Chet  Lubowitz

Chet Lubowitz


Unsolved Problems in Natural Language Datasets

Garbage in, garbage out. You don’t have to be an ML expert to have heard this phrase. Models uncover patterns in the data, so when the data is broken, they develop broken behavior. This is why researchers allocate significant resources towards curating datasets. However, despite best efforts, it is nearly impossible to collect perfectly clean data, especially at the scale demanded by deep learning.

This article discusses popular natural language datasets that turned out to disobey fundamental principles of machine learning and data science, despite being produced by experts in the field. Some of these flaws were exposed and quantified years after the publication and intense usage of the datasets. This is to show that data collection and validation are arduous processes. Here are some of their main impediments:

  1. Machine learning is data hungry. The sheer volume of data needed for ML (deep learning in particular) calls for automation, i.e., mining the Internet. Datasets end up inheriting undesirable properties from the Internet (e.g., duplication, statistical biases, falsehoods) that are non-trivial to detect and remove.
  2. **Desiderata cannot be captured exhaustively. **Even in the presence of an oracle that could produce infinite data according to some predefined rules, it would be practically infeasible to enumerate all requirements. Consider the training data for a conversational bot. We can express general desiderata like diverse topics, respectful communication, or balanced exchange between interlocutors. But we don’t have enough imagination to specify all the relevant parameters.
  3. Humans take the path of least resistance. Some data collection efforts are still manageable at human scale. But we ourselves are not flawless and, despite our best efforts, are subconsciously inclined to take shortcuts. If you were tasked to write a statement that contradicts the premise “The dog is sleeping”, what would your answer be? Continue reading to find out whether you’d be part of the problem.

Overlapping training and evaluation sets

ML practitioners split their data three-ways: there’s a _training set _for actual learning, a _validation set _for hyperparameter tuning, and an _evaluation set _for measuring the final quality of the model. It is common knowledge that these sets should be mostly disjunct. When evaluating on training data, you are measuring the model’s capacity to memorize rather than its ability to recognize patterns and apply them in new contexts.

This guideline sounds straightforward to apply, yet Lewis et al. [1] show in a 2020 paper that **the most popular open-domain question answering datasets (open-QA) have a significant overlap between their training and evaluation sets. **Their analysis includes WebQuestionsTriviaQA and Open Natural Questions — datasets created by reputable institutions and heavily used as QA benchmarks.

#data-science #naturallanguageprocessing #nlp #machine-learning #data

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Unsolved Problems in Natural Language Datasets

Inside ABCD, A Dataset To Build In-Depth Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems

According to a recent study, call centre agents’ spend approximately 82 percent of their total time looking at step-by-step guides, customer data, and knowledge base articles.

Traditionally, dialogue state tracking (DST) has served as a way to determine what a caller wants at a given point in a conversation. Unfortunately, these aspects are not accounted for in popular DST benchmarks. DST is the core part of a spoken dialogue system. It estimates the beliefs of possible user’s goals at every dialogue turn.

To reduce the burden on call centre agents and improve the SOTA of task-oriented dialogue systems, AI-powered customer service company ASAPP recently launched an action-based conversations dataset (ABCD). The dataset is designed to help develop task-oriented dialogue systems for customer service applications. ABCD consists of a fully labelled dataset with over 10,000 human dialogues containing 55 distinct user intents requiring sequences of actions constrained by company policies to accomplish tasks.

The dataset is currently available on GitHub.

#developers corner #asapp abcd dataset #asapp new dataset #build enterprise chatbot #chatbot datasets latest #customer support datasets #customer support model training #dataset for chatbots #dataset for customer datasets

Mia  Marquardt

Mia Marquardt


Most Popular Datasets For Neural Textual Entailment With In PyTorch And Tensorflow

Textual entailment is a technique in natural language processing that endeavors to perceive whether one sentence can be inferred from another sentence. A pair of sentences are categorized into one of three categories: positive or negative or neutral. The positive category happens when the main sentence is used to demonstrate that a subsequent sentence is valid. Negative entailment or contradiction occurs when the primary sentence can be utilized to invalidate the subsequent sentence. Finally, if the two sentences have no relationship, they are considered to have a neutral entailment.

Textual entailment is valuable in some of the applications. For example, it is used in question-answering systems to verify an answer from stored data. It may also be used to remove sentences that don’t have new information.

The article will give a detailed explanation of the various popular datasets that are used in Textual entailment using TensorFlow and Pytorch.

#developers corner #datasets #natural language inference #natural language processing #snli dataset #textual entailment

Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta


Advantage of C Language Certification Online Training in 2020

C language is a procedural programming language. C language is the general purpose and object oriented programming language. C language is mainly used for developing different types of operating systems and other programming languages. C language is basically run in hardware and operating systems. C language is used many software applications such as internet browser, MYSQL and Microsoft Office.
Advantage of doing C Language Training in 2020 are:**

  1. Popular Programming language: The main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is popular programming language. C programming language is used and applied worldwide. C language is adaptable and flexible in nature. C language is important for different programmers. The basic languages that are used in C language is Java, C++, PHP, Python, Perl, JavaScript, Rust and C- shell.

  2. Basic language of all advanced languages: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is basic language of all advanced languages. C language is an object oriented language. For learning, other languages, you have to master in C language.

  3. Understand the computer theories: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is understand the computer theories. The theories such as Computer Networks, Computer Architecture and Operating Systems are based on C programming language.

  4. Fast in execution time: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is fast in execution time. C language is to requires small run time and fast in execution time. The programs are written in C language are faster than the other programming language.

  5. Used by long term: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is used by long term. The C language is not learning in the short span of time. It takes time and energy for becoming career in C language. C language is the only language that used by decades of time. C language is that exists for the longest period of time in computer programming history.

  6. Rich Function Library: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is rich function library. C language has rich function of libraries as compared to other programming languages. The libraries help to build the analytical skills.

  7. Great degree of portability: The another main Advantage of doing C language training in 2020 is great degree of portability. C is a portable assemble language. It has a great degree of portability as compilers and interpreters of other programming languages are implemented in C language.
    The demand of C language is high in IT sector and increasing rapidly.

C Language Online Training is for individuals and professionals.
C Language Online Training helps to develop an application, build operating systems, games and applications, work on the accessibility of files and memory and many more.

C Language Online Course is providing the depth knowledge of functional and logical part, develop an application, work on memory management, understanding of line arguments, compiling, running and debugging of C programs.

Is C Language Training Worth Learning for You! and is providing the basic understanding of create C applications, apply the real time programming, write high quality code, computer programming, C functions, variables, datatypes, operators, loops, statements, groups, arrays, strings, etc.

The companies which are using C language are Amazon, Martin, Apple, Samsung, Google, Oracle, Nokia, IBM, Intel, Novell, Microsoft, Facebook, Bloomberg, VM Ware, etc.
C language is used in different domains like banking, IT, Insurance, Education, Gaming, Networking, Firmware, Telecommunication, Graphics, Management, Embedded, Application Development, Driver level Development, Banking, etc.

The job opportunities after completing the C Language Online certificationAre Data Scientists, Back End Developer, Embedded Developer, C Analyst, Software Developer, Junior Programmer, Database Developer, Embedded Engineer, Programming Architect, Game Programmer, Quality Analyst, Senior Programmer, Full Stack Developer, DevOps Specialist, Front End Web Developer, App Developer, Java Software Engineer, Software Developer and many more.

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Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta


Benefits Of C Language Over Other Programming Languages

C may be a middle-level programing language developed by Dennis Ritchie during the first 1970s while performing at AT&T Bell Labs within the USA. the target of its development was within the context of the re-design of the UNIX OS to enable it to be used on multiple computers.

Earlier the language B was now used for improving the UNIX. Being an application-oriented language, B allowed a much faster production of code than in programming language. Still, B suffered from drawbacks because it didn’t understand data-types and didn’t provide the utilization of “structures”.

These drawbacks became the drive for Ritchie for the development of a replacement programing language called C. He kept most of the language B’s syntax and added data-types and lots of other required changes. Eventually, C was developed during 1971-73, containing both high-level functionality and therefore the detailed features required to program an OS. Hence, many of the UNIX components including the UNIX kernel itself were eventually rewritten in C.

Benefits of C language

As a middle-level language, C combines the features of both high-level and low-level languages. It is often used for low-level programmings, like scripting for it also supports functions of high-level C programming languages, like scripting for software applications, etc.
C may be a structured programing language that allows a posh program to be broken into simpler programs called functions. It also allows free movement of knowledge across these functions.

Various features of C including direct access to machine level hardware APIs, the presence of C compilers, deterministic resource use, and dynamic memory allocation make C language an optimum choice for scripting applications and drivers of embedded systems.

C language is case-sensitive which suggests lowercase and uppercase letters are treated differently.
C is very portable and is employed for scripting system applications which form a serious a part of Windows, UNIX, and Linux OS.

C may be a general-purpose programing language and may efficiently work on enterprise applications, games, graphics, and applications requiring calculations, etc.
C language features a rich library that provides a variety of built-in functions. It also offers dynamic memory allocation.

C implements algorithms and data structures swiftly, facilitating faster computations in programs. This has enabled the utilization of C in applications requiring higher degrees of calculations like MATLAB and Mathematica.

Riding on these advantages, C became dominant and spread quickly beyond Bell Labs replacing many well-known languages of that point, like ALGOL, B, PL/I, FORTRAN, etc. C language has become available on a really wide selection of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.

#c language online training #c language training #c language course #c language online course #c language certification course

Murray  Beatty

Murray Beatty


Natural Language Market To Surpass $40 Billion By 2025

Initial setup costs remain a barrier to market growth, as well as a lack of skilled professionals to implement NLP.

The natural language processing market, which includes machine translation, information extraction, summarization, text classification and sentiment analysis, is expected to reach a $41 billion valuation by 2025.

An increase in demand for analyzing conversations and social media, alongside other customer experience enhancements, are considered key drivers for NLP, according to Adroit Market Research.

#artificial intelligence technologies #trending now #adroit market research #artificial intelligence #natural language #natural language processing