hunter Will

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How to get multiple PST files from a single PST file?

You can get multiple Outlook PST files from a single Outlook PST file by using some manual ways which contain a lot of effort of the users or by using this amazing Mailvita Split Outlook application. This app is a professionally tested tool that provides the splitting of the outlook PST files effortlessly and efficiently. Any user does not need to install any other third-party app to go through the splitting of the PST files using this application.

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With this Split, PST application one can split their Outlook PST files reliably without any kind of support to the technical authority. No hurdle is faced by the users while splitting their PST files. The compatibility of the app is amazing thus users can use this app in any version of the Mac or Windows Operating System. With proper previewing of the PST files, the splitting is done so that a healthy result is provided to the users by the app. It is a convenient app that a user can use. In just a few steps an accurate result is provided by the application. Apart from it, users can save the split files in a new folder or can save the files in an existing folder. The application is amazing and provides the result in just a few minutes.

What are the steps to split the files?

The steps that a user must go through for the splitting of their Outlook PST files using this amazing tool are discussed below. Let us read these steps thoroughly:

Step 1- Firstly install the Split Outlook tool in your Windows or Mac Operating system
Step 2- Start the app
Step 3- Add the Outlook PST files that you want to split into
Step 4- Now enter the size at which you want to get the desired PST file
Step 5- Choose the destination for saving the Split Outlook file
Step 6- At last, hit the split now button

This is image title

Any user can easily go through with above-provided steps without facing any kind of obligations. Moreover, users also do not need any technical assistance in going through these steps. Step-by-step screenshots are also provided for the convenience of the users.

Why we should use this application for splitting the files?

The reason behind that one should use an application for the splitting of the Outlook PST files are:

• Any size splitting of the files
• Provides the result with full accuracy
• Gives a convenient splitting of the PST files
• Can be used by any user
• Performs a fast splitting of the PST file
• Installation of MS Outlook is not mandatory
• Is suitable for both Windows and Mac OS
• Retains the structure of the files

Users also try some manual ways of splitting the Outlook PST files but one should note that there are several demerits of trying the manual ways for the splitting. These demerits are:

• Not provides an accurate result
• More chances of data corruption
• Is a complex method to go through
• Not a user-friendly platform
• Can’t perform splitting of many files altogether
• The structure of the files is not in a manageable form

What are the features of this amazing app?

The key features of this amazing Split Outlook application are provided below:

• Split files by size: - Users have to write the size of the Outlook PST file at which they want it to be divided. From small to big size Outlook PST files can be split by this amazing application without facing any obligations.

• Gives an accurate result: - An accurate result is provided to the users by the application every single time. The data is kept retained by the tool using this amazing app. The instant result is provided by the tool. The integrity of the files is kept as it is by the tool.

• Lightweight app: - This Split Outlook application is a lightweight app thus users can download this app easily on their system, as the app does not take much space in your Operating system. Moreover, this app is also an independent application thus there is no need to install any third-party app to split the PST file. Direct splitting of the PST files is done by the app.

Final Words

Install the free demo version of the application and split a few of the Outlook PST files in order to get a piece of outline information about the application. Using it you will know more about the application. If you feel contented and want to split an unlimited amount of Outlook PST files then you have to buy the licensed version of the application.

One must firstly check out the demo version of the application and then buy the licensed version of the tool. Apart from it, if any kind of obligations is faced by the users then they can freely contact the app’s customer service which is available for the period of 24*7 hrs.

Visit here:- https://www.mailvita.com/split-pst-for-mac/

#split outlook #split outlook application

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Everything You Need to Know About Instagram Bot with Python

How to build an Instagram bot using Python

Instagram is the fastest-growing social network, with 1 billion monthly users. It also has the highest engagement rate. To gain followers on Instagram, you’d have to upload engaging content, follow users, like posts, comment on user posts and a whole lot. This can be time-consuming and daunting. But there is hope, you can automate all of these tasks. In this course, we’re going to build an Instagram bot using Python to automate tasks on Instagram.

What you’ll learn:

  • Instagram Automation
  • Build a Bot with Python

Increase your Instagram followers with a simple Python bot

I got around 500 real followers in 4 days!

Growing an audience is an expensive and painful task. And if you’d like to build an audience that’s relevant to you, and shares common interests, that’s even more difficult. I always saw Instagram has a great way to promote my photos, but I never had more than 380 followers… Every once in a while, I decide to start posting my photos on Instagram again, and I manage to keep posting regularly for a while, but it never lasts more than a couple of months, and I don’t have many followers to keep me motivated and engaged.

The objective of this project is to build a bigger audience and as a plus, maybe drive some traffic to my website where I sell my photos!

A year ago, on my last Instagram run, I got one of those apps that lets you track who unfollowed you. I was curious because in a few occasions my number of followers dropped for no apparent reason. After some research, I realized how some users basically crawl for followers. They comment, like and follow people — looking for a follow back. Only to unfollow them again in the next days.

I can’t say this was a surprise to me, that there were bots in Instagram… It just made me want to build one myself!

And that is why we’re here, so let’s get to it! I came up with a simple bot in Python, while I was messing around with Selenium and trying to figure out some project to use it. Simply put, Selenium is like a browser you can interact with very easily in Python.

Ideally, increasing my Instagram audience will keep me motivated to post regularly. As an extra, I included my website in my profile bio, where people can buy some photos. I think it is a bit of a stretch, but who knows?! My sales are basically zero so far, so it should be easy to track that conversion!

Just what the world needed! Another Instagram bot…

After giving this project some thought, my objective was to increase my audience with relevant people. I want to get followers that actually want to follow me and see more of my work. It’s very easy to come across weird content in the most used hashtags, so I’ve planed this bot to lookup specific hashtags and interact with the photos there. This way, I can be very specific about what kind of interests I want my audience to have. For instance, I really like long exposures, so I can target people who use that hashtag and build an audience around this kind of content. Simple and efficient!

My gallery is a mix of different subjects and styles, from street photography to aerial photography, and some travel photos too. Since it’s my hometown, I also have lots of Lisbon images there. These will be the main topics I’ll use in the hashtags I want to target.

This is not a “get 1000 followers in 24 hours” kind of bot!

So what kind of numbers are we talking about?

I ran the bot a few times in a few different hashtags like “travelblogger”, “travelgram”, “lisbon”, “dronephotography”. In the course of three days I went from 380 to 800 followers. Lots of likes, comments and even some organic growth (people that followed me but were not followed by the bot).

To be clear, I’m not using this bot intensively, as Instagram will stop responding if you run it too fast. It needs to have some sleep commands in between the actions, because after some comments and follows in a short period of time, Instagram stops responding and the bot crashes.

You will be logged into your account, so I’m almost sure that Instagram can know you’re doing something weird if you speed up the process. And most importantly, after doing this for a dozen hashtags, it just gets harder to find new users in the same hashtags. You will need to give it a few days to refresh the user base there.

But I don’t want to follow so many people in the process…

The most efficient way to get followers in Instagram (apart from posting great photos!) is to follow people. And this bot worked really well for me because I don’t care if I follow 2000 people to get 400 followers.

The bot saves a list with all the users that were followed while it was running, so someday I may actually do something with this list. For instance, I can visit each user profile, evaluate how many followers or posts they have, and decide if I want to keep following them. Or I can get the first picture in their gallery and check its date to see if they are active users.

If we remove the follow action from the bot, I can assure you the growth rate will suffer, as people are less inclined to follow based on a single like or comment.

Why will you share your code?!

That’s the debate I had with myself. Even though I truly believe in giving back to the community (I still learn a lot from it too!), there are several paid platforms that do more or less the same as this project. Some are shady, some are used by celebrities. The possibility of starting a similar platform myself, is not off the table yet, so why make the code available?

With that in mind, I decided to add an extra level of difficulty to the process, so I was going to post the code below as an image. I wrote “was”, because meanwhile, I’ve realized the image I’m getting is low quality. Which in turn made me reconsider and post the gist. I’m that nice! The idea behind the image was that if you really wanted to use it, you would have to type the code yourself. And that was my way of limiting the use of this tool to people that actually go through the whole process to create it and maybe even improve it.

I learn a lot more when I type the code myself, instead of copy/pasting scripts. I hope you feel the same way!

The script isn’t as sophisticated as it could be, and I know there’s lots of room to improve it. But hey… it works! I have other projects I want to add to my portfolio, so my time to develop it further is rather limited. Nevertheless, I will try to update this article if I dig deeper.

This is the last subtitle!

You’ll need Python (I’m using Python 3.7), Selenium, a browser (in my case I’ll be using Chrome) and… obviously, an Instagram account! Quick overview regarding what the bot will do:

  • Open a browser and login with your credentials
  • For every hashtag in the hashtag list, it will open the page and click the first picture to open it
  • It will then like, follow, comment and move to the next picture, in a 200 iterations loop (number can be adjusted)
  • Saves a list with all the users you followed using the bot

If you reached this paragraph, thank you! You totally deserve to collect your reward! If you find this useful for your profile/brand in any way, do share your experience below :)

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
from time import sleep, strftime
from random import randint
import pandas as pd

chromedriver_path = 'C:/Users/User/Downloads/chromedriver_win32/chromedriver.exe' # Change this to your own chromedriver path!
webdriver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=chromedriver_path)
sleep(2)
webdriver.get('https://www.instagram.com/accounts/login/?source=auth_switcher')
sleep(3)

username = webdriver.find_element_by_name('username')
username.send_keys('your_username')
password = webdriver.find_element_by_name('password')
password.send_keys('your_password')

button_login = webdriver.find_element_by_css_selector('#react-root > section > main > div > article > div > div:nth-child(1) > div > form > div:nth-child(3) > button')
button_login.click()
sleep(3)

notnow = webdriver.find_element_by_css_selector('body > div:nth-child(13) > div > div > div > div.mt3GC > button.aOOlW.HoLwm')
notnow.click() #comment these last 2 lines out, if you don't get a pop up asking about notifications

In order to use chrome with Selenium, you need to install chromedriver. It’s a fairly simple process and I had no issues with it. Simply install and replace the path above. Once you do that, our variable webdriver will be our Chrome tab.

In cell number 3 you should replace the strings with your own username and the respective password. This is for the bot to type it in the fields displayed. You might have already noticed that when running cell number 2, Chrome opened a new tab. After the password, I’ll define the login button as an object, and in the following line, I click it.

Once you get in inspect mode find the bit of html code that corresponds to what you want to map. Right click it and hover over Copy. You will see that you have some options regarding how you want it to be copied. I used a mix of XPath and css selectors throughout the code (it’s visible in the find_element_ method). It took me a while to get all the references to run smoothly. At points, the css or the xpath directions would fail, but as I adjusted the sleep times, everything started running smoothly.

In this case, I selected “copy selector” and pasted it inside a find_element_ method (cell number 3). It will get you the first result it finds. If it was find_elements_, all elements would be retrieved and you could specify which to get.

Once you get that done, time for the loop. You can add more hashtags in the hashtag_list. If you run it for the first time, you still don’t have a file with the users you followed, so you can simply create prev_user_list as an empty list.

Once you run it once, it will save a csv file with a timestamp with the users it followed. That file will serve as the prev_user_list on your second run. Simple and easy to keep track of what the bot does.

Update with the latest timestamp on the following runs and you get yourself a series of csv backlogs for every run of the bot.

Instagram bot with Python

The code is really simple. If you have some basic notions of Python you can probably pick it up quickly. I’m no Python ninja and I was able to build it, so I guess that if you read this far, you are good to go!

hashtag_list = ['travelblog', 'travelblogger', 'traveler']

# prev_user_list = [] - if it's the first time you run it, use this line and comment the two below
prev_user_list = pd.read_csv('20181203-224633_users_followed_list.csv', delimiter=',').iloc[:,1:2] # useful to build a user log
prev_user_list = list(prev_user_list['0'])

new_followed = []
tag = -1
followed = 0
likes = 0
comments = 0

for hashtag in hashtag_list:
    tag += 1
    webdriver.get('https://www.instagram.com/explore/tags/'+ hashtag_list[tag] + '/')
    sleep(5)
    first_thumbnail = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('//*[@id="react-root"]/section/main/article/div[1]/div/div/div[1]/div[1]/a/div')
    
    first_thumbnail.click()
    sleep(randint(1,2))    
    try:        
        for x in range(1,200):
            username = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[1]/h2/a').text
            
            if username not in prev_user_list:
                # If we already follow, do not unfollow
                if webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/button').text == 'Follow':
                    
                    webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/button').click()
                    
                    new_followed.append(username)
                    followed += 1

                    # Liking the picture
                    button_like = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/div[2]/section[1]/span[1]/button/span')
                    
                    button_like.click()
                    likes += 1
                    sleep(randint(18,25))

                    # Comments and tracker
                    comm_prob = randint(1,10)
                    print('{}_{}: {}'.format(hashtag, x,comm_prob))
                    if comm_prob > 7:
                        comments += 1
                        webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/div[2]/section[1]/span[2]/button/span').click()
                        comment_box = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div/div[2]/div/article/div[2]/section[3]/div/form/textarea')

                        if (comm_prob < 7):
                            comment_box.send_keys('Really cool!')
                            sleep(1)
                        elif (comm_prob > 6) and (comm_prob < 9):
                            comment_box.send_keys('Nice work :)')
                            sleep(1)
                        elif comm_prob == 9:
                            comment_box.send_keys('Nice gallery!!')
                            sleep(1)
                        elif comm_prob == 10:
                            comment_box.send_keys('So cool! :)')
                            sleep(1)
                        # Enter to post comment
                        comment_box.send_keys(Keys.ENTER)
                        sleep(randint(22,28))

                # Next picture
                webdriver.find_element_by_link_text('Next').click()
                sleep(randint(25,29))
            else:
                webdriver.find_element_by_link_text('Next').click()
                sleep(randint(20,26))
    # some hashtag stops refreshing photos (it may happen sometimes), it continues to the next
    except:
        continue

for n in range(0,len(new_followed)):
    prev_user_list.append(new_followed[n])
    
updated_user_df = pd.DataFrame(prev_user_list)
updated_user_df.to_csv('{}_users_followed_list.csv'.format(strftime("%Y%m%d-%H%M%S")))
print('Liked {} photos.'.format(likes))
print('Commented {} photos.'.format(comments))
print('Followed {} new people.'.format(followed))

Instagram bot with Python

The print statement inside the loop is the way I found to be able to have a tracker that lets me know at what iteration the bot is all the time. It will print the hashtag it’s in, the number of the iteration, and the random number generated for the comment action. I decided not to post comments in every page, so I added three different comments and a random number between 1 and 10 that would define if there was any comment at all, or one of the three. The loop ends, we append the new_followed users to the previous users “database” and saves the new file with the timestamp. You should also get a small report.

Instagram bot with Python

And that’s it!

After a few hours without checking the phone, these were the numbers I was getting. I definitely did not expect it to do so well! In about 4 days since I’ve started testing it, I had around 500 new followers, which means I have doubled my audience in a matter of days. I’m curious to see how many of these new followers I will lose in the next days, to see if the growth can be sustainable. I also had a lot more “likes” in my latest photos, but I guess that’s even more expected than the follow backs.

Instagram bot with Python

It would be nice to get this bot running in a server, but I have other projects I want to explore, and configuring a server is not one of them! Feel free to leave a comment below, and I’ll do my best to answer your questions.

I’m actually curious to see how long will I keep posting regularly! If you feel like this article was helpful for you, consider thanking me by buying one of my photos.

Instagram bot with Python



How to Make an Instagram Bot With Python and InstaPy

Instagram bot with Python

What do SocialCaptain, Kicksta, Instavast, and many other companies have in common? They all help you reach a greater audience, gain more followers, and get more likes on Instagram while you hardly lift a finger. They do it all through automation, and people pay them a good deal of money for it. But you can do the same thing—for free—using InstaPy!

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to build a bot with Python and InstaPy, which automates your Instagram activities so that you gain more followers and likes with minimal manual input. Along the way, you’ll learn about browser automation with Selenium and the Page Object Pattern, which together serve as the basis for InstaPy.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

  • How Instagram bots work
  • How to automate a browser with Selenium
  • How to use the Page Object Pattern for better readability and testability
  • How to build an Instagram bot with InstaPy

You’ll begin by learning how Instagram bots work before you build one.

Table of Contents

  • How Instagram Bots Work
  • How to Automate a Browser
  • How to Use the Page Object Pattern
  • How to Build an Instagram Bot With InstaPy
    • Essential Features
    • Additional Features in InstaPy
  • Conclusion

Important: Make sure you check Instagram’s Terms of Use before implementing any kind of automation or scraping techniques.

How Instagram Bots Work

How can an automation script gain you more followers and likes? Before answering this question, think about how an actual person gains more followers and likes.

They do it by being consistently active on the platform. They post often, follow other people, and like and leave comments on other people’s posts. Bots work exactly the same way: They follow, like, and comment on a consistent basis according to the criteria you set.

The better the criteria you set, the better your results will be. You want to make sure you’re targeting the right groups because the people your bot interacts with on Instagram will be more likely to interact with your content.

For example, if you’re selling women’s clothing on Instagram, then you can instruct your bot to like, comment on, and follow mostly women or profiles whose posts include hashtags such as #beauty, #fashion, or #clothes. This makes it more likely that your target audience will notice your profile, follow you back, and start interacting with your posts.

How does it work on the technical side, though? You can’t use the Instagram Developer API since it is fairly limited for this purpose. Enter browser automation. It works in the following way:

  1. You serve it your credentials.
  2. You set the criteria for who to follow, what comments to leave, and which type of posts to like.
  3. Your bot opens a browser, types in https://instagram.com on the address bar, logs in with your credentials, and starts doing the things you instructed it to do.

Next, you’ll build the initial version of your Instagram bot, which will automatically log in to your profile. Note that you won’t use InstaPy just yet.

How to Automate a Browser

For this version of your Instagram bot, you’ll be using Selenium, which is the tool that InstaPy uses under the hood.

First, install Selenium. During installation, make sure you also install the Firefox WebDriver since the latest version of InstaPy dropped support for Chrome. This also means that you need the Firefox browser installed on your computer.

Now, create a Python file and write the following code in it:

from time import sleep

from selenium import webdriver


browser = webdriver.Firefox()


browser.get('https://www.instagram.com/')


sleep(5)


browser.close()

Run the code and you’ll see that a Firefox browser opens and directs you to the Instagram login page. Here’s a line-by-line breakdown of the code:

  • Lines 1 and 2 import sleep and webdriver.
  • Line 4 initializes the Firefox driver and sets it to browser.
  • Line 6 types https://www.instagram.com/ on the address bar and hits Enter.
  • Line 8 waits for five seconds so you can see the result. Otherwise, it would close the browser instantly.
  • Line 10 closes the browser.

This is the Selenium version of Hello, World. Now you’re ready to add the code that logs in to your Instagram profile. But first, think about how you would log in to your profile manually. You would do the following:

  1. Go to https://www.instagram.com/.
  2. Click the login link.
  3. Enter your credentials.
  4. Hit the login button.

The first step is already done by the code above. Now change it so that it clicks on the login link on the Instagram home page:

from time import sleep

from selenium import webdriver


browser = webdriver.Firefox()

browser.implicitly_wait(5)


browser.get('https://www.instagram.com/')


login_link = browser.find_element_by_xpath("//a[text()='Log in']")

login_link.click()


sleep(5)


browser.close()

Note the highlighted lines:

  • Line 5 sets five seconds of waiting time. If Selenium can’t find an element, then it waits for five seconds to allow everything to load and tries again.
  • Line 9 finds the element <a> whose text is equal to Log in. It does this using XPath, but there are a few other methods you could use.
  • Line 10 clicks on the found element <a> for the login link.

Run the script and you’ll see your script in action. It will open the browser, go to Instagram, and click on the login link to go to the login page.

On the login page, there are three important elements:

  1. The username input
  2. The password input
  3. The login button

Next, change the script so that it finds those elements, enters your credentials, and clicks on the login button:

from time import sleep

from selenium import webdriver


browser = webdriver.Firefox()

browser.implicitly_wait(5)


browser.get('https://www.instagram.com/')


login_link = browser.find_element_by_xpath("//a[text()='Log in']")

login_link.click()


sleep(2)


username_input = browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='username']")

password_input = browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='password']")


username_input.send_keys("<your username>")

password_input.send_keys("<your password>")


login_button = browser.find_element_by_xpath("//button[@type='submit']")

login_button.click()


sleep(5)


browser.close()

Here’s a breakdown of the changes:

  1. Line 12 sleeps for two seconds to allow the page to load.
  2. Lines 14 and 15 find username and password inputs by CSS. You could use any other method that you prefer.
  3. Lines 17 and 18 type your username and password in their respective inputs. Don’t forget to fill in <your username> and <your password>!
  4. Line 20 finds the login button by XPath.
  5. Line 21 clicks on the login button.

Run the script and you’ll be automatically logged in to to your Instagram profile.

You’re off to a good start with your Instagram bot. If you were to continue writing this script, then the rest would look very similar. You would find the posts that you like by scrolling down your feed, find the like button by CSS, click on it, find the comments section, leave a comment, and continue.

The good news is that all of those steps can be handled by InstaPy. But before you jump into using Instapy, there is one other thing that you should know about to better understand how InstaPy works: the Page Object Pattern.

How to Use the Page Object Pattern

Now that you’ve written the login code, how would you write a test for it? It would look something like the following:

def test_login_page(browser):
    browser.get('https://www.instagram.com/accounts/login/')
    username_input = browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='username']")
    password_input = browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='password']")
    username_input.send_keys("<your username>")
    password_input.send_keys("<your password>")
    login_button = browser.find_element_by_xpath("//button[@type='submit']")
    login_button.click()

    errors = browser.find_elements_by_css_selector('#error_message')
    assert len(errors) == 0

Can you see what’s wrong with this code? It doesn’t follow the DRY principle. That is, the code is duplicated in both the application and the test code.

Duplicating code is especially bad in this context because Selenium code is dependent on UI elements, and UI elements tend to change. When they do change, you want to update your code in one place. That’s where the Page Object Pattern comes in.

With this pattern, you create page object classes for the most important pages or fragments that provide interfaces that are straightforward to program to and that hide the underlying widgetry in the window. With this in mind, you can rewrite the code above and create a HomePage class and a LoginPage class:

from time import sleep

class LoginPage:
    def __init__(self, browser):
        self.browser = browser

    def login(self, username, password):
        username_input = self.browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='username']")
        password_input = self.browser.find_element_by_css_selector("input[name='password']")
        username_input.send_keys(username)
        password_input.send_keys(password)
        login_button = browser.find_element_by_xpath("//button[@type='submit']")
        login_button.click()
        sleep(5)

class HomePage:
    def __init__(self, browser):
        self.browser = browser
        self.browser.get('https://www.instagram.com/')

    def go_to_login_page(self):
        self.browser.find_element_by_xpath("//a[text()='Log in']").click()
        sleep(2)
        return LoginPage(self.browser)

The code is the same except that the home page and the login page are represented as classes. The classes encapsulate the mechanics required to find and manipulate the data in the UI. That is, there are methods and accessors that allow the software to do anything a human can.

One other thing to note is that when you navigate to another page using a page object, it returns a page object for the new page. Note the returned value of go_to_log_in_page(). If you had another class called FeedPage, then login() of the LoginPage class would return an instance of that: return FeedPage().

Here’s how you can put the Page Object Pattern to use:

from selenium import webdriver

browser = webdriver.Firefox()
browser.implicitly_wait(5)

home_page = HomePage(browser)
login_page = home_page.go_to_login_page()
login_page.login("<your username>", "<your password>")

browser.close()

It looks much better, and the test above can now be rewritten to look like this:

def test_login_page(browser):
    home_page = HomePage(browser)
    login_page = home_page.go_to_login_page()
    login_page.login("<your username>", "<your password>")

    errors = browser.find_elements_by_css_selector('#error_message')
    assert len(errors) == 0

With these changes, you won’t have to touch your tests if something changes in the UI.

For more information on the Page Object Pattern, refer to the official documentation and to Martin Fowler’s article.

Now that you’re familiar with both Selenium and the Page Object Pattern, you’ll feel right at home with InstaPy. You’ll build a basic bot with it next.

Note: Both Selenium and the Page Object Pattern are widely used for other websites, not just for Instagram.

How to Build an Instagram Bot With InstaPy

In this section, you’ll use InstaPy to build an Instagram bot that will automatically like, follow, and comment on different posts. First, you’ll need to install InstaPy:

$ python3 -m pip install instapy

This will install instapy in your system.

Essential Features

Now you can rewrite the code above with InstaPy so that you can compare the two options. First, create another Python file and put the following code in it:

from instapy import InstaPy

InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>").login()

Replace the username and password with yours, run the script, and voilà! With just one line of code, you achieved the same result.

Even though your results are the same, you can see that the behavior isn’t exactly the same. In addition to simply logging in to your profile, InstaPy does some other things, such as checking your internet connection and the status of the Instagram servers. This can be observed directly on the browser or in the logs:

INFO [2019-12-17 22:03:19] [username]  -- Connection Checklist [1/3] (Internet Connection Status)
INFO [2019-12-17 22:03:20] [username]  - Internet Connection Status: ok
INFO [2019-12-17 22:03:20] [username]  - Current IP is "17.283.46.379" and it's from "Germany/DE"
INFO [2019-12-17 22:03:20] [username]  -- Connection Checklist [2/3] (Instagram Server Status)
INFO [2019-12-17 22:03:26] [username]  - Instagram WebSite Status: Currently Up

Pretty good for one line of code, isn’t it? Now it’s time to make the script do more interesting things than just logging in.

For the purpose of this example, assume that your profile is all about cars, and that your bot is intended to interact with the profiles of people who are also interested in cars.

First, you can like some posts that are tagged #bmw or #mercedes using like_by_tags():

from instapy import InstaPy


session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")

session.login()

session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)

Here, you gave the method a list of tags to like and the number of posts to like for each given tag. In this case, you instructed it to like ten posts, five for each of the two tags. But take a look at what happens after you run the script:

INFO [2019-12-17 22:15:58] [username]  Tag [1/2]
INFO [2019-12-17 22:15:58] [username]  --> b'bmw'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:07] [username]  desired amount: 14  |  top posts [disabled]: 9  |  possible posts: 43726739
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:13] [username]  Like# [1/14]
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:13] [username]  https://www.instagram.com/p/B6MCcGcC3tU/
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:15] [username]  Image from: b'mattyproduction'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:15] [username]  Link: b'https://www.instagram.com/p/B6MCcGcC3tU/'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:15] [username]  Description: b'Mal etwas anderes \xf0\x9f\x91\x80\xe2\x98\xba\xef\xb8\x8f Bald ist das komplette Video auf YouTube zu finden (n\xc3\xa4here Infos werden folgen). Vielen Dank an @patrick_jwki @thehuthlife  und @christic_  f\xc3\xbcr das bereitstellen der Autos \xf0\x9f\x94\xa5\xf0\x9f\x98\x8d#carporn#cars#tuning#bagged#bmw#m2#m2competition#focusrs#ford#mk3#e92#m3#panasonic#cinematic#gh5s#dji#roninm#adobe#videography#music#bimmer#fordperformance#night#shooting#'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:15] [username]  Location: b'K\xc3\xb6ln, Germany'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:51] [username]  --> Image Liked!
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:56] [username]  --> Not commented
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:57] [username]  --> Not following
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:58] [username]  Like# [2/14]
INFO [2019-12-17 22:16:58] [username]  https://www.instagram.com/p/B6MDK1wJ-Kb/
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:01] [username]  Image from: b'davs0'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:01] [username]  Link: b'https://www.instagram.com/p/B6MDK1wJ-Kb/'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:01] [username]  Description: b'Someone said cloud? \xf0\x9f\xa4\x94\xf0\x9f\xa4\xad\xf0\x9f\x98\x88 \xe2\x80\xa2\n\xe2\x80\xa2\n\xe2\x80\xa2\n\xe2\x80\xa2\n#bmw #bmwrepost #bmwm4 #bmwm4gts #f82 #bmwmrepost #bmwmsport #bmwmperformance #bmwmpower #bmwm4cs #austinyellow #davs0 #mpower_official #bmw_world_ua #bimmerworld #bmwfans #bmwfamily #bimmers #bmwpost #ultimatedrivingmachine #bmwgang #m3f80 #m5f90 #m4f82 #bmwmafia #bmwcrew #bmwlifestyle'
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:34] [username]  --> Image Liked!
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:37] [username]  --> Not commented
INFO [2019-12-17 22:17:38] [username]  --> Not following

By default, InstaPy will like the first nine top posts in addition to your amount value. In this case, that brings the total number of likes per tag to fourteen (nine top posts plus the five you specified in amount).

Also note that InstaPy logs every action it takes. As you can see above, it mentions which post it liked as well as its link, description, location, and whether the bot commented on the post or followed the author.

You may have noticed that there are delays after almost every action. That’s by design. It prevents your profile from getting banned on Instagram.

Now, you probably don’t want your bot liking inappropriate posts. To prevent that from happening, you can use set_dont_like():

from instapy import InstaPy

session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")
session.login()
session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)
session.set_dont_like(["naked", "nsfw"])

With this change, posts that have the words naked or nsfw in their descriptions won’t be liked. You can flag any other words that you want your bot to avoid.

Next, you can tell the bot to not only like the posts but also to follow some of the authors of those posts. You can do that with set_do_follow():

from instapy import InstaPy

session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")
session.login()
session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)
session.set_dont_like(["naked", "nsfw"])
session.set_do_follow(True, percentage=50)

If you run the script now, then the bot will follow fifty percent of the users whose posts it liked. As usual, every action will be logged.

You can also leave some comments on the posts. There are two things that you need to do. First, enable commenting with set_do_comment():

from instapy import InstaPy

session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")
session.login()
session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)
session.set_dont_like(["naked", "nsfw"])
session.set_do_follow(True, percentage=50)
session.set_do_comment(True, percentage=50)

Next, tell the bot what comments to leave with set_comments():

from instapy import InstaPy

session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")
session.login()
session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)
session.set_dont_like(["naked", "nsfw"])
session.set_do_follow(True, percentage=50)
session.set_do_comment(True, percentage=50)
session.set_comments(["Nice!", "Sweet!", "Beautiful :heart_eyes:"])

Run the script and the bot will leave one of those three comments on half the posts that it interacts with.

Now that you’re done with the basic settings, it’s a good idea to end the session with end():

from instapy import InstaPy

session = InstaPy(username="<your_username>", password="<your_password>")
session.login()
session.like_by_tags(["bmw", "mercedes"], amount=5)
session.set_dont_like(["naked", "nsfw"])
session.set_do_follow(True, percentage=50)
session.set_do_comment(True, percentage=50)
session.set_comments(["Nice!", "Sweet!", "Beautiful :heart_eyes:"])
session.end()

This will close the browser, save the logs, and prepare a report that you can see in the console output.

Additional Features in InstaPy

InstaPy is a sizable project that has a lot of thoroughly documented features. The good news is that if you’re feeling comfortable with the features you used above, then the rest should feel pretty similar. This section will outline some of the more useful features of InstaPy.

Quota Supervisor

You can’t scrape Instagram all day, every day. The service will quickly notice that you’re running a bot and will ban some of its actions. That’s why it’s a good idea to set quotas on some of your bot’s actions. Take the following for example:

session.set_quota_supervisor(enabled=True, peak_comments_daily=240, peak_comments_hourly=21)

The bot will keep commenting until it reaches its hourly and daily limits. It will resume commenting after the quota period has passed.

Headless Browser

This feature allows you to run your bot without the GUI of the browser. This is super useful if you want to deploy your bot to a server where you may not have or need the graphical interface. It’s also less CPU intensive, so it improves performance. You can use it like so:

session = InstaPy(username='test', password='test', headless_browser=True)

Note that you set this flag when you initialize the InstaPy object.

Using AI to Analyze Posts

Earlier you saw how to ignore posts that contain inappropriate words in their descriptions. What if the description is good but the image itself is inappropriate? You can integrate your InstaPy bot with ClarifAI, which offers image and video recognition services:

session.set_use_clarifai(enabled=True, api_key='<your_api_key>')
session.clarifai_check_img_for(['nsfw'])

Now your bot won’t like or comment on any image that ClarifAI considers NSFW. You get 5,000 free API-calls per month.

Relationship Bounds

It’s often a waste of time to interact with posts by people who have a lot of followers. In such cases, it’s a good idea to set some relationship bounds so that your bot doesn’t waste your precious computing resources:

session.set_relationship_bounds(enabled=True, max_followers=8500)

With this, your bot won’t interact with posts by users who have more than 8,500 followers.

For many more features and configurations in InstaPy, check out the documentation.

Conclusion

InstaPy allows you to automate your Instagram activities with minimal fuss and effort. It’s a very flexible tool with a lot of useful features.

In this tutorial, you learned:

  • How Instagram bots work
  • How to automate a browser with Selenium
  • How to use the Page Object Pattern to make your code more maintainable and testable
  • How to use InstaPy to build a basic Instagram bot

Read the InstaPy documentation and experiment with your bot a little bit. Soon you’ll start getting new followers and likes with a minimal amount of effort. I gained a few new followers myself while writing this tutorial.


Automating Instagram API with Python

Instagram bot with Python

Gain active followers - Algorithm

Maybe some of you do not agree it is a good way to grow your IG page by using follow for follow method but after a lot of researching I found the proper way to use this method.

I have done and used this strategy for a while and my page visits also followers started growing.

The majority of people failing because they randomly targeting the followers and as a result, they are not coming back to your page. So, the key is to find people those have same interests with you.

If you have a programming page go and search for IG pages which have big programming community and once you find one, don’t send follow requests to followers of this page. Because some of them are not active even maybe fake accounts. So, in order to gain active followers, go the last post of this page and find people who liked the post.

Unofficial Instagram API

In order to query data from Instagram I am going to use the very cool, yet unofficial, Instagram API written by Pasha Lev.

**Note:**Before you test it make sure you verified your phone number in your IG account.

The program works pretty well so far but in case of any problems I have to put disclaimer statement here:

Disclaimer: This post published educational purposes only as well as to give general information about Instagram API. I am not responsible for any actions and you are taking your own risk.

Let’s start by installing and then logging in with API.

pip install InstagramApi

from InstagramAPI import InstagramAPI

api = InstagramAPI("username", "password")
api.login()

Once you run the program you will see “Login success!” in your console.

Get users from liked list

We are going to search for some username (your target page) then get most recent post from this user. Then, get users who liked this post. Unfortunately, I can’t find solution how to paginate users so right now it gets about last 500 user.

users_list = []

def get_likes_list(username):
    api.login()
    api.searchUsername(username)
    result = api.LastJson
    username_id = result['user']['pk'] # Get user ID
    user_posts = api.getUserFeed(username_id) # Get user feed
    result = api.LastJson
    media_id = result['items'][0]['id'] # Get most recent post
    api.getMediaLikers(media_id) # Get users who liked
    users = api.LastJson['users']
    for user in users: # Push users to list
        users_list.append({'pk':user['pk'], 'username':user['username']})

Follow Users

Once we get the users list, it is time to follow these users.

IMPORTANT NOTE: set time limit as much as you can to avoid automation detection.

from time import sleep

following_users = []

def follow_users(users_list):
    api.login()
    api.getSelfUsersFollowing() # Get users which you are following
    result = api.LastJson
    for user in result['users']:
        following_users.append(user['pk'])
    for user in users_list:
        if not user['pk'] in following_users: # if new user is not in your following users                   
            print('Following @' + user['username'])
            api.follow(user['pk'])
            # after first test set this really long to avoid from suspension
            sleep(20)
        else:
            print('Already following @' + user['username'])
            sleep(10)

Unfollow Users

This function will look users which you are following then it will check if this user follows you as well. If user not following you then you are unfollowing as well.

follower_users = []

def unfollow_users():
    api.login()
    api.getSelfUserFollowers() # Get your followers
    result = api.LastJson
    for user in result['users']:
        follower_users.append({'pk':user['pk'], 'username':user['username']})

    api.getSelfUsersFollowing() # Get users which you are following
    result = api.LastJson
    for user in result['users']:
        following_users.append({'pk':user['pk'],'username':user['username']})
    for user in following_users:
        if not user['pk'] in follower_users: # if the user not follows you
            print('Unfollowing @' + user['username'])
            api.unfollow(user['pk'])
            # set this really long to avoid from suspension
            sleep(20) 

Full Code with extra functions

Here is the full code of this automation

import pprint
from time import sleep
from InstagramAPI import InstagramAPI
import pandas as pd

users_list = []
following_users = []
follower_users = []

class InstaBot:

    def __init__(self):
        self.api = InstagramAPI("your_username", "your_password")

    def get_likes_list(self,username):
        api = self.api
        api.login()
        api.searchUsername(username) #Gets most recent post from user
        result = api.LastJson
        username_id = result['user']['pk']
        user_posts = api.getUserFeed(username_id)
        result = api.LastJson
        media_id = result['items'][0]['id']

        api.getMediaLikers(media_id)
        users = api.LastJson['users']
        for user in users:
            users_list.append({'pk':user['pk'], 'username':user['username']})
        bot.follow_users(users_list)

    def follow_users(self,users_list):
        api = self.api
        api.login()
        api.getSelfUsersFollowing()
        result = api.LastJson
        for user in result['users']:
            following_users.append(user['pk'])
        for user in users_list:
            if not user['pk'] in following_users:
                print('Following @' + user['username'])
                api.follow(user['pk'])
                # set this really long to avoid from suspension
                sleep(20)
            else:
                print('Already following @' + user['username'])
                sleep(10)

     def unfollow_users(self):
        api = self.api
        api.login()
        api.getSelfUserFollowers()
        result = api.LastJson
        for user in result['users']:
            follower_users.append({'pk':user['pk'], 'username':user['username']})

        api.getSelfUsersFollowing()
        result = api.LastJson
        for user in result['users']:
            following_users.append({'pk':user['pk'],'username':user['username']})

        for user in following_users:
            if not user['pk'] in [user['pk'] for user in follower_users]:
                print('Unfollowing @' + user['username'])
                api.unfollow(user['pk'])
                # set this really long to avoid from suspension
                sleep(20) 

bot =  InstaBot()
# To follow users run the function below
# change the username ('instagram') to your target username
bot.get_likes_list('instagram')

# To unfollow users uncomment and run the function below
# bot.unfollow_users()

it will look like this:

Reverse Python

some extra functions to play with API:

def get_my_profile_details():
    api.login() 
    api.getSelfUsernameInfo()
    result = api.LastJson
    username = result['user']['username']
    full_name = result['user']['full_name']
    profile_pic_url = result['user']['profile_pic_url']
    followers = result['user']['follower_count']
    following = result['user']['following_count']
    media_count = result['user']['media_count']
    df_profile = pd.DataFrame(
        {'username':username,
        'full name': full_name,
        'profile picture URL':profile_pic_url,
        'followers':followers,
        'following':following,
        'media count': media_count,
        }, index=[0])
    df_profile.to_csv('profile.csv', sep='\t', encoding='utf-8')

def get_my_feed():
    image_urls = []
    api.login()
    api.getSelfUserFeed()
    result = api.LastJson
    # formatted_json_str = pprint.pformat(result)
    # print(formatted_json_str)
    if 'items' in result.keys():
        for item in result['items'][0:5]:
            if 'image_versions2' in item.keys():
                image_url = item['image_versions2']['candidates'][1]['url']
                image_urls.append(image_url)

    df_feed = pd.DataFrame({
                'image URL':image_urls
            })
    df_feed.to_csv('feed.csv', sep='\t', encoding='utf-8')


Building an Instagram Bot with Python and Selenium to Gain More Followers

This is image title

Let’s build an Instagram bot to gain more followers! — I know, I know. That doesn’t sound very ethical, does it? But it’s all justified for educational purposes.

Coding is a super power — we can all agree. That’s why I’ll leave it up to you to not abuse this power. And I trust you’re here to learn how it works. Otherwise, you’d be on GitHub cloning one of the countless Instagram bots there, right?

You’re convinced? — Alright, now let’s go back to unethical practices.

The Plan

So here’s the deal, we want to build a bot in Python and Selenium that goes on the hashtags we specify, likes random posts, then follows the posters. It does that enough — we get follow backs. Simple as that.

Here’s a pretty twisted detail though: we want to keep track of the users we follow so the bot can unfollow them after the number of days we specify.

Setup

So first things first, I want to use a database to keep track of the username and the date added. You might as well save/load from/to a file, but we want this to be ready for more features in case we felt inspired in the future.

So make sure you create a database (I named mine instabot — but you can name it anything you like) and create a table called followed_users within the database with two fields (username, date_added)

Remember the installation path. You’ll need it.

You’ll also need the following python packages:

  • selenium
  • mysql-connector

Getting down to it

Alright, so first thing we’ll be doing is creating settings.json. Simply a .json file that will hold all of our settings so we don’t have to dive into the code every time we want to change something.

Settings

settings.json:

{
  "db": {
    "host": "localhost",
    "user": "root",
    "pass": "",
    "database": "instabot"
  },
  "instagram": {
    "user": "",
    "pass": ""
  },
  "config": {
    "days_to_unfollow": 1,
    "likes_over": 150,
    "check_followers_every": 3600,
    "hashtags": []
  }
}

As you can see, under “db”, we specify the database information. As I mentioned, I used “instabot”, but feel free to use whatever name you want.

You’ll also need to fill Instagram info under “instagram” so the bot can login into your account.

“config” is for our bot’s settings. Here’s what the fields mean:

days_to_unfollow: number of days before unfollowing users

likes_over: ignore posts if the number of likes is above this number

check_followers_every: number of seconds before checking if it’s time to unfollow any of the users

hashtags: a list of strings with the hashtag names the bot should be active on

Constants

Now, we want to take these settings and have them inside our code as constants.

Create Constants.py:

import json
INST_USER= INST_PASS= USER= PASS= HOST= DATABASE= POST_COMMENTS= ''
LIKES_LIMIT= DAYS_TO_UNFOLLOW= CHECK_FOLLOWERS_EVERY= 0
HASHTAGS= []

def init():
    global INST_USER, INST_PASS, USER, PASS, HOST, DATABASE, LIKES_LIMIT, DAYS_TO_UNFOLLOW, CHECK_FOLLOWERS_EVERY, HASHTAGS
    # read file
    data = None
    with open('settings.json', 'r') as myfile:
        data = myfile.read()
    obj = json.loads(data)
    INST_USER = obj['instagram']['user']
    INST_PASS = obj['instagram']['pass']
    USER = obj['db']['user']
    HOST = obj['db']['host']
    PASS = obj['db']['pass']
    DATABASE = obj['db']['database']
    LIKES_LIMIT = obj['config']['likes_over']
    CHECK_FOLLOWERS_EVERY = obj['config']['check_followers_every']
    HASHTAGS = obj['config']['hashtags']
    DAYS_TO_UNFOLLOW = obj['config']['days_to_unfollow']

the init() function we created reads the data from settings.json and feeds them into the constants we declared.

Engine

Alright, time for some architecture. Our bot will mainly operate from a python script with an init and update methods. Create BotEngine.py:

import Constants


def init(webdriver):
    return


def update(webdriver):
    return

We’ll be back later to put the logic here, but for now, we need an entry point.

Entry Point

Create our entry point, InstaBot.py:

from selenium import webdriver
import BotEngine

chromedriver_path = 'YOUR CHROMEDRIVER PATH' 
webdriver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=chromedriver_path)

BotEngine.init(webdriver)
BotEngine.update(webdriver)

webdriver.close()

chromedriver_path = ‘YOUR CHROMEDRIVER PATH’ webdriver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=chromedriver_path)

BotEngine.init(webdriver)
BotEngine.update(webdriver)

webdriver.close()

Of course, you’ll need to swap “YOUR CHROMEDRIVER PATH” with your actual ChromeDriver path.

Time Helper

We need to create a helper script that will help us calculate elapsed days since a certain date (so we know if we should unfollow user)

Create TimeHelper.py:

import datetime


def days_since_date(n):
    diff = datetime.datetime.now().date() - n
    return diff.days

Database

Create DBHandler.py. It’ll contain a class that handles connecting to the Database for us.

import mysql.connector
import Constants
class DBHandler:
    def __init__(self):
        DBHandler.HOST = Constants.HOST
        DBHandler.USER = Constants.USER
        DBHandler.DBNAME = Constants.DATABASE
        DBHandler.PASSWORD = Constants.PASS
    HOST = Constants.HOST
    USER = Constants.USER
    DBNAME = Constants.DATABASE
    PASSWORD = Constants.PASS
    @staticmethod
    def get_mydb():
        if DBHandler.DBNAME == '':
            Constants.init()
        db = DBHandler()
        mydb = db.connect()
        return mydb

    def connect(self):
        mydb = mysql.connector.connect(
            host=DBHandler.HOST,
            user=DBHandler.USER,
            passwd=DBHandler.PASSWORD,
            database = DBHandler.DBNAME
        )
        return mydb

As you can see, we’re using the constants we defined.

The class contains a static method get_mydb() that returns a database connection we can use.

Now, let’s define a DB user script that contains the DB operations we need to perform on the user.

Create DBUsers.py:

import datetime, TimeHelper
from DBHandler import *
import Constants

#delete user by username
def delete_user(username):
    mydb = DBHandler.get_mydb()
    cursor = mydb.cursor()
    sql = "DELETE FROM followed_users WHERE username = '{0}'".format(username)
    cursor.execute(sql)
    mydb.commit()


#add new username
def add_user(username):
    mydb = DBHandler.get_mydb()
    cursor = mydb.cursor()
    now = datetime.datetime.now().date()
    cursor.execute("INSERT INTO followed_users(username, date_added) VALUES(%s,%s)",(username, now))
    mydb.commit()


#check if any user qualifies to be unfollowed
def check_unfollow_list():
    mydb = DBHandler.get_mydb()
    cursor = mydb.cursor()
    cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM followed_users")
    results = cursor.fetchall()
    users_to_unfollow = []
    for r in results:
        d = TimeHelper.days_since_date(r[1])
        if d > Constants.DAYS_TO_UNFOLLOW:
            users_to_unfollow.append(r[0])
    return users_to_unfollow


#get all followed users
def get_followed_users():
    users = []
    mydb = DBHandler.get_mydb()
    cursor = mydb.cursor()
    cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM followed_users")
    results = cursor.fetchall()
    for r in results:
        users.append(r[0])

    return users

Account Agent

Alright, we’re about to start our bot. We’re creating a script called AccountAgent.py that will contain the agent behavior.

Import some modules, some of which we need for later and write a login function that will make use of our webdriver.

Notice that we have to keep calling the sleep function between actions. If we send too many requests quickly, the Instagram servers will be alarmed and will deny any requests you send.

from time import sleep
import datetime
import DBUsers, Constants
import traceback
import random

def login(webdriver):
    #Open the instagram login page
    webdriver.get('https://www.instagram.com/accounts/login/?source=auth_switcher')
    #sleep for 3 seconds to prevent issues with the server
    sleep(3)
    #Find username and password fields and set their input using our constants
    username = webdriver.find_element_by_name('username')
    username.send_keys(Constants.INST_USER)
    password = webdriver.find_element_by_name('password')
    password.send_keys(Constants.INST_PASS)
    #Get the login button
    try:
        button_login = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(
            '//*[@id="react-root"]/section/main/div/article/div/div[1]/div/form/div[4]/button')
    except:
        button_login = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(
            '//*[@id="react-root"]/section/main/div/article/div/div[1]/div/form/div[6]/button/div')
    #sleep again
    sleep(2)
    #click login
    button_login.click()
    sleep(3)
    #In case you get a popup after logging in, press not now.
    #If not, then just return
    try:
        notnow = webdriver.find_element_by_css_selector(
            'body > div.RnEpo.Yx5HN > div > div > div.mt3GC > button.aOOlW.HoLwm')
        notnow.click()
    except:
        return

Also note how we’re getting elements with their xpath. To do so, right click on the element, click “Inspect”, then right click on the element again inside the inspector, and choose Copy->Copy XPath.

Another important thing to be aware of is that element hierarchy change with the page’s layout when you resize or stretch the window. That’s why we’re checking for two different xpaths for the login button.

Now go back to BotEngine.py, we’re ready to login.

Add more imports that we’ll need later and fill in the init function

import AccountAgent, DBUsers
import Constants
import datetime


def init(webdriver):
    Constants.init()
    AccountAgent.login(webdriver)


def update(webdriver):
    return

If you run our entry script now (InstaBot.py) you’ll see the bot logging in.

Perfect, now let’s add a method that will allow us to follow people to AccountAgent.py:

def follow_people(webdriver):
    #all the followed user
    prev_user_list = DBUsers.get_followed_users()
    #a list to store newly followed users
    new_followed = []
    #counters
    followed = 0
    likes = 0
    #Iterate theough all the hashtags from the constants
    for hashtag in Constants.HASHTAGS:
        #Visit the hashtag
        webdriver.get('https://www.instagram.com/explore/tags/' + hashtag+ '/')
        sleep(5)

        #Get the first post thumbnail and click on it
        first_thumbnail = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(
            '//*[@id="react-root"]/section/main/article/div[1]/div/div/div[1]/div[1]/a/div')

        first_thumbnail.click()
        sleep(random.randint(1,3))

        try:
            #iterate over the first 200 posts in the hashtag
            for x in range(1,200):
                t_start = datetime.datetime.now()
                #Get the poster's username
                username = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[1]/h2/a').text
                likes_over_limit = False
                try:
                    #get number of likes and compare it to the maximum number of likes to ignore post
                    likes = int(webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(
                        '/html/body/div[3]/div[2]/div/article/div[2]/section[2]/div/div/button/span').text)
                    if likes > Constants.LIKES_LIMIT:
                        print("likes over {0}".format(Constants.LIKES_LIMIT))
                        likes_over_limit = True


                    print("Detected: {0}".format(username))
                    #If username isn't stored in the database and the likes are in the acceptable range
                    if username not in prev_user_list and not likes_over_limit:
                        #Don't press the button if the text doesn't say follow
                        if webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/button').text == 'Follow':
                            #Use DBUsers to add the new user to the database
                            DBUsers.add_user(username)
                            #Click follow
                            webdriver.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[3]/div[2]/div/article/header/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/button').click()
                            followed += 1
                            print("Followed: {0}, #{1}".format(username, followed))
                            new_followed.append(username)


                        # Liking the picture
                        button_like = webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(
                            '/html/body/div[3]/div[2]/div/article/div[2]/section[1]/span[1]/button')

                        button_like.click()
                        likes += 1
                        print("Liked {0}'s post, #{1}".format(username, likes))
                        sleep(random.randint(5, 18))


                    # Next picture
                    webdriver.find_element_by_link_text('Next').click()
                    sleep(random.randint(20, 30))
                    
                except:
                    traceback.print_exc()
                    continue
                t_end = datetime.datetime.now()

                #calculate elapsed time
                t_elapsed = t_end - t_start
                print("This post took {0} seconds".format(t_elapsed.total_seconds()))


        except:
            traceback.print_exc()
            continue

        #add new list to old list
        for n in range(0, len(new_followed)):
            prev_user_list.append(new_followed[n])
        print('Liked {} photos.'.format(likes))
        print('Followed {} new people.'.format(followed))

It’s pretty long, but generally here’s the steps of the algorithm:

For every hashtag in the hashtag constant list:

  • Visit the hashtag link
  • Open the first thumbnail
  • Now, execute the following code 200 times (first 200 posts in the hashtag)
  • Get poster’s username, check if not already following, follow, like the post, then click next
  • If already following just click next quickly

Now we might as well implement the unfollow method, hopefully the engine will be feeding us the usernames to unfollow in a list:

def unfollow_people(webdriver, people):
    #if only one user, append in a list
    if not isinstance(people, (list,)):
        p = people
        people = []
        people.append(p)

    for user in people:
        try:
            webdriver.get('https://www.instagram.com/' + user + '/')
            sleep(5)
            unfollow_xpath = '//*[@id="react-root"]/section/main/div/header/section/div[1]/div[1]/span/span[1]/button'

            unfollow_confirm_xpath = '/html/body/div[3]/div/div/div[3]/button[1]'

            if webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(unfollow_xpath).text == "Following":
                sleep(random.randint(4, 15))
                webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(unfollow_xpath).click()
                sleep(2)
                webdriver.find_element_by_xpath(unfollow_confirm_xpath).click()
                sleep(4)
            DBUsers.delete_user(user)

        except Exception:
            traceback.print_exc()
            continue

Now we can finally go back and finish the bot by implementing the rest of BotEngine.py:

import AccountAgent, DBUsers
import Constants
import datetime


def init(webdriver):
    Constants.init()
    AccountAgent.login(webdriver)


def update(webdriver):
    #Get start of time to calculate elapsed time later
    start = datetime.datetime.now()
    #Before the loop, check if should unfollow anyone
    _check_follow_list(webdriver)
    while True:
        #Start following operation
        AccountAgent.follow_people(webdriver)
        #Get the time at the end
        end = datetime.datetime.now()
        #How much time has passed?
        elapsed = end - start
        #If greater than our constant to check on
        #followers, check on followers
        if elapsed.total_seconds() >= Constants.CHECK_FOLLOWERS_EVERY:
            #reset the start variable to now
            start = datetime.datetime.now()
            #check on followers
            _check_follow_list(webdriver)


def _check_follow_list(webdriver):
    print("Checking for users to unfollow")
    #get the unfollow list
    users = DBUsers.check_unfollow_list()
    #if there's anyone in the list, start unfollowing operation
    if len(users) > 0:
        AccountAgent.unfollow_people(webdriver, users)

Conclusion

And that’s it — now you have yourself a fully functional Instagram bot built with Python and Selenium. There are many possibilities for you to explore now, so make sure you’re using this newly gained skill to solve real life problems!

You can get the source code for the whole project from this GitHub repository.


Building a simple Instagram bot with Python tutorial

Here we build a simple bot using some simple Python which beginner to intermediate coders can follow.

Here’s the code on GitHub
https://github.com/aj-4/ig-followers


Build A (Full-Featured) Instagram Bot With Python

Source Code: https://github.com/jg-fisher/instagram-bot 


How to Get Instagram Followers/Likes Using Python

In this video I show you how to program your own Instagram Bot using Python and Selenium.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGU2X5lrz9M 

Code Link:

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
import time
import random
import sys


def print_same_line(text):
    sys.stdout.write('\r')
    sys.stdout.flush()
    sys.stdout.write(text)
    sys.stdout.flush()


class InstagramBot:

    def __init__(self, username, password):
        self.username = username
        self.password = password
        self.driver = webdriver.Chrome()

    def closeBrowser(self):
        self.driver.close()

    def login(self):
        driver = self.driver
        driver.get("https://www.instagram.com/")
        time.sleep(2)
        login_button = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//a[@href='/accounts/login/?source=auth_switcher']")
        login_button.click()
        time.sleep(2)
        user_name_elem = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//input[@name='username']")
        user_name_elem.clear()
        user_name_elem.send_keys(self.username)
        passworword_elem = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//input[@name='password']")
        passworword_elem.clear()
        passworword_elem.send_keys(self.password)
        passworword_elem.send_keys(Keys.RETURN)
        time.sleep(2)


    def like_photo(self, hashtag):
        driver = self.driver
        driver.get("https://www.instagram.com/explore/tags/" + hashtag + "/")
        time.sleep(2)

        # gathering photos
        pic_hrefs = []
        for i in range(1, 7):
            try:
                driver.execute_script("window.scrollTo(0, document.body.scrollHeight);")
                time.sleep(2)
                # get tags
                hrefs_in_view = driver.find_elements_by_tag_name('a')
                # finding relevant hrefs
                hrefs_in_view = [elem.get_attribute('href') for elem in hrefs_in_view
                                 if '.com/p/' in elem.get_attribute('href')]
                # building list of unique photos
                [pic_hrefs.append(href) for href in hrefs_in_view if href not in pic_hrefs]
                # print("Check: pic href length " + str(len(pic_hrefs)))
            except Exception:
                continue

        # Liking photos
        unique_photos = len(pic_hrefs)
        for pic_href in pic_hrefs:
            driver.get(pic_href)
            time.sleep(2)
            driver.execute_script("window.scrollTo(0, document.body.scrollHeight);")
            try:
                time.sleep(random.randint(2, 4))
                like_button = lambda: driver.find_element_by_xpath('//span[@aria-label="Like"]').click()
                like_button().click()
                for second in reversed(range(0, random.randint(18, 28))):
                    print_same_line("#" + hashtag + ': unique photos left: ' + str(unique_photos)
                                    + " | Sleeping " + str(second))
                    time.sleep(1)
            except Exception as e:
                time.sleep(2)
            unique_photos -= 1

if __name__ == "__main__":

    username = "USERNAME"
    password = "PASSWORD"

    ig = InstagramBot(username, password)
    ig.login()

    hashtags = ['amazing', 'beautiful', 'adventure', 'photography', 'nofilter',
                'newyork', 'artsy', 'alumni', 'lion', 'best', 'fun', 'happy',
                'art', 'funny', 'me', 'followme', 'follow', 'cinematography', 'cinema',
                'love', 'instagood', 'instagood', 'followme', 'fashion', 'sun', 'scruffy',
                'street', 'canon', 'beauty', 'studio', 'pretty', 'vintage', 'fierce']

    while True:
        try:
            # Choose a random tag from the list of tags
            tag = random.choice(hashtags)
            ig.like_photo(tag)
        except Exception:
            ig.closeBrowser()
            time.sleep(60)
            ig = InstagramBot(username, password)
            ig.login()

Build An INSTAGRAM Bot With Python That Gets You Followers


Instagram Automation Using Python


How to Create an Instagram Bot | Get More Followers


Building a simple Instagram Influencer Bot with Python tutorial

#python #chatbot #web-development

Shubham Ankit

Shubham Ankit

1657081614

How to Automate Excel with Python | Python Excel Tutorial (OpenPyXL)

How to Automate Excel with Python

In this article, We will show how we can use python to automate Excel . A useful Python library is Openpyxl which we will learn to do Excel Automation

What is OPENPYXL

Openpyxl is a Python library that is used to read from an Excel file or write to an Excel file. Data scientists use Openpyxl for data analysis, data copying, data mining, drawing charts, styling sheets, adding formulas, and more.

Workbook: A spreadsheet is represented as a workbook in openpyxl. A workbook consists of one or more sheets.

Sheet: A sheet is a single page composed of cells for organizing data.

Cell: The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. Usually represented by A1, B5, etc.

Row: A row is a horizontal line represented by a number (1,2, etc.).

Column: A column is a vertical line represented by a capital letter (A, B, etc.).

Openpyxl can be installed using the pip command and it is recommended to install it in a virtual environment.

pip install openpyxl

CREATE A NEW WORKBOOK

We start by creating a new spreadsheet, which is called a workbook in Openpyxl. We import the workbook module from Openpyxl and use the function Workbook() which creates a new workbook.

from openpyxl
import Workbook
#creates a new workbook
wb = Workbook()
#Gets the first active worksheet
ws = wb.active
#creating new worksheets by using the create_sheet method

ws1 = wb.create_sheet("sheet1", 0) #inserts at first position
ws2 = wb.create_sheet("sheet2") #inserts at last position
ws3 = wb.create_sheet("sheet3", -1) #inserts at penultimate position

#Renaming the sheet
ws.title = "Example"

#save the workbook
wb.save(filename = "example.xlsx")

READING DATA FROM WORKBOOK

We load the file using the function load_Workbook() which takes the filename as an argument. The file must be saved in the same working directory.

#loading a workbook
wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")

 

GETTING SHEETS FROM THE LOADED WORKBOOK

 

#getting sheet names
wb.sheetnames
result = ['sheet1', 'Sheet', 'sheet3', 'sheet2']

#getting a particular sheet
sheet1 = wb["sheet2"]

#getting sheet title
sheet1.title
result = 'sheet2'

#Getting the active sheet
sheetactive = wb.active
result = 'sheet1'

 

ACCESSING CELLS AND CELL VALUES

 

#get a cell from the sheet
sheet1["A1"] <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A1 >

  #get the cell value
ws["A1"].value 'Segment'

#accessing cell using row and column and assigning a value
d = ws.cell(row = 4, column = 2, value = 10)
d.value
10

 

ITERATING THROUGH ROWS AND COLUMNS

 

#looping through each row and column
for x in range(1, 5):
  for y in range(1, 5):
  print(x, y, ws.cell(row = x, column = y)
    .value)

#getting the highest row number
ws.max_row
701

#getting the highest column number
ws.max_column
19

There are two functions for iterating through rows and columns.

Iter_rows() => returns the rows
Iter_cols() => returns the columns {
  min_row = 4, max_row = 5, min_col = 2, max_col = 5
} => This can be used to set the boundaries
for any iteration.

Example:

#iterating rows
for row in ws.iter_rows(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in row:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

  #iterating columns
for col in ws.iter_cols(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in col:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

To get all the rows of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.rows and to get all the columns of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.columns. Similarly, to iterate only through the values we use the method worksheet.values.


Example:

for row in ws.values:
  for value in row:
  print(value)

 

WRITING DATA TO AN EXCEL FILE

Writing to a workbook can be done in many ways such as adding a formula, adding charts, images, updating cell values, inserting rows and columns, etc… We will discuss each of these with an example.

 

CREATING AND SAVING A NEW WORKBOOK

 

#creates a new workbook
wb = openpyxl.Workbook()

#saving the workbook
wb.save("new.xlsx")

 

ADDING AND REMOVING SHEETS

 

#creating a new sheet
ws1 = wb.create_sheet(title = "sheet 2")

#creating a new sheet at index 0
ws2 = wb.create_sheet(index = 0, title = "sheet 0")

#checking the sheet names
wb.sheetnames['sheet 0', 'Sheet', 'sheet 2']

#deleting a sheet
del wb['sheet 0']

#checking sheetnames
wb.sheetnames['Sheet', 'sheet 2']

 

ADDING CELL VALUES

 

#checking the sheet value
ws['B2'].value
null

#adding value to cell
ws['B2'] = 367

#checking value
ws['B2'].value
367

 

ADDING FORMULAS

 

We often require formulas to be included in our Excel datasheet. We can easily add formulas using the Openpyxl module just like you add values to a cell.
 

For example:

import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']

ws['A9'] = '=SUM(A2:A8)'

wb.save("new2.xlsx")

The above program will add the formula (=SUM(A2:A8)) in cell A9. The result will be as below.

image

 

MERGE/UNMERGE CELLS

Two or more cells can be merged to a rectangular area using the method merge_cells(), and similarly, they can be unmerged using the method unmerge_cells().

For example:
Merge cells

#merge cells B2 to C9
ws.merge_cells('B2:C9')
ws['B2'] = "Merged cells"

Adding the above code to the previous example will merge cells as below.

image

UNMERGE CELLS

 

#unmerge cells B2 to C9
ws.unmerge_cells('B2:C9')

The above code will unmerge cells from B2 to C9.

INSERTING AN IMAGE

To insert an image we import the image function from the module openpyxl.drawing.image. We then load our image and add it to the cell as shown in the below example.

Example:

import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.drawing.image
import Image

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']
#loading the image(should be in same folder)
img = Image('logo.png')
ws['A1'] = "Adding image"
#adjusting size
img.height = 130
img.width = 200
#adding img to cell A3

ws.add_image(img, 'A3')

wb.save("new2.xlsx")

Result:

image

CREATING CHARTS

Charts are essential to show a visualization of data. We can create charts from Excel data using the Openpyxl module chart. Different forms of charts such as line charts, bar charts, 3D line charts, etc., can be created. We need to create a reference that contains the data to be used for the chart, which is nothing but a selection of cells (rows and columns). I am using sample data to create a 3D bar chart in the below example:

Example

import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.chart
import BarChart3D, Reference, series

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")
ws = wb.active

values = Reference(ws, min_col = 3, min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 40)
chart = BarChart3D()
chart.add_data(values)
ws.add_chart(chart, "E3")
wb.save("MyChart.xlsx")

Result
image


How to Automate Excel with Python with Video Tutorial

Welcome to another video! In this video, We will cover how we can use python to automate Excel. I'll be going over everything from creating workbooks to accessing individual cells and stylizing cells. There is a ton of things that you can do with Excel but I'll just be covering the core/base things in OpenPyXl.

⭐️ Timestamps ⭐️
00:00 | Introduction
02:14 | Installing openpyxl
03:19 | Testing Installation
04:25 | Loading an Existing Workbook
06:46 | Accessing Worksheets
07:37 | Accessing Cell Values
08:58 | Saving Workbooks
09:52 | Creating, Listing and Changing Sheets
11:50 | Creating a New Workbook
12:39 | Adding/Appending Rows
14:26 | Accessing Multiple Cells
20:46 | Merging Cells
22:27 | Inserting and Deleting Rows
23:35 | Inserting and Deleting Columns
24:48 | Copying and Moving Cells
26:06 | Practical Example, Formulas & Cell Styling

📄 Resources 📄
OpenPyXL Docs: https://openpyxl.readthedocs.io/en/stable/ 
Code Written in This Tutorial: https://github.com/techwithtim/ExcelPythonTutorial 
Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/TechWithTim/featured 

#python 

I am Developer

1597559012

Multiple File Upload in Laravel 7, 6

in this post, i will show you easy steps for multiple file upload in laravel 7, 6.

As well as how to validate file type, size before uploading to database in laravel.

Laravel 7/6 Multiple File Upload

You can easily upload multiple file with validation in laravel application using the following steps:

  1. Download Laravel Fresh New Setup
  2. Setup Database Credentials
  3. Generate Migration & Model For File
  4. Make Route For File uploading
  5. Create File Controller & Methods
  6. Create Multiple File Blade View
  7. Run Development Server

https://www.tutsmake.com/laravel-6-multiple-file-upload-with-validation-example/

#laravel multiple file upload validation #multiple file upload in laravel 7 #multiple file upload in laravel 6 #upload multiple files laravel 7 #upload multiple files in laravel 6 #upload multiple files php laravel

Swift Tips: A Collection Useful Tips for The Swift Language

SwiftTips

The following is a collection of tips I find to be useful when working with the Swift language. More content is available on my Twitter account!

Property Wrappers as Debugging Tools

Property Wrappers allow developers to wrap properties with specific behaviors, that will be seamlessly triggered whenever the properties are accessed.

While their primary use case is to implement business logic within our apps, it's also possible to use Property Wrappers as debugging tools!

For example, we could build a wrapper called @History, that would be added to a property while debugging and would keep track of all the values set to this property.

import Foundation

@propertyWrapper
struct History<Value> {
    private var value: Value
    private(set) var history: [Value] = []

    init(wrappedValue: Value) {
        self.value = wrappedValue
    }
    
    var wrappedValue: Value {
        get { value }

        set {
            history.append(value)
            value = newValue
        }
    }
    
    var projectedValue: Self {
        return self
    }
}

// We can then decorate our business code
// with the `@History` wrapper
struct User {
    @History var name: String = ""
}

var user = User()

// All the existing call sites will still
// compile, without the need for any change
user.name = "John"
user.name = "Jane"

// But now we can also access an history of
// all the previous values!
user.$name.history // ["", "John"]

Localization through String interpolation

Swift 5 gave us the possibility to define our own custom String interpolation methods.

This feature can be used to power many use cases, but there is one that is guaranteed to make sense in most projects: localizing user-facing strings.

import Foundation

extension String.StringInterpolation {
    mutating func appendInterpolation(localized key: String, _ args: CVarArg...) {
        let localized = String(format: NSLocalizedString(key, comment: ""), arguments: args)
        appendLiteral(localized)
    }
}


/*
 Let's assume that this is the content of our Localizable.strings:
 
 "welcome.screen.greetings" = "Hello %@!";
 */

let userName = "John"
print("\(localized: "welcome.screen.greetings", userName)") // Hello John!

Implementing pseudo-inheritance between structs

If you’ve always wanted to use some kind of inheritance mechanism for your structs, Swift 5.1 is going to make you very happy!

Using the new KeyPath-based dynamic member lookup, you can implement some pseudo-inheritance, where a type inherits the API of another one 🎉

(However, be careful, I’m definitely not advocating inheritance as a go-to solution 🙃)

import Foundation

protocol Inherits {
    associatedtype SuperType
    
    var `super`: SuperType { get }
}

extension Inherits {
    subscript<T>(dynamicMember keyPath: KeyPath<SuperType, T>) -> T {
        return self.`super`[keyPath: keyPath]
    }
}

struct Person {
    let name: String
}

@dynamicMemberLookup
struct User: Inherits {
    let `super`: Person
    
    let login: String
    let password: String
}

let user = User(super: Person(name: "John Appleseed"), login: "Johnny", password: "1234")

user.name // "John Appleseed"
user.login // "Johnny"

Composing NSAttributedString through a Function Builder

Swift 5.1 introduced Function Builders: a great tool for building custom DSL syntaxes, like SwiftUI. However, one doesn't need to be building a full-fledged DSL in order to leverage them.

For example, it's possible to write a simple Function Builder, whose job will be to compose together individual instances of NSAttributedString through a nicer syntax than the standard API.

import UIKit

@_functionBuilder
class NSAttributedStringBuilder {
    static func buildBlock(_ components: NSAttributedString...) -> NSAttributedString {
        let result = NSMutableAttributedString(string: "")
        
        return components.reduce(into: result) { (result, current) in result.append(current) }
    }
}

extension NSAttributedString {
    class func composing(@NSAttributedStringBuilder _ parts: () -> NSAttributedString) -> NSAttributedString {
        return parts()
    }
}

let result = NSAttributedString.composing {
    NSAttributedString(string: "Hello",
                       attributes: [.font: UIFont.systemFont(ofSize: 24),
                                    .foregroundColor: UIColor.red])
    NSAttributedString(string: " world!",
                       attributes: [.font: UIFont.systemFont(ofSize: 20),
                                    .foregroundColor: UIColor.orange])
}

Using switch and if as expressions

Contrary to other languages, like Kotlin, Swift does not allow switch and if to be used as expressions. Meaning that the following code is not valid Swift:

let constant = if condition {
                  someValue
               } else {
                  someOtherValue
               }

A common solution to this problem is to wrap the if or switch statement within a closure, that will then be immediately called. While this approach does manage to achieve the desired goal, it makes for a rather poor syntax.

To avoid the ugly trailing () and improve on the readability, you can define a resultOf function, that will serve the exact same purpose, in a more elegant way.

import Foundation

func resultOf<T>(_ code: () -> T) -> T {
    return code()
}

let randomInt = Int.random(in: 0...3)

let spelledOut: String = resultOf {
    switch randomInt {
    case 0:
        return "Zero"
    case 1:
        return "One"
    case 2:
        return "Two"
    case 3:
        return "Three"
    default:
        return "Out of range"
    }
}

print(spelledOut)

Avoiding double negatives within guard statements

A guard statement is a very convenient way for the developer to assert that a condition is met, in order for the execution of the program to keep going.

However, since the body of a guard statement is meant to be executed when the condition evaluates to false, the use of the negation (!) operator within the condition of a guard statement can make the code hard to read, as it becomes a double negative.

A nice trick to avoid such double negatives is to encapsulate the use of the ! operator within a new property or function, whose name does not include a negative.

import Foundation

extension Collection {
    var hasElements: Bool {
        return !isEmpty
    }
}

let array = Bool.random() ? [1, 2, 3] : []

guard array.hasElements else { fatalError("array was empty") }

print(array)

Defining a custom init without loosing the compiler-generated one

It's common knowledge for Swift developers that, when you define a struct, the compiler is going to automatically generate a memberwise init for you. That is, unless you also define an init of your own. Because then, the compiler won't generate any memberwise init.

Yet, there are many instances where we might enjoy the opportunity to get both. As it turns out, this goal is quite easy to achieve: you just need to define your own init in an extension rather than inside the type definition itself.

import Foundation

struct Point {
    let x: Int
    let y: Int
}

extension Point {
    init() {
        x = 0
        y = 0
    }
}

let usingDefaultInit = Point(x: 4, y: 3)
let usingCustomInit = Point()

Implementing a namespace through an empty enum

Swift does not really have an out-of-the-box support of namespaces. One could argue that a Swift module can be seen as a namespace, but creating a dedicated Framework for this sole purpose can legitimately be regarded as overkill.

Some developers have taken the habit to use a struct which only contains static fields to implement a namespace. While this does the job, it requires us to remember to implement an empty private init(), because it wouldn't make sense for such a struct to be instantiated.

It's actually possible to take this approach one step further, by replacing the struct with an enum. While it might seem weird to have an enum with no case, it's actually a very idiomatic way to declare a type that cannot be instantiated.

import Foundation

enum NumberFormatterProvider {
    static var currencyFormatter: NumberFormatter {
        let formatter = NumberFormatter()
        formatter.numberStyle = .currency
        formatter.roundingIncrement = 0.01
        return formatter
    }
    
    static var decimalFormatter: NumberFormatter {
        let formatter = NumberFormatter()
        formatter.numberStyle = .decimal
        formatter.decimalSeparator = ","
        return formatter
    }
}

NumberFormatterProvider() // ❌ impossible to instantiate by mistake

NumberFormatterProvider.currencyFormatter.string(from: 2.456) // $2.46
NumberFormatterProvider.decimalFormatter.string(from: 2.456) // 2,456

Using Never to represent impossible code paths

Never is quite a peculiar type in the Swift Standard Library: it is defined as an empty enum enum Never { }.

While this might seem odd at first glance, it actually yields a very interesting property: it makes it a type that cannot be constructed (i.e. it possesses no instances).

This way, Never can be used as a generic parameter to let the compiler know that a particular feature will not be used.

import Foundation

enum Result<Value, Error> {
    case success(value: Value)
    case failure(error: Error)
}

func willAlwaysSucceed(_ completion: @escaping ((Result<String, Never>) -> Void)) {
    completion(.success(value: "Call was successful"))
}

willAlwaysSucceed( { result in
    switch result {
    case .success(let value):
        print(value)
    // the compiler knows that the `failure` case cannot happen
    // so it doesn't require us to handle it.
    }
})

Providing a default value to a Decodable enum

Swift's Codable framework does a great job at seamlessly decoding entities from a JSON stream. However, when we integrate web-services, we are sometimes left to deal with JSONs that require behaviors that Codable does not provide out-of-the-box.

For instance, we might have a string-based or integer-based enum, and be required to set it to a default value when the data found in the JSON does not match any of its cases.

We might be tempted to implement this via an extensive switch statement over all the possible cases, but there is a much shorter alternative through the initializer init?(rawValue:):

import Foundation

enum State: String, Decodable {
    case active
    case inactive
    case undefined
    
    init(from decoder: Decoder) throws {
        let container = try decoder.singleValueContainer()
        let decodedString = try container.decode(String.self)
        
        self = State(rawValue: decodedString) ?? .undefined
    }
}

let data = """
["active", "inactive", "foo"]
""".data(using: .utf8)!

let decoded = try! JSONDecoder().decode([State].self, from: data)

print(decoded) // [State.active, State.inactive, State.undefined]

Another lightweight dependency injection through default values for function parameters

Dependency injection boils down to a simple idea: when an object requires a dependency, it shouldn't create it by itself, but instead it should be given a function that does it for him.

Now the great thing with Swift is that, not only can a function take another function as a parameter, but that parameter can also be given a default value.

When you combine both those features, you can end up with a dependency injection pattern that is both lightweight on boilerplate, but also type safe.

import Foundation

protocol Service {
    func call() -> String
}

class ProductionService: Service {
    func call() -> String {
        return "This is the production"
    }
}

class MockService: Service {
    func call() -> String {
        return "This is a mock"
    }
}

typealias Provider<T> = () -> T

class Controller {
    
    let service: Service
    
    init(serviceProvider: Provider<Service> = { return ProductionService() }) {
        self.service = serviceProvider()
    }
    
    func work() {
        print(service.call())
    }
}

let productionController = Controller()
productionController.work() // prints "This is the production"

let mockedController = Controller(serviceProvider: { return MockService() })
mockedController.work() // prints "This is a mock"

Lightweight dependency injection through protocol-oriented programming

Singletons are pretty bad. They make your architecture rigid and tightly coupled, which then results in your code being hard to test and refactor. Instead of using singletons, your code should rely on dependency injection, which is a much more architecturally sound approach.

But singletons are so easy to use, and dependency injection requires us to do extra-work. So maybe, for simple situations, we could find an in-between solution?

One possible solution is to rely on one of Swift's most know features: protocol-oriented programming. Using a protocol, we declare and access our dependency. We then store it in a private singleton, and perform the injection through an extension of said protocol.

This way, our code will indeed be decoupled from its dependency, while at the same time keeping the boilerplate to a minimum.

import Foundation

protocol Formatting {
    var formatter: NumberFormatter { get }
}

private let sharedFormatter: NumberFormatter = {
    let sharedFormatter = NumberFormatter()
    sharedFormatter.numberStyle = .currency
    return sharedFormatter
}()

extension Formatting {
    var formatter: NumberFormatter { return sharedFormatter }
}

class ViewModel: Formatting {
    var displayableAmount: String?
    
    func updateDisplay(to amount: Double) {
        displayableAmount = formatter.string(for: amount)
    }
}

let viewModel = ViewModel()

viewModel.updateDisplay(to: 42000.45)
viewModel.displayableAmount // "$42,000.45"

Getting rid of overabundant [weak self] and guard

Callbacks are a part of almost all iOS apps, and as frameworks such as RxSwift keep gaining in popularity, they become ever more present in our codebase.

Seasoned Swift developers are aware of the potential memory leaks that @escaping callbacks can produce, so they make real sure to always use [weak self], whenever they need to use self inside such a context. And when they need to have self be non-optional, they then add a guard statement along.

Consequently, this syntax of a [weak self] followed by a guard rapidly tends to appear everywhere in the codebase. The good thing is that, through a little protocol-oriented trick, it's actually possible to get rid of this tedious syntax, without loosing any of its benefits!

import Foundation
import PlaygroundSupport

PlaygroundPage.current.needsIndefiniteExecution = true

protocol Weakifiable: class { }

extension Weakifiable {
    func weakify(_ code: @escaping (Self) -> Void) -> () -> Void {
        return { [weak self] in
            guard let self = self else { return }
            
            code(self)
        }
    }
    
    func weakify<T>(_ code: @escaping (T, Self) -> Void) -> (T) -> Void {
        return { [weak self] arg in
            guard let self = self else { return }
            
            code(arg, self)
        }
    }
}

extension NSObject: Weakifiable { }

class Producer: NSObject {
    
    deinit {
        print("deinit Producer")
    }
    
    private var handler: (Int) -> Void = { _ in }
    
    func register(handler: @escaping (Int) -> Void) {
        self.handler = handler
        
        DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 1.0, execute: { self.handler(42) })
    }
}

class Consumer: NSObject {
    
    deinit {
        print("deinit Consumer")
    }
    
    let producer = Producer()
    
    func consume() {
        producer.register(handler: weakify { result, strongSelf in
            strongSelf.handle(result)
        })
    }
    
    private func handle(_ result: Int) {
        print("🎉 \(result)")
    }
}

var consumer: Consumer? = Consumer()

consumer?.consume()

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2.0, execute: { consumer = nil })

// This code prints:
// 🎉 42
// deinit Consumer
// deinit Producer

Solving callback hell with function composition

Asynchronous functions are a big part of iOS APIs, and most developers are familiar with the challenge they pose when one needs to sequentially call several asynchronous APIs.

This often results in callbacks being nested into one another, a predicament often referred to as callback hell.

Many third-party frameworks are able to tackle this issue, for instance RxSwift or PromiseKit. Yet, for simple instances of the problem, there is no need to use such big guns, as it can actually be solved with simple function composition.

import Foundation

typealias CompletionHandler<Result> = (Result?, Error?) -> Void

infix operator ~>: MultiplicationPrecedence

func ~> <T, U>(_ first: @escaping (CompletionHandler<T>) -> Void, _ second: @escaping (T, CompletionHandler<U>) -> Void) -> (CompletionHandler<U>) -> Void {
    return { completion in
        first({ firstResult, error in
            guard let firstResult = firstResult else { completion(nil, error); return }
            
            second(firstResult, { (secondResult, error) in
                completion(secondResult, error)
            })
        })
    }
}

func ~> <T, U>(_ first: @escaping (CompletionHandler<T>) -> Void, _ transform: @escaping (T) -> U) -> (CompletionHandler<U>) -> Void {
    return { completion in
        first({ result, error in
            guard let result = result else { completion(nil, error); return }
            
            completion(transform(result), nil)
        })
    }
}

func service1(_ completionHandler: CompletionHandler<Int>) {
    completionHandler(42, nil)
}

func service2(arg: String, _ completionHandler: CompletionHandler<String>) {
    completionHandler("🎉 \(arg)", nil)
}

let chainedServices = service1
    ~> { int in return String(int / 2) }
    ~> service2

chainedServices({ result, _ in
    guard let result = result else { return }
    
    print(result) // Prints: 🎉 21
})

Transform an asynchronous function into a synchronous one

Asynchronous functions are a great way to deal with future events without blocking a thread. Yet, there are times where we would like them to behave in exactly such a blocking way.

Think about writing unit tests and using mocked network calls. You will need to add complexity to your test in order to deal with asynchronous functions, whereas synchronous ones would be much easier to manage.

Thanks to Swift proficiency in the functional paradigm, it is possible to write a function whose job is to take an asynchronous function and transform it into a synchronous one.

import Foundation

func makeSynchrone<A, B>(_ asyncFunction: @escaping (A, (B) -> Void) -> Void) -> (A) -> B {
    return { arg in
        let lock = NSRecursiveLock()
        
        var result: B? = nil
        
        asyncFunction(arg) {
            result = $0
            lock.unlock()
        }
        
        lock.lock()
        
        return result!
    }
}

func myAsyncFunction(arg: Int, completionHandler: (String) -> Void) {
    completionHandler("🎉 \(arg)")
}

let syncFunction = makeSynchrone(myAsyncFunction)

print(syncFunction(42)) // prints 🎉 42

Using KeyPaths instead of closures

Closures are a great way to interact with generic APIs, for instance APIs that allow to manipulate data structures through the use of generic functions, such as filter() or sorted().

The annoying part is that closures tend to clutter your code with many instances of {, } and $0, which can quickly undermine its readably.

A nice alternative for a cleaner syntax is to use a KeyPath instead of a closure, along with an operator that will deal with transforming the provided KeyPath in a closure.

import Foundation

prefix operator ^

prefix func ^ <Element, Attribute>(_ keyPath: KeyPath<Element, Attribute>) -> (Element) -> Attribute {
    return { element in element[keyPath: keyPath] }
}

struct MyData {
    let int: Int
    let string: String
}

let data = [MyData(int: 2, string: "Foo"), MyData(int: 4, string: "Bar")]

data.map(^\.int) // [2, 4]
data.map(^\.string) // ["Foo", "Bar"]

Bringing some type-safety to a userInfo Dictionary

Many iOS APIs still rely on a userInfo Dictionary to handle use-case specific data. This Dictionary usually stores untyped values, and is declared as follows: [String: Any] (or sometimes [AnyHashable: Any].

Retrieving data from such a structure will involve some conditional casting (via the as? operator), which is prone to both errors and repetitions. Yet, by introducing a custom subscript, it's possible to encapsulate all the tedious logic, and end-up with an easier and more robust API.

import Foundation

typealias TypedUserInfoKey<T> = (key: String, type: T.Type)

extension Dictionary where Key == String, Value == Any {
    subscript<T>(_ typedKey: TypedUserInfoKey<T>) -> T? {
        return self[typedKey.key] as? T
    }
}

let userInfo: [String : Any] = ["Foo": 4, "Bar": "forty-two"]

let integerTypedKey = TypedUserInfoKey(key: "Foo", type: Int.self)
let intValue = userInfo[integerTypedKey] // returns 4
type(of: intValue) // returns Int?

let stringTypedKey = TypedUserInfoKey(key: "Bar", type: String.self)
let stringValue = userInfo[stringTypedKey] // returns "forty-two"
type(of: stringValue) // returns String?

Lightweight data-binding for an MVVM implementation

MVVM is a great pattern to separate business logic from presentation logic. The main challenge to make it work, is to define a mechanism for the presentation layer to be notified of model updates.

RxSwift is a perfect choice to solve such a problem. Yet, some developers don't feel confortable with leveraging a third-party library for such a central part of their architecture.

For those situation, it's possible to define a lightweight Variable type, that will make the MVVM pattern very easy to use!

import Foundation

class Variable<Value> {
    var value: Value {
        didSet {
            onUpdate?(value)
        }
    }
    
    var onUpdate: ((Value) -> Void)? {
        didSet {
            onUpdate?(value)
        }
    }
    
    init(_ value: Value, _ onUpdate: ((Value) -> Void)? = nil) {
        self.value = value
        self.onUpdate = onUpdate
        self.onUpdate?(value)
    }
}

let variable: Variable<String?> = Variable(nil)

variable.onUpdate = { data in
    if let data = data {
        print(data)
    }
}

variable.value = "Foo"
variable.value = "Bar"

// prints:
// Foo
// Bar

Using typealias to its fullest

The keyword typealias allows developers to give a new name to an already existing type. For instance, Swift defines Void as a typealias of (), the empty tuple.

But a less known feature of this mechanism is that it allows to assign concrete types for generic parameters, or to rename them. This can help make the semantics of generic types much clearer, when used in specific use cases.

import Foundation

enum Either<Left, Right> {
    case left(Left)
    case right(Right)
}

typealias Result<Value> = Either<Value, Error>

typealias IntOrString = Either<Int, String>

Writing an interruptible overload of forEach

Iterating through objects via the forEach(_:) method is a great alternative to the classic for loop, as it allows our code to be completely oblivious of the iteration logic. One limitation, however, is that forEach(_:) does not allow to stop the iteration midway.

Taking inspiration from the Objective-C implementation, we can write an overload that will allow the developer to stop the iteration, if needed.

import Foundation

extension Sequence {
    func forEach(_ body: (Element, _ stop: inout Bool) throws -> Void) rethrows {
        var stop = false
        for element in self {
            try body(element, &stop)
            
            if stop {
                return
            }
        }
    }
}

["Foo", "Bar", "FooBar"].forEach { element, stop in
    print(element)
    stop = (element == "Bar")
}

// Prints:
// Foo
// Bar

Optimizing the use of reduce()

Functional programing is a great way to simplify a codebase. For instance, reduce is an alternative to the classic for loop, without most the boilerplate. Unfortunately, simplicity often comes at the price of performance.

Consider that you want to remove duplicate values from a Sequence. While reduce() is a perfectly fine way to express this computation, the performance will be sub optimal, because of all the unnecessary Array copying that will happen every time its closure gets called.

That's when reduce(into:_:) comes into play. This version of reduce leverages the capacities of copy-on-write type (such as Array or Dictionnary) in order to avoid unnecessary copying, which results in a great performance boost.

import Foundation

func time(averagedExecutions: Int = 1, _ code: () -> Void) {
    let start = Date()
    for _ in 0..<averagedExecutions { code() }
    let end = Date()
    
    let duration = end.timeIntervalSince(start) / Double(averagedExecutions)
    
    print("time: \(duration)")
}

let data = (1...1_000).map { _ in Int(arc4random_uniform(256)) }


// runs in 0.63s
time {
    let noDuplicates: [Int] = data.reduce([], { $0.contains($1) ? $0 : $0 + [$1] })
}

// runs in 0.15s
time {
    let noDuplicates: [Int] = data.reduce(into: [], { if !$0.contains($1) { $0.append($1) } } )
}

Avoiding hardcoded reuse identifiers

UI components such as UITableView and UICollectionView rely on reuse identifiers in order to efficiently recycle the views they display. Often, those reuse identifiers take the form of a static hardcoded String, that will be used for every instance of their class.

Through protocol-oriented programing, it's possible to avoid those hardcoded values, and instead use the name of the type as a reuse identifier.

import Foundation
import UIKit

protocol Reusable {
    static var reuseIdentifier: String { get }
}

extension Reusable {
    static var reuseIdentifier: String {
        return String(describing: self)
    }
}

extension UITableViewCell: Reusable { }

extension UITableView {
    func register<T: UITableViewCell>(_ class: T.Type) {
        register(`class`, forCellReuseIdentifier: T.reuseIdentifier)
    }
    func dequeueReusableCell<T: UITableViewCell>(for indexPath: IndexPath) -> T {
        return dequeueReusableCell(withIdentifier: T.reuseIdentifier, for: indexPath) as! T
    }
}

class MyCell: UITableViewCell { }

let tableView = UITableView()

tableView.register(MyCell.self)
let myCell: MyCell = tableView.dequeueReusableCell(for: [0, 0])

Defining a union type

The C language has a construct called union, that allows a single variable to hold values from different types. While Swift does not provide such a construct, it provides enums with associated values, which allows us to define a type called Either that implements a union of two types.

import Foundation

enum Either<A, B> {
    case left(A)
    case right(B)
    
    func either(ifLeft: ((A) -> Void)? = nil, ifRight: ((B) -> Void)? = nil) {
        switch self {
        case let .left(a):
            ifLeft?(a)
        case let .right(b):
            ifRight?(b)
        }
    }
}

extension Bool { static func random() -> Bool { return arc4random_uniform(2) == 0 } }

var intOrString: Either<Int, String> = Bool.random() ? .left(2) : .right("Foo")

intOrString.either(ifLeft: { print($0 + 1) }, ifRight: { print($0 + "Bar") })

If you're interested by this kind of data structure, I strongly recommend that you learn more about Algebraic Data Types.

Asserting that classes have associated NIBs and vice-versa

Most of the time, when we create a .xib file, we give it the same name as its associated class. From that, if we later refactor our code and rename such a class, we run the risk of forgetting to rename the associated .xib.

While the error will often be easy to catch, if the .xib is used in a remote section of its app, it might go unnoticed for sometime. Fortunately it's possible to build custom test predicates that will assert that 1) for a given class, there exists a .nib with the same name in a given Bundle, 2) for all the .nib in a given Bundle, there exists a class with the same name.

import XCTest

public func XCTAssertClassHasNib(_ class: AnyClass, bundle: Bundle, file: StaticString = #file, line: UInt = #line) {
    let associatedNibURL = bundle.url(forResource: String(describing: `class`), withExtension: "nib")
    
    XCTAssertNotNil(associatedNibURL, "Class \"\(`class`)\" has no associated nib file", file: file, line: line)
}

public func XCTAssertNibHaveClasses(_ bundle: Bundle, file: StaticString = #file, line: UInt = #line) {
    guard let bundleName = bundle.infoDictionary?["CFBundleName"] as? String,
        let basePath = bundle.resourcePath,
        let enumerator = FileManager.default.enumerator(at: URL(fileURLWithPath: basePath),
                                                    includingPropertiesForKeys: nil,
                                                    options: [.skipsHiddenFiles, .skipsSubdirectoryDescendants]) else { return }
    
    var nibFilesURLs = [URL]()
    
    for case let fileURL as URL in enumerator {
        if fileURL.pathExtension.uppercased() == "NIB" {
            nibFilesURLs.append(fileURL)
        }
    }
    
    nibFilesURLs.map { $0.lastPathComponent }
        .compactMap { $0.split(separator: ".").first }
        .map { String($0) }
        .forEach {
            let associatedClass: AnyClass? = bundle.classNamed("\(bundleName).\($0)")
            
            XCTAssertNotNil(associatedClass, "File \"\($0).nib\" has no associated class", file: file, line: line)
        }
}

XCTAssertClassHasNib(MyFirstTableViewCell.self, bundle: Bundle(for: AppDelegate.self))
XCTAssertClassHasNib(MySecondTableViewCell.self, bundle: Bundle(for: AppDelegate.self))
        
XCTAssertNibHaveClasses(Bundle(for: AppDelegate.self))

Many thanks Benjamin Lavialle for coming up with the idea behind the second test predicate.

Small footprint type-erasing with functions

Seasoned Swift developers know it: a protocol with associated type (PAT) "can only be used as a generic constraint because it has Self or associated type requirements". When we really need to use a PAT to type a variable, the goto workaround is to use a type-erased wrapper.

While this solution works perfectly, it requires a fair amount of boilerplate code. In instances where we are only interested in exposing one particular function of the PAT, a shorter approach using function types is possible.

import Foundation
import UIKit

protocol Configurable {
    associatedtype Model
    
    func configure(with model: Model)
}

typealias Configurator<Model> = (Model) -> ()

extension UILabel: Configurable {
    func configure(with model: String) {
        self.text = model
    }
}

let label = UILabel()
let configurator: Configurator<String> = label.configure

configurator("Foo")

label.text // "Foo"

Performing animations sequentially

UIKit exposes a very powerful and simple API to perform view animations. However, this API can become a little bit quirky to use when we want to perform animations sequentially, because it involves nesting closure within one another, which produces notoriously hard to maintain code.

Nonetheless, it's possible to define a rather simple class, that will expose a really nicer API for this particular use case 👌

import Foundation
import UIKit

class AnimationSequence {
    typealias Animations = () -> Void
    
    private let current: Animations
    private let duration: TimeInterval
    private var next: AnimationSequence? = nil
    
    init(animations: @escaping Animations, duration: TimeInterval) {
        self.current = animations
        self.duration = duration
    }
    
    @discardableResult func append(animations: @escaping Animations, duration: TimeInterval) -> AnimationSequence {
        var lastAnimation = self
        while let nextAnimation = lastAnimation.next {
            lastAnimation = nextAnimation
        }
        lastAnimation.next = AnimationSequence(animations: animations, duration: duration)
        return self
    }
    
    func run() {
        UIView.animate(withDuration: duration, animations: current, completion: { finished in
            if finished, let next = self.next {
                next.run()
            }
        })
    }
}

var firstView = UIView()
var secondView = UIView()

firstView.alpha = 0
secondView.alpha = 0

AnimationSequence(animations: { firstView.alpha = 1.0 }, duration: 1)
            .append(animations: { secondView.alpha = 1.0 }, duration: 0.5)
            .append(animations: { firstView.alpha = 0.0 }, duration: 2.0)
            .run()

Debouncing a function call

Debouncing is a very useful tool when dealing with UI inputs. Consider a search bar, whose content is used to query an API. It wouldn't make sense to perform a request for every character the user is typing, because as soon as a new character is entered, the result of the previous request has become irrelevant.

Instead, our code will perform much better if we "debounce" the API call, meaning that we will wait until some delay has passed, without the input being modified, before actually performing the call.

import Foundation

func debounced(delay: TimeInterval, queue: DispatchQueue = .main, action: @escaping (() -> Void)) -> () -> Void {
    var workItem: DispatchWorkItem?
    
    return {
        workItem?.cancel()
        workItem = DispatchWorkItem(block: action)
        queue.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + delay, execute: workItem!)
    }
}

let debouncedPrint = debounced(delay: 1.0) { print("Action performed!") }

debouncedPrint()
debouncedPrint()
debouncedPrint()

// After a 1 second delay, this gets
// printed only once to the console:

// Action performed!

Providing useful operators for Optional booleans

When we need to apply the standard boolean operators to Optional booleans, we often end up with a syntax unnecessarily crowded with unwrapping operations. By taking a cue from the world of three-valued logics, we can define a couple operators that make working with Bool? values much nicer.

import Foundation

func && (lhs: Bool?, rhs: Bool?) -> Bool? {
    switch (lhs, rhs) {
    case (false, _), (_, false):
        return false
    case let (unwrapLhs?, unwrapRhs?):
        return unwrapLhs && unwrapRhs
    default:
        return nil
    }
}

func || (lhs: Bool?, rhs: Bool?) -> Bool? {
    switch (lhs, rhs) {
    case (true, _), (_, true):
        return true
    case let (unwrapLhs?, unwrapRhs?):
        return unwrapLhs || unwrapRhs
    default:
        return nil
    }
}

false && nil // false
true && nil // nil
[true, nil, false].reduce(true, &&) // false

nil || true // true
nil || false // nil
[true, nil, false].reduce(false, ||) // true

Removing duplicate values from a Sequence

Transforming a Sequence in order to remove all the duplicate values it contains is a classic use case. To implement it, one could be tempted to transform the Sequence into a Set, then back to an Array. The downside with this approach is that it will not preserve the order of the sequence, which can definitely be a dealbreaker. Using reduce() it is possible to provide a concise implementation that preserves ordering:

import Foundation

extension Sequence where Element: Equatable {
    func duplicatesRemoved() -> [Element] {
        return reduce([], { $0.contains($1) ? $0 : $0 + [$1] })
    }
}

let data = [2, 5, 2, 3, 6, 5, 2]

data.duplicatesRemoved() // [2, 5, 3, 6]

Shorter syntax to deal with optional strings

Optional strings are very common in Swift code, for instance many objects from UIKit expose the text they display as a String?. Many times you will need to manipulate this data as an unwrapped String, with a default value set to the empty string for nil cases.

While the nil-coalescing operator (e.g. ??) is a perfectly fine way to a achieve this goal, defining a computed variable like orEmpty can help a lot in cleaning the syntax.

import Foundation
import UIKit

extension Optional where Wrapped == String {
    var orEmpty: String {
        switch self {
        case .some(let value):
            return value
        case .none:
            return ""
        }
    }
}

func doesNotWorkWithOptionalString(_ param: String) {
    // do something with `param`
}

let label = UILabel()
label.text = "This is some text."

doesNotWorkWithOptionalString(label.text.orEmpty)

Encapsulating background computation and UI update

Every seasoned iOS developers knows it: objects from UIKit can only be accessed from the main thread. Any attempt to access them from a background thread is a guaranteed crash.

Still, running a costly computation on the background, and then using it to update the UI can be a common pattern.

In such cases you can rely on asyncUI to encapsulate all the boilerplate code.

import Foundation
import UIKit

func asyncUI<T>(_ computation: @autoclosure @escaping () -> T, qos: DispatchQoS.QoSClass = .userInitiated, _ completion: @escaping (T) -> Void) {
    DispatchQueue.global(qos: qos).async {
        let value = computation()
        DispatchQueue.main.async {
            completion(value)
        }
    }
}

let label = UILabel()

func costlyComputation() -> Int { return (0..<10_000).reduce(0, +) }

asyncUI(costlyComputation()) { value in
    label.text = "\(value)"
}

Retrieving all the necessary data to build a debug view

A debug view, from which any controller of an app can be instantiated and pushed on the navigation stack, has the potential to bring some real value to a development process. A requirement to build such a view is to have a list of all the classes from a given Bundle that inherit from UIViewController. With the following extension, retrieving this list becomes a piece of cake 🍰

import Foundation
import UIKit
import ObjectiveC

extension Bundle {
    func viewControllerTypes() -> [UIViewController.Type] {
        guard let bundlePath = self.executablePath else { return [] }
        
        var size: UInt32 = 0
        var rawClassNames: UnsafeMutablePointer<UnsafePointer<Int8>>!
        var parsedClassNames = [String]()
        
        rawClassNames = objc_copyClassNamesForImage(bundlePath, &size)
        
        for index in 0..<size {
            let className = rawClassNames[Int(index)]
            
            if let name = NSString.init(utf8String:className) as String?,
                NSClassFromString(name) is UIViewController.Type {
                parsedClassNames.append(name)
            }
        }
        
        return parsedClassNames
            .sorted()
            .compactMap { NSClassFromString($0) as? UIViewController.Type }
    }
}

// Fetch all view controller types in UIKit
Bundle(for: UIViewController.self).viewControllerTypes()

I share the credit for this tip with Benoît Caron.

Defining a function to map over dictionaries

Update As it turns out, map is actually a really bad name for this function, because it does not preserve composition of transformations, a property that is required to fit the definition of a real map function.

Surprisingly enough, the standard library doesn't define a map() function for dictionaries that allows to map both keys and values into a new Dictionary. Nevertheless, such a function can be helpful, for instance when converting data across different frameworks.

import Foundation

extension Dictionary {
    func map<T: Hashable, U>(_ transform: (Key, Value) throws -> (T, U)) rethrows -> [T: U] {
        var result: [T: U] = [:]
        
        for (key, value) in self {
            let (transformedKey, transformedValue) = try transform(key, value)
            result[transformedKey] = transformedValue
        }
        
        return result
    }
}

let data = [0: 5, 1: 6, 2: 7]
data.map { ("\($0)", $1 * $1) } // ["2": 49, "0": 25, "1": 36]

A shorter syntax to remove nil values

Swift provides the function compactMap(), that can be used to remove nil values from a Sequence of optionals when calling it with an argument that just returns its parameter (i.e. compactMap { $0 }). Still, for such use cases it would be nice to get rid of the trailing closure.

The implementation isn't as straightforward as your usual extension, but once it has been written, the call site definitely gets cleaner 👌

import Foundation

protocol OptionalConvertible {
    associatedtype Wrapped
    func asOptional() -> Wrapped?
}

extension Optional: OptionalConvertible {
    func asOptional() -> Wrapped? {
        return self
    }
}

extension Sequence where Element: OptionalConvertible {
    func compacted() -> [Element.Wrapped] {
        return compactMap { $0.asOptional() }
    }
}

let data = [nil, 1, 2, nil, 3, 5, nil, 8, nil]
data.compacted() // [1, 2, 3, 5, 8]

Dealing with expirable values

It might happen that your code has to deal with values that come with an expiration date. In a game, it could be a score multiplier that will only last for 30 seconds. Or it could be an authentication token for an API, with a 15 minutes lifespan. In both instances you can rely on the type Expirable to encapsulate the expiration logic.

import Foundation

struct Expirable<T> {
    private var innerValue: T
    private(set) var expirationDate: Date
    
    var value: T? {
        return hasExpired() ? nil : innerValue
    }
    
    init(value: T, expirationDate: Date) {
        self.innerValue = value
        self.expirationDate = expirationDate
    }
    
    init(value: T, duration: Double) {
        self.innerValue = value
        self.expirationDate = Date().addingTimeInterval(duration)
    }
    
    func hasExpired() -> Bool {
        return expirationDate < Date()
    }
}

let expirable = Expirable(value: 42, duration: 3)

sleep(2)
expirable.value // 42
sleep(2)
expirable.value // nil

I share the credit for this tip with Benoît Caron.

Using parallelism to speed-up map()

Almost all Apple devices able to run Swift code are powered by a multi-core CPU, consequently making a good use of parallelism is a great way to improve code performance. map() is a perfect candidate for such an optimization, because it is almost trivial to define a parallel implementation.

import Foundation

extension Array {
    func parallelMap<T>(_ transform: (Element) -> T) -> [T] {
        let res = UnsafeMutablePointer<T>.allocate(capacity: count)
        
        DispatchQueue.concurrentPerform(iterations: count) { i in
            res[i] = transform(self[i])
        }
        
        let finalResult = Array<T>(UnsafeBufferPointer(start: res, count: count))
        res.deallocate(capacity: count)
        
        return finalResult
    }
}

let array = (0..<1_000).map { $0 }

func work(_ n: Int) -> Int {
    return (0..<n).reduce(0, +)
}

array.parallelMap { work($0) }

🚨 Make sure to only use parallelMap() when the transform function actually performs some costly computations. Otherwise performances will be systematically slower than using map(), because of the multithreading overhead.

Measuring execution time with minimum boilerplate

During development of a feature that performs some heavy computations, it can be helpful to measure just how much time a chunk of code takes to run. The time() function is a nice tool for this purpose, because of how simple it is to add and then to remove when it is no longer needed.

import Foundation

func time(averagedExecutions: Int = 1, _ code: () -> Void) {
    let start = Date()
    for _ in 0..<averagedExecutions { code() }
    let end = Date()
    
    let duration = end.timeIntervalSince(start) / Double(averagedExecutions)
    
    print("time: \(duration)")
}

time {
    (0...10_000).map { $0 * $0 }
}
// time: 0.183973908424377

Running two pieces of code in parallel

Concurrency is definitely one of those topics were the right encapsulation bears the potential to make your life so much easier. For instance, with this piece of code you can easily launch two computations in parallel, and have the results returned in a tuple.

import Foundation

func parallel<T, U>(_ left: @autoclosure () -> T, _ right: @autoclosure () -> U) -> (T, U) {
    var leftRes: T?
    var rightRes: U?
    
    DispatchQueue.concurrentPerform(iterations: 2, execute: { id in
        if id == 0 {
            leftRes = left()
        } else {
            rightRes = right()
        }
    })
    
    return (leftRes!, rightRes!)
}

let values = (1...100_000).map { $0 }

let results = parallel(values.map { $0 * $0 }, values.reduce(0, +))

Making good use of #file, #line and #function

Swift exposes three special variables #file, #line and #function, that are respectively set to the name of the current file, line and function. Those variables become very useful when writing custom logging functions or test predicates.

import Foundation

func log(_ message: String, _ file: String = #file, _ line: Int = #line, _ function: String = #function) {
    print("[\(file):\(line)] \(function) - \(message)")
}

func foo() {
    log("Hello world!")
}

foo() // [MyPlayground.playground:8] foo() - Hello world!

Comparing Optionals through Conditional Conformance

Swift 4.1 has introduced a new feature called Conditional Conformance, which allows a type to implement a protocol only when its generic type also does.

With this addition it becomes easy to let Optional implement Comparable only when Wrapped also implements Comparable:

import Foundation

extension Optional: Comparable where Wrapped: Comparable {
    public static func < (lhs: Optional, rhs: Optional) -> Bool {
        switch (lhs, rhs) {
        case let (lhs?, rhs?):
            return lhs < rhs
        case (nil, _?):
            return true // anything is greater than nil
        case (_?, nil):
            return false // nil in smaller than anything
        case (nil, nil):
            return true // nil is not smaller than itself
        }
    }
}

let data: [Int?] = [8, 4, 3, nil, 12, 4, 2, nil, -5]
data.sorted() // [nil, nil, Optional(-5), Optional(2), Optional(3), Optional(4), Optional(4), Optional(8), Optional(12)]

Safely subscripting a Collection

Any attempt to access an Array beyond its bounds will result in a crash. While it's possible to write conditions such as if index < array.count { array[index] } in order to prevent such crashes, this approach will rapidly become cumbersome.

A great thing is that this condition can be encapsulated in a custom subscript that will work on any Collection:

import Foundation

extension Collection {
    subscript (safe index: Index) -> Element? {
        return indices.contains(index) ? self[index] : nil
    }
}

let data = [1, 3, 4]

data[safe: 1] // Optional(3)
data[safe: 10] // nil

Easier String slicing using ranges

Subscripting a string with a range can be very cumbersome in Swift 4. Let's face it, no one wants to write lines like someString[index(startIndex, offsetBy: 0)..<index(startIndex, offsetBy: 10)] on a regular basis.

Luckily, with the addition of one clever extension, strings can be sliced as easily as arrays 🎉

import Foundation

extension String {
    public subscript(value: CountableClosedRange<Int>) -> Substring {
        get {
            return self[index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.lowerBound)...index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.upperBound)]
        }
    }
    
    public subscript(value: CountableRange<Int>) -> Substring {
        get {
            return self[index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.lowerBound)..<index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.upperBound)]
        }
    }
    
    public subscript(value: PartialRangeUpTo<Int>) -> Substring {
        get {
            return self[..<index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.upperBound)]
        }
    }
    
    public subscript(value: PartialRangeThrough<Int>) -> Substring {
        get {
            return self[...index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.upperBound)]
        }
    }
    
    public subscript(value: PartialRangeFrom<Int>) -> Substring {
        get {
            return self[index(startIndex, offsetBy: value.lowerBound)...]
        }
    }
}

let data = "This is a string!"

data[..<4]  // "This"
data[5..<9] // "is a"
data[10...] // "string!"

Concise syntax for sorting using a KeyPath

By using a KeyPath along with a generic type, a very clean and concise syntax for sorting data can be implemented:

import Foundation

extension Sequence {
    func sorted<T: Comparable>(by attribute: KeyPath<Element, T>) -> [Element] {
        return sorted(by: { $0[keyPath: attribute] < $1[keyPath: attribute] })
    }
}

let data = ["Some", "words", "of", "different", "lengths"]

data.sorted(by: \.count) // ["of", "Some", "words", "lengths", "different"]

If you like this syntax, make sure to checkout KeyPathKit!

Manufacturing cache-efficient versions of pure functions

By capturing a local variable in a returned closure, it is possible to manufacture cache-efficient versions of pure functions. Be careful though, this trick only works with non-recursive function!

import Foundation

func cached<In: Hashable, Out>(_ f: @escaping (In) -> Out) -> (In) -> Out {
    var cache = [In: Out]()
    
    return { (input: In) -> Out in
        if let cachedValue = cache[input] {
            return cachedValue
        } else {
            let result = f(input)
            cache[input] = result
            return result
        }
    }
}

let cachedCos = cached { (x: Double) in cos(x) }

cachedCos(.pi * 2) // value of cos for 2π is now cached

Simplifying complex conditions with pattern matching

When distinguishing between complex boolean conditions, using a switch statement along with pattern matching can be more readable than the classic series of if {} else if {}.

import Foundation

let expr1: Bool
let expr2: Bool
let expr3: Bool

if expr1 && !expr3 {
    functionA()
} else if !expr2 && expr3 {
    functionB()
} else if expr1 && !expr2 && expr3 {
    functionC()
}

switch (expr1, expr2, expr3) {
    
case (true, _, false):
    functionA()
case (_, false, true):
    functionB()
case (true, false, true):
    functionC()
default:
    break
}

Easily generating arrays of data

Using map() on a range makes it easy to generate an array of data.

import Foundation

func randomInt() -> Int { return Int(arc4random()) }

let randomArray = (1...10).map { _ in randomInt() }

Using @autoclosure for cleaner call sites

Using @autoclosure enables the compiler to automatically wrap an argument within a closure, thus allowing for a very clean syntax at call sites.

import UIKit

extension UIView {
    class func animate(withDuration duration: TimeInterval, _ animations: @escaping @autoclosure () -> Void) {
        UIView.animate(withDuration: duration, animations: animations)
    }
}

let view = UIView()

UIView.animate(withDuration: 0.3, view.backgroundColor = .orange)

Observing new and old value with RxSwift

When working with RxSwift, it's very easy to observe both the current and previous value of an observable sequence by simply introducing a shift using skip().

import RxSwift

let values = Observable.of(4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42)

let newAndOld = Observable.zip(values, values.skip(1)) { (previous: $0, current: $1) }
    .subscribe(onNext: { pair in
        print("current: \(pair.current) - previous: \(pair.previous)")
    })

//current: 8 - previous: 4
//current: 15 - previous: 8
//current: 16 - previous: 15
//current: 23 - previous: 16
//current: 42 - previous: 23

Implicit initialization from literal values

Using protocols such as ExpressibleByStringLiteral it is possible to provide an init that will be automatically when a literal value is provided, allowing for nice and short syntax. This can be very helpful when writing mock or test data.

import Foundation

extension URL: ExpressibleByStringLiteral {
    public init(stringLiteral value: String) {
        self.init(string: value)!
    }
}

let url: URL = "http://www.google.fr"

NSURLConnection.canHandle(URLRequest(url: "http://www.google.fr"))

Achieving systematic validation of data

Through some clever use of Swift private visibility it is possible to define a container that holds any untrusted value (such as a user input) from which the only way to retrieve the value is by making it successfully pass a validation test.

import Foundation

struct Untrusted<T> {
    private(set) var value: T
}

protocol Validator {
    associatedtype T
    static func validation(value: T) -> Bool
}

extension Validator {
    static func validate(untrusted: Untrusted<T>) -> T? {
        if self.validation(value: untrusted.value) {
            return untrusted.value
        } else {
            return nil
        }
    }
}

struct FrenchPhoneNumberValidator: Validator {
    static func validation(value: String) -> Bool {
       return (value.count) == 10 && CharacterSet(charactersIn: value).isSubset(of: CharacterSet.decimalDigits)
    }
}

let validInput = Untrusted(value: "0122334455")
let invalidInput = Untrusted(value: "0123")

FrenchPhoneNumberValidator.validate(untrusted: validInput) // returns "0122334455"
FrenchPhoneNumberValidator.validate(untrusted: invalidInput) // returns nil

Implementing the builder pattern with keypaths

With the addition of keypaths in Swift 4, it is now possible to easily implement the builder pattern, that allows the developer to clearly separate the code that initializes a value from the code that uses it, without the burden of defining a factory method.

import UIKit

protocol With {}

extension With where Self: AnyObject {
    @discardableResult
    func with<T>(_ property: ReferenceWritableKeyPath<Self, T>, setTo value: T) -> Self {
        self[keyPath: property] = value
        return self
    }
}

extension UIView: With {}

let view = UIView()

let label = UILabel()
    .with(\.textColor, setTo: .red)
    .with(\.text, setTo: "Foo")
    .with(\.textAlignment, setTo: .right)
    .with(\.layer.cornerRadius, setTo: 5)

view.addSubview(label)

🚨 The Swift compiler does not perform OS availability checks on properties referenced by keypaths. Any attempt to use a KeyPath for an unavailable property will result in a runtime crash.

I share the credit for this tip with Marion Curtil.

Storing functions rather than values

When a type stores values for the sole purpose of parametrizing its functions, it’s then possible to not store the values but directly the function, with no discernable difference at the call site.

import Foundation

struct MaxValidator {
    let max: Int
    let strictComparison: Bool
    
    func isValid(_ value: Int) -> Bool {
        return self.strictComparison ? value < self.max : value <= self.max
    }
}

struct MaxValidator2 {
    var isValid: (_ value: Int) -> Bool
    
    init(max: Int, strictComparison: Bool) {
        self.isValid = strictComparison ? { $0 < max } : { $0 <= max }
    }
}

MaxValidator(max: 5, strictComparison: true).isValid(5) // false
MaxValidator2(max: 5, strictComparison: false).isValid(5) // true

Defining operators on function types

Functions are first-class citizen types in Swift, so it is perfectly legal to define operators for them.

import Foundation

let firstRange = { (0...3).contains($0) }
let secondRange = { (5...6).contains($0) }

func ||(_ lhs: @escaping (Int) -> Bool, _ rhs: @escaping (Int) -> Bool) -> (Int) -> Bool {
    return { value in
        return lhs(value) || rhs(value)
    }
}

(firstRange || secondRange)(2) // true
(firstRange || secondRange)(4) // false
(firstRange || secondRange)(6) // true

Typealiases for functions

Typealiases are great to express function signatures in a more comprehensive manner, which then enables us to easily define functions that operate on them, resulting in a nice way to write and use some powerful API.

import Foundation

typealias RangeSet = (Int) -> Bool

func union(_ left: @escaping RangeSet, _ right: @escaping RangeSet) -> RangeSet {
    return { left($0) || right($0) }
}

let firstRange = { (0...3).contains($0) }
let secondRange = { (5...6).contains($0) }

let unionRange = union(firstRange, secondRange)

unionRange(2) // true
unionRange(4) // false

Encapsulating state within a function

By returning a closure that captures a local variable, it's possible to encapsulate a mutable state within a function.

import Foundation

func counterFactory() -> () -> Int {
    var counter = 0
    
    return {
        counter += 1
        return counter
    }
}

let counter = counterFactory()

counter() // returns 1
counter() // returns 2

Generating all cases for an Enum

⚠️ Since Swift 4.2, allCases can now be synthesized at compile-time by simply conforming to the protocol CaseIterable. The implementation below should no longer be used in production code.

Through some clever leveraging of how enums are stored in memory, it is possible to generate an array that contains all the possible cases of an enum. This can prove particularly useful when writing unit tests that consume random data.

import Foundation

enum MyEnum { case first; case second; case third; case fourth }

protocol EnumCollection: Hashable {
    static var allCases: [Self] { get }
}

extension EnumCollection {
    public static var allCases: [Self] {
        var i = 0
        return Array(AnyIterator {
            let next = withUnsafePointer(to: &i) {
                $0.withMemoryRebound(to: Self.self, capacity: 1) { $0.pointee }
            }
            if next.hashValue != i { return nil }
            i += 1
            return next
        })
    }
}

extension MyEnum: EnumCollection { }

MyEnum.allCases // [.first, .second, .third, .fourth]

Using map on optional values

The if-let syntax is a great way to deal with optional values in a safe manner, but at times it can prove to be just a little bit to cumbersome. In such cases, using the Optional.map() function is a nice way to achieve a shorter code while retaining safeness and readability.

import UIKit

let date: Date? = Date() // or could be nil, doesn't matter
let formatter = DateFormatter()
let label = UILabel()

if let safeDate = date {
    label.text = formatter.string(from: safeDate)
}

label.text = date.map { return formatter.string(from: $0) }

label.text = date.map(formatter.string(from:)) // even shorter, tough less readable

📣 NEW 📣 Swift Tips are now available on YouTube 👇

Summary

Tips


Download Details:

Author: vincent-pradeilles
Source code: https://github.com/vincent-pradeilles/swift-tips

License: MIT license
#swift 

Bongani  Ngema

Bongani Ngema

1670346000

How to Create & Add Content - Images, Text To Modern SharePoint Pages

Description

Requirement is to create Modern pages with content, which includes images and text. 

The Content is in SharePoint List. The pages are created from a Page Template.

To get Text part from Page template, use below PowerShell,

#get page textpart instance id
$parts=Get-PnPPageComponent -Page <pagename.aspx>

Execute the below PowerShell to create pages with HTML content from SharePoint List.

$logFile = "Logs\LogFile.log"
Start - Transcript - Path $logFile - Append
#Variables
$libName = "Site Pages"
$siteURL = "https://tenant.sharepoint.com/"
$contentType = "Group and Division Page"
$listname = "Content"
$sectionCategoy = "Our organisation"
#End
Try {
    #Connect to PnP Online
    $connection = Connect - PnPOnline - Url $siteURL - UseWebLogin - ReturnConnection - WarningAction Ignore
    #Get items from Content list
    $items = Get - PnPListItem - List $listName - PageSize 100
    foreach($item in $items) {
        if ($null - ne $item["Title"] - and $null - ne $item["Content"]) {
            #Get Page webparts instance Id
            #$parts = Get - PnPPageComponent - Page PageTemplate.aspx
            # load the page template
            $template = Get - PnPClientSidePage - Identity "Templates/Division-page-template"
            #Get page name
            $fullFileName = $item["Title"].Replace(" ", "_") + ".aspx"
            #Create fileURL
            $fileURL = $siteURL + $libName + "/" + $fullFileName
            # save a new SharePoint Page based on the Page Template
            $template.Save($fullFileName)
            $page = Get - PnPPage - Identity $fullFileName
            $htmlToInject = $item["Content"]
            $htmlToInject = $htmlToInject.TrimStart('{"Html":"').TrimEnd('"}') - replace([regex]::Escape('\n')), '' - replace([regex]::Escape('<a href=\')),' < a href = ' -replace ([regex]:: Escape('\
                        ">')),'" > ' -replace ([regex]::Escape(' & bull; % 09 ')),'
                        ' -replace '
                        https:
                        /*','https://'
            #Set PnP Page Text

            Set-PnPPageTextPart -Page $page -InstanceId "9fab3ce6-0638-4008-a9b9-cf2b784245b5" -Text $htmlToInject


            #publish page
            Set-PnPPage -Identity $fullFileName -Title $item["Title"] -ContentType $contentType -Publish

            #get site pages library
            $sitepagelist= Get-PnPList -Identity 'Site Pages'
            #get page Id and page Item to update section category
            $pageItem=Get-PnPListItem -List $sitepagelist -Id $page.PageId
            Set-PnPListItem -Values @{"SectionCategory" = $sectionCategoy} -List $sitepagelist -Identity $pageItem

        }
        else
        {
            Write-Host "Title or Content has no value"
        }
    }
}
Catch {
    Write-Host "Error: $($_.Exception.Message)" -Foregroundcolor Red
}
Stop-Transcript

Original article source at: https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/

#sharepoint #image #text