrap();

    // Prints deserialized = Point { x: 1, y: 2 }
    println!("deserialized = {:?}", deserialized);
}

Getting help

Serde is one of the most widely used Rust libraries so any place that Rustaceans congregate will be able to help you out. For chat, consider trying the #rust-questions or #rust-beginners channels of the unofficial community Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang-community), the #rust-usage or #beginners channels of the official Rust Project Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang), or the #general stream in Zulip. For asynchronous, consider the [rust] tag on StackOverflow, the /r/rust subreddit which has a pinned weekly easy questions post, or the Rust Discourse forum. It's acceptable to file a support issue in this repo but they tend not to get as many eyes as any of the above and may get closed without a response after some time.

Download Details:
Author: serde-rs
Source Code: https://github.com/serde-rs/serde
License: View license

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