This router and transaction manager ensures there are multiple copies of each Git repository available in the event of an outage – no NFS required. Meet Praefect: The traffic manager making your Git data highly available. Scaling infrastructure to make the service highly available is key. At GitLab.
As critical software projects grow, scaling infrastructure to make the service highly available is key. At GitLab, our biggest struggle in scaling was right in our name: Git.
Git is software that is distributed, but not usually run in a ‘highly available cluster,’ which is what GitLab needs. At first, we solved this with a boring solution, NFS – which exposes a shared filesystem across multiple machines and generally worked. As we’d soon find out, most NFS appliances were for bulk storage and not fast enough. This led to problems with GitLab’s Git access being slow.
To solve the speed problem we built Gitaly, our service that provides high-level RPC access to Git repositories.
When we started with Gitaly v1.0, our goal was to remove the need for a network-attached filesystem access for Git data. When that was complete, the next problem to tackle was that all your data is only stored once. So, if you have a server down, or your hard disk dies, or something happens to this one copy, you're in deep trouble until a backup is restored. This is an issue for GitLab.com, but it’s also a big risk for our customers and community.
Back at our Summit in Cape Town in 2018, the Gitaly team (at the time, that was Jacob Vosmaer and me) and some other engineers discussed pursuing a fault-tolerant, highly available system for Git data. For about a month we went back and forth about how we would go about it – ranging from wild ideas to smaller iterations towards what we want. The challenge here was that the ultimate aim is always going to be 100% availability, but you’re never going to make that. So let's aim for a lot of nines (three nines being 99.9%, five being 99.999%, etc.) Ideally, we'd be able to iterate to 10 nines if we wanted to.
Eventually we chose the design of a proxy: introduce a new component in the GitLab architecture, which is Praefect, and then route all the traffic through it to Gitaly storage nodes to provide a Gitaly Cluster. Praefect inspects the request and tries to route it to the right Gitaly backend, checks that Gitaly is up, makes sure the copies of your data are up to date, and so on.
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