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# How to Test Hypothesis with Two Proportions in Statistics With Example

This statistics video tutorial covers hypothesis testing with two proportions.  It provides an example problem that shows you how to determine if the difference between two proportions is significant using the z-test and the normal distribution curve.

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## Introduction to Hypothesis Test (Part One)

Hypothesis test is one of the most important domain in statistics, and in industry, ‘AB Test’ utilizes this idea as well. However, most of

#ab-testing #statistics #hypothesis-testing #hypothesis #introduction #testing

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## The Importance of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis tests are significant for evaluating answers to questions concerning samples of data.

statistical Hypothesis is a belief made about a population parameter. This belief may or might not be right. In other words, hypothesis testing is a proper technique utilized by scientist to support or reject statistical hypotheses. The foremost ideal approach to decide if a statistical hypothesis is correct is to examine the whole population.

Since that’s frequently impractical, we normally take a random sample from the population and inspect the equivalent. Within the event sample data set isn’t steady with the statistical hypothesis, the hypothesis is refused.

### Types of hypothesis

There are two sorts of hypothesis and both the **Null Hypothesis **(Ho) and Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) must be totally mutually exclusive events.

• Null hypothesis is usually the hypothesis that the event won’t happen.
• Alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis that the event will happen.

### Why we need Hypothesis Testing?

Suppose a company needs to launch a new bicycle in the market. For this situation, they will follow Hypothesis Testing all together decide the success of the new product in the market.

Where the likelihood of the product being ineffective in the market is undertaken as the Null Hypothesis and the likelihood of the product being profitable is undertaken as an Alternative Hypothesis. By following the process of Hypothesis testing they will foresee the accomplishment.

#statistics #simulation-hypothesis #hypothesis #testing #data-science #data #statistical-fallacy #big-data

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## Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

## A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

• Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
• Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
• While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

## Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

## Ways to Test Microservices

It is easy to fall into the trap of making testing microservices complicated, but there are ways to avoid this problem. Testing microservices doesn’t have to be complicated at all when you have the right strategy in place.

There are several ways to test microservices too, including:

• Unit testing: Which allows developers to test microservices in a granular way. It doesn’t limit testing to individual microservices, but rather allows developers to take a more granular approach such as testing individual features or runtimes.
• Integration testing: Which handles the testing of microservices in an interactive way. Microservices still need to work with each other when they are deployed, and integration testing is a key process in making sure that they do.
• End-to-end testing: Which⁠—as the name suggests⁠—tests microservices as a complete app. This type of testing enables the testing of features, UI, communications, and other components that construct the app.

What’s important to note is the fact that these testing approaches allow for asynchronous testing. After all, asynchronous development is what makes developing microservices very appealing in the first place. By allowing for asynchronous testing, you can also make sure that components or microservices can be updated independently to one another.

#blog #microservices #testing #caylent #contract testing #end-to-end testing #hoverfly #integration testing #microservices #microservices architecture #pact #testing #unit testing #vagrant #vcr

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## A Complete Guide to Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a method of statistical inference that considers the null hypothesis H₀ vs. the alternative hypothesis Ha, where we are typically looking to assess evidence against H₀. Such a test is used to compare data sets against one another, or compare a data set against some external standard. The former being a two sample test (independent or matched pairs), and the latter being a one sample test. For example, “does group A have a higher pain tolerance than group B?” or “is the mean age of the control group 21?”, respectively. A hypothesis test ends with a decision based on a pre-specified level of significance α–either to reject the null hypothesis when we have strong enough evidence against it, or fail to reject the null.

#hypothesis-testing #statistics #statistical-inference #testing

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## Most Common Statistical Hypothesis tests

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and descriptive statistics form only the initial steps of any data science project. The next important aspect in any data analysis process is testing for statistical significance. In simpler words, it is the verification step to check whether the results obtained during the EDA phase were really trustworthy or are they simply result of a chance. More often that not, pure chance (or randomness) plays such a huge role in the data collection process — due to budget, time, or ethical constraints — that it is essential to avoid getting fooled by a sample of data.

#r #statistics #sass #python #hypothesis-testing #testing