Annie  Emard

Annie Emard


CK: Code Metrics for Java Code By Means Of Static Analysis


CK calculates class-level and method-level code metrics in Java projects by means of static analysis (i.e. no need for compiled code). Currently, it contains a large set of metrics, including the famous CK:

CBO (Coupling between objects): Counts the number of dependencies a class has. The tools checks for any type used in the entire class (field declaration, method return types, variable declarations, etc). It ignores dependencies to Java itself (e.g. java.lang.String).

CBO Modified (Coupling between objects): Counts the number of dependencies a class has. It is very similar to the CKTool's original CBO. However, this metric considers a dependency from a class as being both the references the type makes to others and the references that it receives from other types.

FAN-IN: Counts the number of input dependencies a class has, i.e, the number of classes that reference a particular class. For instance, given a class X, the fan-in of X would be the number of classes that call X by referencing it as an attribute, accessing some of its attributes, invoking some of its methods, etc.

FAN-OUT: Counts the number of output dependencies a class has, i.e, the number of other classes referenced by a particular class. In other words, given a class X, the fan-out of X is the number of classes called by X via attributes reference, method invocations, object instances, etc.

DIT (Depth Inheritance Tree): It counts the number of "fathers" a class has. All classes have DIT at least 1 (everyone inherits java.lang.Object). In order to make it happen, classes must exist in the project (i.e. if a class depends upon X which relies in a jar/dependency file, and X depends upon other classes, DIT is counted as 2).

NOC (Number of Children): It counts the number of immediate subclasses that a particular class has.

Number of fields: Counts the number of fields. Specific numbers for total number of fields, static, public, private, protected, default, final, and synchronized fields.

Number of methods: Counts the number of methods. Specific numbers for total number of methods, static, public, abstract, private, protected, default, final, and synchronized methods. Constructor methods also count here.

Number of visible methods: Counts the number of visible methods. A method is visible if it is not private.

NOSI (Number of static invocations): Counts the number of invocations to static methods. It can only count the ones that can be resolved by the JDT.

RFC (Response for a Class): Counts the number of unique method invocations in a class. As invocations are resolved via static analysis, this implementation fails when a method has overloads with same number of parameters, but different types.

WMC (Weight Method Class) or McCabe's complexity. It counts the number of branch instructions in a class.

LOC (Lines of code): It counts the lines of count, ignoring empty lines and comments (i.e., it's Source Lines of Code, or SLOC). The number of lines here might be a bit different from the original file, as we use JDT's internal representation of the source code to calculate it.

LCOM (Lack of Cohesion of Methods): Calculates LCOM metric. This is the very first version of metric, which is not reliable. LCOM-HS can be better (hopefully, you will send us a pull request).

LCOM* (Lack of Cohesion of Methods): This metric is a modified version of the current version of LCOM implemented in CK Tool. LCOM* is a normalized metric that computes the lack of cohesion of class within a range of 0 to 1. Then, the closer to 1 the value of LCOM* in a class, the less the cohesion degree of this respective class. The closer to 0 the value of LCOM* in a class, the most the cohesion of this respective class. This implementation follows the third version of LCOM* defined in [1].

  • Reference: [1] Henderson-Sellers, Brian, Larry L. Constantine and Ian M. Graham. “Coupling and cohesion (towards a valid metrics suite for object-oriented analysis and design).” Object Oriented Systems 3 (1996): 143-158.

TCC (Tight Class Cohesion): Measures the cohesion of a class with a value range from 0 to 1. TCC measures the cohesion of a class via direct connections between visible methods, two methods or their invocation trees access the same class variable.

LCC (Loose Class Cohesion): Similar to TCC but it further includes the number of indirect connections between visible classes for the cohesion calculation. Thus, the constraint LCC >= TCC holds always.

Quantity of returns: The number of return instructions.

Quantity of loops: The number of loops (i.e., for, while, do while, enhanced for).

Quantity of comparisons: The number of comparisons (i.e., == and !=). Note: != is only available in 0.4.2+.

Quantity of try/catches: The number of try/catches

Quantity of parenthesized expressions: The number of expressions inside parenthesis.

String literals: The number of string literals (e.g., "John Doe"). Repeated strings count as many times as they appear.

Quantity of Number: The number of numbers (i.e., int, long, double, float) literals.

Quantity of Math Operations: The number of math operations (times, divide, remainder, plus, minus, left shit, right shift).

Quantity of Variables: Number of declared variables.

Max nested blocks: The highest number of blocks nested together.

Quantity of Anonymous classes, inner classes, and lambda expressions: The name says it all. Note that whenever an anonymous class or an inner class is declared, it becomes an "entire new class", e.g., CK generates A.B and A.B$C, C being an inner class inside A.B. However, lambda expressions are not considered classes, and thus, are part of the class/method they are embedded into. A class or a method only has the number of inner classes that are declared at its level, e.g., an inner class that is declared inside a method M2, that is inside an anonymous class A, that is declared inside a method M, that finally is declared inside a class C, will not count in class C, but only in method M2 (first-level method it is embodied), and anonymous class A (first-level class it is embodied).

Number of unique words: Number of unique words in the source code. At method level, it only uses the method body as input. At class level, it uses the entire body of the class as metrics. The algorithm basically counts the number of words in a method/class, after removing Java keywords. Names are split based on camel case and underline (e.g., longName_likeThis becomes four words). See WordCounter class for details on the implementation.

Number of Log Statements: Number of log statements in the source code. The counting uses REGEX compatible with SLF4J and Log4J API calls. See and the test examples (NumberOfLogStatementsTest and fixtures/logs) for more info.

Has Javadoc: Boolean indicating whether a method has javadoc. (Only at method-level for now)

modifiers: public/abstract/private/protected/native modifiers of classes/methods. Can be decoded using org.eclipse.jdt.core.dom.Modifier.

Usage of each variable: How often each variable was used inside each method.

Usage of each field: How often each local field was used inside each method, local field are fields within a class (subclasses are not included). Also indirect local field usages are detected, indirect local field usages include all usages of fields within the local invocation tree of a class e.g. A invokes B and B uses field a, then a is indirectly used by A.

Method invocations: All directly invoked methods, variations are local invocations and indirect local invocations.

Note: CK separates classes, inner classes, and anonymous classes. LOC is the only metric that is not completely isolated from the others, e.g., if A has a declaration of an inner class B, then LOC(A) = LOC(class A) + LOC(inner class B).

How to use the standalone version

You need at least Java 8 to be able to compile and run this tool.

To use the latest version (which you should), clone the project and generate a JAR. A simple mvn clean compile package generates the single JAR file for you (see your target folder).

Then, just run:

java -jar ck-x.x.x-SNAPSHOT-jar-with-dependencies.jar <project dir> <use jars:true|false> <max files per partition, 0=automatic selection> <variables and fields metrics? True|False> <output dir> [ignored directories...]

Project dir refers to the directory where CK can find all the source code to be parsed. Ck will recursively look for .java files. CK can use the dependencies of the project as to improve its precision. The use jars parameters tells CK to look for any .jar files in the directory and use them to better resolve types. Max files per partition tells JDT the size of the batch to process. Let us decide that for you and start with 0; if problems happen (i.e., out of memory) you think of tuning it. Variables and field metrics indicates to CK whether you want metrics at variable- and field-levels too. They are highly fine-grained and produce a lot of output; you should skip it if you only need metrics at class or method level. Finally, output dir refer to the directory where CK will export the csv file with metrics from the analyzed project. Optionally, you can specify any number ignored directories, separated by spaces (for example, build/). By default, .git and all other hidden folders are ignored.

The tool will generate three csv files: class, method, and variable levels.

How to integrate it in my Java app

Learn by example. See class.


See the most recent version of the library in the badge at the beginning of this README, or at

Use the following snippet in your pom.xml. Update X.Y.Z with the most recent version of the tool (check or the badge at the beginning of this README file):

<!-- -->

You also may use the CK maven plugin, developed by @jazzmuesli, which automatically runs CK in your project. Very useful to developers:

Supporting a new version of Java

This tool uses Eclipse's JDT Core library under the hood for AST construction. Currently the compliance version is set to Java 11.

Need support for a newer language version? The process of adding it is very straightforward, considering contributing a PR:

  1. Add a failing unit test case showcasing at least one of the syntax features present in the new version you want to provide support.
  2. Update the Eclipse JDT Core dependency in the pom.xml file. You may use a repository browser like MVN Repository to ease this process.
  3. Also in the pom.xml file, update the source and target properties of the Maven Compiler plugin accordingly.
  4. Adjust the following lines in
ASTParser parser = ASTParser.newParser(AST.JLS11);
JavaCore.setComplianceOptions(JavaCore.VERSION_11, options);
  1. Check if the failing unit test case you added in the first step is now green. Then submit a PR.

Why is it called CK?

Because the tool was born to just calculate the CK classLevelMetrics, but it grew beyond my expectations... Life is funny!

How to cite?

Please, use the following bibtex entry:

  title={Java code metrics calculator (CK)},
  author={Maurício Aniche},
  note={Available in}

How to Contribute

Just submit a PR! :)

Author: mauricioaniche
Source Code:
License: Apache-2.0 License


What is GEEK

Buddha Community

CK: Code Metrics for Java Code By Means Of Static Analysis
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel


Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer


We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:


The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:



import io


import tokenize



code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"



for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):





TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')


TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')


TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')


TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Monty  Boehm

Monty Boehm


How to Use Hotwire Rails


We are back with another exciting and much-talked-about Rails tutorial on how to use Hotwire with the Rails application. This Hotwire Rails tutorial is an alternate method for building modern web applications that consume a pinch of JavaScript.

Rails 7 Hotwire is the default front-end framework shipped with Rails 7 after it was launched. It is used to represent HTML over the wire in the Rails application. Previously, we used to add a hotwire-rails gem in our gem file and then run rails hotwire: install. However, with the introduction of Rails 7, the gem got deprecated. Now, we use turbo-rails and stimulus rails directly, which work as Hotwire’s SPA-like page accelerator and Hotwire’s modest JavaScript framework.

What is Hotwire?

Hotwire is a package of different frameworks that help to build applications. It simplifies the developer’s work for writing web pages without the need to write JavaScript, and instead sending HTML code over the wire.

Introduction to The Hotwire Framework:

1. Turbo:

It uses simplified techniques to build web applications while decreasing the usage of JavaScript in the application. Turbo offers numerous handling methods for the HTML data sent over the wire and displaying the application’s data without actually loading the entire page. It helps to maintain the simplicity of web applications without destroying the single-page application experience by using the below techniques:

Turbo Frames: Turbo Frames help to load the different sections of our markup without any dependency as it divides the page into different contexts separately called frames and updates these frames individually.
Turbo Drive: Every link doesn’t have to make the entire page reload when clicked. Only the HTML contained within the tag will be displayed.
Turbo Streams: To add real-time features to the application, this technique is used. It helps to bring real-time data to the application using CRUD actions.

2. Stimulus

It represents the JavaScript framework, which is required when JS is a requirement in the application. The interaction with the HTML is possible with the help of a stimulus, as the controllers that help those interactions are written by a stimulus.

3. Strada

Not much information is available about Strada as it has not been officially released yet. However, it works with native applications, and by using HTML bridge attributes, interaction is made possible between web applications and native apps.

Simple diagrammatic representation of Hotwire Stack:

Hotwire Stack

Prerequisites For Hotwire Rails Tutorial

As we are implementing the Ruby on Rails Hotwire tutorial, make sure about the following installations before you can get started.

  • Ruby on Rails
  • Hotwire gem
  • PostgreSQL/SQLite (choose any one database)
  • Turbo Rails
  • Stimulus.js

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Create a new Rails Project

Find the following commands to create a rails application.

mkdir ~/projects/railshotwire
cd ~/projects/railshotwire
echo "source ''" > Gemfile
echo "gem 'rails', '~> 7.0.0'" >> Gemfile
bundle install  
bundle exec rails new . --force -d=postgresql

Now create some files for the project, up till now no usage of Rails Hotwire can be seen.
Fire the following command in your terminal.

  • For creating a default controller for the application
echo "class HomeController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/home_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating another controller for the application
echo "class OtherController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/other_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating routes for the application
echo "Rails.application.routes.draw do" > config/routes.rb
echo '  get "home/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  get "other/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  root to: "home#index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo 'end' >> config/routes.rb
  • For creating a default view for the application
mkdir app/views/home
echo '<h1>This is Rails Hotwire homepage</h1>' > app/views/home/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>' >> app/views/home/index.html.erb
  • For creating another view for the application
mkdir app/views/other
echo '<h1>This is Another page</h1>' > app/views/other/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>' >> app/views/other/index.html.erb
  • For creating a database and schema.rb file for the application
bin/rails db:create
bin/rails db:migrate
  • For checking the application run bin/rails s and open your browser, your running application will have the below view.

Rails Hotwire Home Page

Additionally, you can clone the code and browse through the project. Here’s the source code of the repository: Rails 7 Hotwire application

Now, let’s see how Hotwire Rails can work its magic with various Turbo techniques.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Drive

Go to your localhost:3000 on your web browser and right-click on the Inspect and open a Network tab of the DevTools of the browser.

Now click on go to another page link that appears on the home page to redirect from the home page to another page. In our Network tab, we can see that this action of navigation is achieved via XHR. It appears only the part inside HTML is reloaded, here neither the CSS is reloaded nor the JS is reloaded when the navigation action is performed.

Hotwire Rails Turbo Drive

By performing this action we can see that Turbo Drive helps to represent the HTML response without loading the full page and only follows redirect and reindeer HTML responses which helps to make the application faster to access.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Frame

This technique helps to divide the current page into different sections called frames that can be updated separately independently when new data is added from the server.
Below we discuss the different use cases of Turbo frame like inline edition, sorting, searching, and filtering of data.

Let’s perform some practical actions to see the example of these use cases.

Make changes in the app/controllers/home_controller.rb file


class HomeController < ApplicationController
   def turbo_frame_form
   def turbo_frame submit
      extracted_anynumber = params[:any][:anynumber]
      render :turbo_frame_form, status: :ok, locals: {anynumber: extracted_anynumber,      comment: 'turbo_frame_submit ok' }

Turbo Frame

Add app/views/home/turbo_frame_form.html.erb file to the application and add this content inside the file.



    <%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>
          <h2>Frame view</h2>
          <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
              <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
              <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
              <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
          <% end %>
        <h2>Data of the view</h2>
        <pre style="font-size: .7rem;"><%= JSON.pretty_generate(local_assigns) %></pre> 
    <% end %>


Add the content inside file

Make some adjustments in routes.rb


Rails.application.routes.draw do
  get 'home/index'
  get 'other/index'

  get '/home/turbo_frame_form' => 'home#turbo_frame_form', as: 'turbo_frame_form'
  post '/home/turbo_frame_submit' => 'home#turbo_frame_submit', as: 'turbo_frame_submit'

  root to: "home#index"
  • Next step is to change homepage view in app/views/home/index.html.erb


<h1>This is Rails Hotwire home page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>

<%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>        
      <h2>Home view</h2>
      <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
          <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
          <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
          <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
      <% end %>
<% end %>

Change HomePage

After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, the default view will appear on the browser.

restart the rails serverNow in the field enter any digit, after entering the digit click on submit button, and as the submit button is clicked we can see the Turbo Frame in action in the below screen, we can observe that the frame part changed, the first title and first link didn’t move.

submit button is clicked

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Streams

Turbo Streams deliver page updates over WebSocket, SSE or in response to form submissions by only using HTML and a series of CRUD-like operations, you are free to say that either

  • Update the piece of HTML while responding to all the other actions like the post, put, patch, and delete except the GET action.
  • Transmit a change to all users, without reloading the browser page.

This transmit can be represented by a simple example.

  • Make changes in app/controllers/other_controller.rb file of rails application


class OtherController < ApplicationController

  def post_something
    respond_to do |format|
      format.turbo_stream {  }


file of rails application

Add the below line in routes.rb file of the application


post '/other/post_something' => 'other#post_something', as: 'post_something'
Add the below line

Superb! Rails will now attempt to locate the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template at any moment the ‘/other/post_something’ endpoint is reached.

For this, we need to add app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template in the rails application.


<turbo-stream action="append" target="messages">
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
Add template in the rails application

This states that the response will try to append the template of the turbo frame with ID “messages”.

Now change the index.html.erb file in app/views/other paths with the below content.


<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 3rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post any message %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
change the index.html.erb file
  • After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, and go to the other page.

go to the other page

  • Once the above screen appears, click on the Post any message button

Post any message button

This action shows that after submitting the response, the Turbo Streams help the developer to append the message, without reloading the page.

Another use case we can test is that rather than appending the message, the developer replaces the message. For that, we need to change the content of app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template file and change the value of the action attribute from append to replace and check the changes in the browser.


<turbo-stream action="replace" target="messages">
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>

change the value of the action attributeWhen we click on Post any message button, the message that appear below that button will get replaced with the message that is mentioned in the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template

click on Post any message button


There are some cases in an application where JS is needed, therefore to cover those scenarios we require Hotwire JS tool. Hotwire has a JS tool because in some scenarios Turbo-* tools are not sufficient. But as we know that Hotwire is used to reduce the usage of JS in an application, Stimulus considers HTML as the single source of truth. Consider the case where we have to give elements on a page some JavaScript attributes, such as data controller, data-action, and data target. For that, a stimulus controller that can access elements and receive events based on those characteristics will be created.

Make a change in app/views/other/index.html.erb template file in rails application


<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post something' %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <div data-controller="hello">
    <input data-hello-target="name" type="text">
    <button data-action="click->hello#greet">
    <span data-hello-target="output">

Make A changeMake changes in the hello_controller.js in path app/JavaScript/controllers and add a stimulus controller in the file, which helps to bring the HTML into life.


import { Controller } from "@hotwired/stimulus"

export default class extends Controller {
  static targets = [ "name", "output" ]

  greet() {
    this.outputTarget.textContent =
      `Hello, ${this.nameTarget.value}!`

add a stimulus controller in the fileGo to your browser after making the changes in the code and click on Enter to other page link which will navigate to the localhost:3000/other/index page there you can see the changes implemented by the stimulus controller that is designed to augment your HTML with just enough behavior to make it more responsive.

With just a little bit of work, Turbo and Stimulus together offer a complete answer for applications that are quick and compelling.

Using Rails 7 Hotwire helps to load the pages at a faster speed and allows you to render templates on the server, where you have access to your whole domain model. It is a productive development experience in ROR, without compromising any of the speed or responsiveness associated with SPA.


We hope you were satisfied with our Rails Hotwire tutorial. Write to us at for any query that you want to resolve, or if you want us to share a tutorial on your query.

For more such solutions on RoR, check out our Ruby on Rails Tutorials. We will always strive to amaze you and cater to your needs.

Original article source at:

#rails #ruby 

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore


Guidelines for Java Code Reviews

Get a jump-start on your next code review session with this list.

Having another pair of eyes scan your code is always useful and helps you spot mistakes before you break production. You need not be an expert to review someone’s code. Some experience with the programming language and a review checklist should help you get started. We’ve put together a list of things you should keep in mind when you’re reviewing Java code. Read on!

1. Follow Java Code Conventions

2. Replace Imperative Code With Lambdas and Streams

3. Beware of the NullPointerException

4. Directly Assigning References From Client Code to a Field

5. Handle Exceptions With Care

#java #code quality #java tutorial #code analysis #code reviews #code review tips #code analysis tools #java tutorial for beginners #java code review

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel


Effective Code Reviews: A Primer

Peer code reviews as a process have increasingly been adopted by engineering teams around the world. And for good reason — code reviews have been proven to improve software quality and save developers’ time in the long run. A lot has been written about how code reviews help engineering teams by leading software engineering practitioners. My favorite is this quote by Karl Wiegers, author of the seminal paper on this topic, Humanizing Peer Reviews:

Peer review – an activity in which people other than the author of a software deliverable examine it for defects and improvement opportunities – is one of the most powerful software quality tools available. Peer review methods include inspections, walkthroughs, peer deskchecks, and other similar activities. After experiencing the benefits of peer reviews for nearly fifteen years, I would never work in a team that did not perform them.

It is worth the time and effort to put together a code review strategy and consistently follow it in the team. In essence, this has a two-pronged benefit: more pair of eyes looking at the code decreases the chances of bugs and bad design patterns entering your codebase, and embracing the process fosters knowledge sharing and positive collaboration culture in the team.

Here are 6 tips to ensure effective peer reviews in your team.

1. Keep the Changes Small and Focused

Code reviews require developers to look at someone else’s code, most of which is completely new most of the times. Too many lines of code to review at once requires a huge amount of cognitive effort, and the quality of review diminishes as the size of changes increases. While there’s no golden number of LOCs, it is recommended to create small pull-requests which can be managed easily. If there are a lot of changes going in a release, it is better to chunk it down into a number of small pull-requests.

2. Ensure Logical Coherence of Changes

Code reviews are the most effective when the changes are focused and have logical coherence. When doing refactoring, refrain from making behavioral changes. Similarly, behavioral changes should not include refactoring and style violation fixes. Following this convention prevents unintended changes creeping in unnoticed in the code base.

3. Have Automated Tests, and Track Coverage

Automated tests of your preferred flavor — units, integration tests, end-to-end tests, etc. help automatically ensure correctness. Consistently ensuring that changes proposed are covered by some kind of automated frees up time for more qualitative review; allowing for a more insightful and in-depth conversation on deeper issues.

4. Self-Review Changes Before Submitting for Peer Review

A change can implement a new feature or fix an existing issue. It is recommended that the requester submits only those changes that are complete, and tested for correctness manually. Before creating the pull-request, a quick glance on what changes are being proposed helps ensure that no extraneous files are added in the changeset. This saves tons of time for the reviewers.

5. Automate What Can Be Automated

Human review time is expensive, and the best use of a developer’s time is reviewing qualitative aspects of code — logic, design patterns, software architecture, and so on. Linting tools can help automatically take care of style and formatting conventions. Continuous Quality tools can help catch potential bugs, anti-patterns and security issues which can be fixed by the developer before they make a change request. Most of these tools integrate well with code hosting platforms as well.

6. Be Positive, Polite, and Respectful

Finally, be cognizant of the fact that people on both sides of the review are but human. Offer positive feedback, and accept criticism humbly. Instead of beating oneself upon the literal meaning of words, it really pays off to look at reviews as people trying to achieve what’s best for the team, albeit in possibly different ways. Being cognizant of this aspect can save a lot of resentment and unmitigated negativity.

#agile #code quality #code review #static analysis #code analysis #code reviews #static analysis tools #code review tips #continuous quality #static analyzer

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel


How to Install OpenJDK 11 on CentOS 8

What is OpenJDK?

OpenJDk or Open Java Development Kit is a free, open-source framework of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (or Java SE). It contains the virtual machine, the Java Class Library, and the Java compiler. The difference between the Oracle OpenJDK and Oracle JDK is that OpenJDK is a source code reference point for the open-source model. Simultaneously, the Oracle JDK is a continuation or advanced model of the OpenJDK, which is not open source and requires a license to use.

In this article, we will be installing OpenJDK on Centos 8.

#tutorials #alternatives #centos #centos 8 #configuration #dnf #frameworks #java #java development kit #java ee #java environment variables #java framework #java jdk #java jre #java platform #java sdk #java se #jdk #jre #open java development kit #open source #openjdk #openjdk 11 #openjdk 8 #openjdk runtime environment