Fikru Abraham

Fikru Abraham

1612016400

How to Create a Wheel File for your Python Package and import it in Another Project

When you use pip to install modules or packages, you must have unknowingly installed a few wheel files as well. A wheel file is similar to a zip file in many ways, you compress all your python files and dependencies into a single file. You can use this file in different projects or the cloud. Installing a wheel file is as simples as installing a package using pip. They can also be helpful when you are collaborating with others or when you need to deploy your projects.

Setup Virtual Environment

pip install virtualenv /* Install virtual environment */
virtualenv venv /* Create a virtual environment */
venv/Scripts/activate /* Activate the virtual environment */

File Structure

Image for post

Ensure your python files are inside a single folder. The name of the folder will be the name you will use in ‘ import ‘ statements in other projects. You can also have sub-folders inside. The setup.py file must be outside your package folder and must be at the same level as the venv folder and the testWheel folder.

#python3 #python

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

How to Create a Wheel File for your Python Package and import it in Another Project
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619518440

top 30 Python Tips and Tricks for Beginners

Welcome to my Blog , In this article, you are going to learn the top 10 python tips and tricks.

1) swap two numbers.

2) Reversing a string in Python.

3) Create a single string from all the elements in list.

4) Chaining Of Comparison Operators.

5) Print The File Path Of Imported Modules.

6) Return Multiple Values From Functions.

7) Find The Most Frequent Value In A List.

8) Check The Memory Usage Of An Object.

#python #python hacks tricks #python learning tips #python programming tricks #python tips #python tips and tricks #python tips and tricks advanced #python tips and tricks for beginners #python tips tricks and techniques #python tutorial #tips and tricks in python #tips to learn python #top 30 python tips and tricks for beginners

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619636760

42 Exciting Python Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners [2021]

Python Project Ideas

Python is one of the most popular programming languages currently. It looks like this trend is about to continue in 2021 and beyond. So, if you are a Python beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Python project ideas.

We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Python project ideas which beginners can work on to put their Python knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 42 top python project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on Python

Moreover, project-based learning helps improve student knowledge. That’s why all of the upGrad courses cover case studies and assignments based on real-life problems. This technique is ideally for, but not limited to, beginners in programming skills.

But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind:

#data science #python project #python project ideas #python project ideas for beginners #python project topics #python projects #python projects for beginners

React Native Bridge for AppAuth

React Native App Auth

React native bridge for AppAuth - an SDK for communicating with OAuth2 providers 

This versions supports react-native@0.63+. The last pre-0.63 compatible version is v5.1.3.

React Native bridge for AppAuth-iOS and AppAuth-Android SDKS for communicating with OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect providers.

This library should support any OAuth provider that implements the OAuth2 spec.

We only support the Authorization Code Flow.

Why you may want to use this library

AppAuth is a mature OAuth client implementation that follows the best practices set out in RFC 8252 - OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps including using SFAuthenticationSession and SFSafariViewController on iOS, and Custom Tabs on Android. WebViews are explicitly not supported due to the security and usability reasons explained in Section 8.12 of RFC 8252.

AppAuth also supports the PKCE ("Pixy") extension to OAuth which was created to secure authorization codes in public clients when custom URI scheme redirects are used.

To learn more, read this short introduction to OAuth and PKCE on the Formidable blog.

Supported methods

See Usage for example configurations, and the included Example application for a working sample.

authorize

This is the main function to use for authentication. Invoking this function will do the whole login flow and returns the access token, refresh token and access token expiry date when successful, or it throws an error when not successful.

import { authorize } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],
};

const result = await authorize(config);

prefetchConfiguration

ANDROID This will prefetch the authorization service configuration. Invoking this function is optional and will speed up calls to authorize. This is only supported on Android.

import { prefetchConfiguration } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  warmAndPrefetchChrome: true,
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],
};

prefetchConfiguration(config);

config

This is your configuration object for the client. The config is passed into each of the methods with optional overrides.

  • issuer - (string) base URI of the authentication server. If no serviceConfiguration (below) is provided, issuer is a mandatory field, so that the configuration can be fetched from the issuer's OIDC discovery endpoint.
  • serviceConfiguration - (object) you may manually configure token exchange endpoints in cases where the issuer does not support the OIDC discovery protocol, or simply to avoid an additional round trip to fetch the configuration. If no issuer (above) is provided, the service configuration is mandatory.
    • authorizationEndpoint - (string) REQUIRED fully formed url to the OAuth authorization endpoint
    • tokenEndpoint - (string) REQUIRED fully formed url to the OAuth token exchange endpoint
    • revocationEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to the OAuth token revocation endpoint. If you want to be able to revoke a token and no issuer is specified, this field is mandatory.
    • registrationEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to your OAuth/OpenID Connect registration endpoint. Only necessary for servers that require client registration.
    • endSessionEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to your OpenID Connect end session endpoint. If you want to be able to end a user's session and no issuer is specified, this field is mandatory.
  • clientId - (string) REQUIRED your client id on the auth server
  • clientSecret - (string) client secret to pass to token exchange requests. :warning: Read more about client secrets
  • redirectUrl - (string) REQUIRED the url that links back to your app with the auth code
  • scopes - (array<string>) the scopes for your token, e.g. ['email', 'offline_access'].
  • additionalParameters - (object) additional parameters that will be passed in the authorization request. Must be string values! E.g. setting additionalParameters: { hello: 'world', foo: 'bar' } would add hello=world&foo=bar to the authorization request.
  • clientAuthMethod - (string) ANDROID Client Authentication Method. Can be either basic (default) for Basic Authentication or post for HTTP POST body Authentication
  • dangerouslyAllowInsecureHttpRequests - (boolean) ANDROID whether to allow requests over plain HTTP or with self-signed SSL certificates. :warning: Can be useful for testing against local server, should not be used in production. This setting has no effect on iOS; to enable insecure HTTP requests, add a NSExceptionAllowsInsecureHTTPLoads exception to your App Transport Security settings.
  • customHeaders - (object) ANDROID you can specify custom headers to pass during authorize request and/or token request.
    • authorize - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during authorization request.
    • token - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during token retrieval request.
    • register - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during registration request.
  • additionalHeaders - ({ [key: string]: value }) IOS you can specify additional headers to be passed for all authorize, refresh, and register requests.
  • useNonce - (boolean) (default: true) optionally allows not sending the nonce parameter, to support non-compliant providers
  • usePKCE - (boolean) (default: true) optionally allows not sending the code_challenge parameter and skipping PKCE code verification, to support non-compliant providers.
  • skipCodeExchange - (boolean) (default: false) just return the authorization response, instead of automatically exchanging the authorization code. This is useful if this exchange needs to be done manually (not client-side)
  • connectionTimeoutSeconds - (number) configure the request timeout interval in seconds. This must be a positive number. The default values are 60 seconds on iOS and 15 seconds on Android.

result

This is the result from the auth server:

  • accessToken - (string) the access token
  • accessTokenExpirationDate - (string) the token expiration date
  • authorizeAdditionalParameters - (Object) additional url parameters from the authorizationEndpoint response.
  • tokenAdditionalParameters - (Object) additional url parameters from the tokenEndpoint response.
  • idToken - (string) the id token
  • refreshToken - (string) the refresh token
  • tokenType - (string) the token type, e.g. Bearer
  • scopes - ([string]) the scopes the user has agreed to be granted
  • authorizationCode - (string) the authorization code (only if skipCodeExchange=true)
  • codeVerifier - (string) the codeVerifier value used for the PKCE exchange (only if both skipCodeExchange=true and usePKCE=true)

refresh

This method will refresh the accessToken using the refreshToken. Some auth providers will also give you a new refreshToken

import { refresh } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],
};

const result = await refresh(config, {
  refreshToken: `<REFRESH_TOKEN>`,
});

revoke

This method will revoke a token. The tokenToRevoke can be either an accessToken or a refreshToken

import { revoke } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],
};

const result = await revoke(config, {
  tokenToRevoke: `<TOKEN_TO_REVOKE>`,
  includeBasicAuth: true,
  sendClientId: true,
});

logout

This method will logout a user, as per the OpenID Connect RP Initiated Logout specification. It requires an idToken, obtained after successfully authenticating with OpenID Connect, and a URL to redirect back after the logout has been performed.

import { logout } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
};

const result = await logout(config, {
  idToken: '<ID_TOKEN>',
  postLogoutRedirectUrl: '<POST_LOGOUT_URL>',
});

register

This will perform dynamic client registration on the given provider. If the provider supports dynamic client registration, it will generate a clientId for you to use in subsequent calls to this library.

import { register } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const registerConfig = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  redirectUrls: ['<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>', '<YOUR_OTHER_REDIRECT_URL>'],
};

const registerResult = await register(registerConfig);

registerConfig

  • issuer - (string) same as in authorization config
  • serviceConfiguration - (object) same as in authorization config
  • redirectUrls - (array<string>) REQUIRED specifies all of the redirect urls that your client will use for authentication
  • responseTypes - (array<string>) an array that specifies which OAuth 2.0 response types your client will use. The default value is ['code']
  • grantTypes - (array<string>) an array that specifies which OAuth 2.0 grant types your client will use. The default value is ['authorization_code']
  • subjectType - (string) requests a specific subject type for your client
  • tokenEndpointAuthMethod (string) specifies which clientAuthMethod your client will use for authentication. The default value is 'client_secret_basic'
  • additionalParameters - (object) additional parameters that will be passed in the registration request. Must be string values! E.g. setting additionalParameters: { hello: 'world', foo: 'bar' } would add hello=world&foo=bar to the authorization request.
  • dangerouslyAllowInsecureHttpRequests - (boolean) ANDROID same as in authorization config
  • customHeaders - (object) ANDROID same as in authorization config
  • connectionTimeoutSeconds - (number) configure the request timeout interval in seconds. This must be a positive number. The default values are 60 seconds on iOS and 15 seconds on Android.

registerResult

This is the result from the auth server

  • clientId - (string) the assigned client id
  • clientIdIssuedAt - (string) OPTIONAL date string of when the client id was issued
  • clientSecret - (string) OPTIONAL the assigned client secret
  • clientSecretExpiresAt - (string) date string of when the client secret expires, which will be provided if clientSecret is provided. If new Date(clientSecretExpiresAt).getTime() === 0, then the secret never expires
  • registrationClientUri - (string) OPTIONAL uri that can be used to perform subsequent operations on the registration
  • registrationAccessToken - (string) token that can be used at the endpoint given by registrationClientUri to perform subsequent operations on the registration. Will be provided if registrationClientUri is provided

Getting started

npm install react-native-app-auth --save

Setup

iOS Setup

To setup the iOS project, you need to perform three steps:

  1. Install native dependencies
  2. Register redirect URL scheme
  3. Define openURL callback in AppDelegate

Install native dependencies

This library depends on the native AppAuth-ios project. To keep the React Native library agnostic of your dependency management method, the native libraries are not distributed as part of the bridge.

AppAuth supports three options for dependency management.

  1. CocoaPods
cd ios
pod install

2.   Carthage

With Carthage, add the following line to your Cartfile:

github "openid/AppAuth-iOS" "master"

Then run carthage update --platform iOS.

Drag and drop AppAuth.framework from ios/Carthage/Build/iOS under Frameworks in Xcode.

Add a copy files build step for AppAuth.framework: open Build Phases on Xcode, add a new "Copy Files" phase, choose "Frameworks" as destination, add AppAuth.framework and ensure "Code Sign on Copy" is checked.

3.   Static Library

You can also use AppAuth-iOS as a static library. This requires linking the library and your project and including the headers. Suggested configuration:

  1. Create an XCode Workspace.
  2. Add AppAuth.xcodeproj to your Workspace.
  3. Include libAppAuth as a linked library for your target (in the "General -> Linked Framework and Libraries" section of your target).
  4. Add AppAuth-iOS/Source to your search paths of your target ("Build Settings -> "Header Search Paths").

Register redirect URL scheme

If you intend to support iOS 10 and older, you need to define the supported redirect URL schemes in your Info.plist as follows:

<key>CFBundleURLTypes</key>
<array>
  <dict>
    <key>CFBundleURLName</key>
    <string>com.your.app.identifier</string>
    <key>CFBundleURLSchemes</key>
    <array>
      <string>io.identityserver.demo</string>
    </array>
  </dict>
</array>
  • CFBundleURLName is any globally unique string. A common practice is to use your app identifier.
  • CFBundleURLSchemes is an array of URL schemes your app needs to handle. The scheme is the beginning of your OAuth Redirect URL, up to the scheme separator (:) character. E.g. if your redirect uri is com.myapp://oauth, then the url scheme will is com.myapp.

Define openURL callback in AppDelegate

You need to retain the auth session, in order to continue the authorization flow from the redirect. Follow these steps:

RNAppAuth will call on the given app's delegate via [UIApplication sharedApplication].delegate. Furthermore, RNAppAuth expects the delegate instance to conform to the protocol RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager. Make AppDelegate conform to RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager with the following changes to AppDelegate.h:

+ #import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h"

- @interface AppDelegate : UIResponder <UIApplicationDelegate, RCTBridgeDelegate>
+ @interface AppDelegate : UIResponder <UIApplicationDelegate, RCTBridgeDelegate, RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager>

+ @property(nonatomic, weak)id<RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManagerDelegate>authorizationFlowManagerDelegate;

Add the following code to AppDelegate.m (to support iOS <= 10 and React Navigation deep linking)

+ - (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)app openURL:(NSURL *)url options:(NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *) options {
+  if ([self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL:url]) {
+    return YES;
+  }
+  return [RCTLinkingManager application:app openURL:url options:options];
+ }

If you want to support universal links, add the following to AppDelegate.m under continueUserActivity

+ if ([userActivity.activityType isEqualToString:NSUserActivityTypeBrowsingWeb]) {
+   if (self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate) {
+     BOOL resumableAuth = [self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL:userActivity.webpageURL];
+     if (resumableAuth) {
+       return YES;
+     }
+   }
+ }

Integration of the library with a Swift iOS project

The approach mentioned should work with Swift. In this case one should make AppDelegate conform to RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager. Note that this is not tested/guaranteed by the maintainers.

Steps:

  1. swift-Bridging-Header.h should include a reference to #import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h, like so:
#import <React/RCTBundleURLProvider.h>
#import <React/RCTRootView.h>
#import <React/RCTBridgeDelegate.h>
#import <React/RCTBridge.h>
#import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h" // <-- Add this header
#if DEBUG
#import <FlipperKit/FlipperClient.h>
// etc...

2.   AppDelegate.swift should implement the RNAppAuthorizationFlowManager protocol and have a handler for url deep linking. The result should look something like this:

@UIApplicationMain
class AppDelegate: UIApplicationDelegate, RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager { //<-- note the additional RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager protocol
  public weak var authorizationFlowManagerDelegate: RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManagerDelegate? // <-- this property is required by the protocol
  //"open url" delegate function for managing deep linking needs to call the resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL method
  func application(
      _ app: UIApplication,
      open url: URL,
      options: [UIApplicationOpenURLOptionsKey: Any] = [:]) -> Bool {
      return authorizationFlowManagerDelegate?.resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL(with: url) ?? false
  }
}

Android Setup

Note: for RN >= 0.57, you will get a warning about compile being obsolete. To get rid of this warning, use patch-package to replace compile with implementation as in this PR - we're not deploying this right now, because it would break the build for RN < 57.

To setup the Android project, you need to add redirect scheme manifest placeholder:

To capture the authorization redirect, add the following property to the defaultConfig in android/app/build.gradle:

android {
  defaultConfig {
    manifestPlaceholders = [
      appAuthRedirectScheme: 'io.identityserver.demo'
    ]
  }
}

The scheme is the beginning of your OAuth Redirect URL, up to the scheme separator (:) character. E.g. if your redirect uri is com.myapp://oauth, then the url scheme will is com.myapp. The scheme must be in lowercase.

NOTE: When integrating with React Navigation deep linking, be sure to make this scheme (and the scheme in the config's redirectUrl) unique from the scheme defined in the deep linking intent-filter. E.g. if the scheme in your intent-filter is set to com.myapp, then update the above scheme/redirectUrl to be com.myapp.auth as seen here.

Usage

import { authorize } from 'react-native-app-auth';

// base config
const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPE_ARRAY>'],
};

// use the client to make the auth request and receive the authState
try {
  const result = await authorize(config);
  // result includes accessToken, accessTokenExpirationDate and refreshToken
} catch (error) {
  console.log(error);
}

Error messages

Values are in the code field of the rejected Error object.

  • OAuth Authorization error codes
  • OAuth Access Token error codes
  • OpendID Connect Registration error codes
  • service_configuration_fetch_error - could not fetch the service configuration
  • authentication_failed - user authentication failed
  • token_refresh_failed - could not exchange the refresh token for a new JWT
  • registration_failed - could not register
  • browser_not_found (Android only) - no suitable browser installed

Note about client secrets

Some authentication providers, including examples cited below, require you to provide a client secret. The authors of the AppAuth library

strongly recommend you avoid using static client secrets in your native applications whenever possible. Client secrets derived via a dynamic client registration are safe to use, but static client secrets can be easily extracted from your apps and allow others to impersonate your app and steal user data. If client secrets must be used by the OAuth2 provider you are integrating with, we strongly recommend performing the code exchange step on your backend, where the client secret can be kept hidden.

Having said this, in some cases using client secrets is unavoidable. In these cases, a clientSecret parameter can be provided to authorize/refresh calls when performing a token request.

Token Storage

Recommendations on secure token storage can be found here.

Maintenance Status

Active: Formidable is actively working on this project, and we expect to continue for work for the foreseeable future. Bug reports, feature requests and pull requests are welcome.

Tested OpenID providers

These providers are OpenID compliant, which means you can use autodiscovery.

Tested OAuth2 providers

These providers implement the OAuth2 spec, but are not OpenID providers, which means you must configure the authorization and token endpoints yourself.

Download Details:
Author: FormidableLabs
Source Code: https://github.com/FormidableLabs/react-native-app-auth
License: MIT License

#react  #reactnative  #mobileapp #javascript #java 

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619510796

Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

August  Larson

August Larson

1624286340

Python for Beginners #2 — Importing files to python with pandas

Use pandas to upload CSV, TXT and Excel files

Story time before we begin

Learning Python isn’t the easiest thing to do. But consistency is really the key to arriving at a level that boosts your career.

We hear a lot about millennials wanting things to easy. In reality, there are a lot of young professionals who believe that they can do more for their companies but are being held back by the work cultures they are faced with at the onset of their careers.

Having been lucky enough to have found a job after my studies, I remember immediately feeling a wave of disappointment a very short while after starting my new job. I felt like a cog in a massive machine. I wasn’t really anything other than a ‘resource’. An extra 8–15 hours of daily man power depending on my boss’ whim.

The result, was the eventual disenchantment and lack of motivation simply because, for the most part, I was expected to be quiet and do my job in the hope of one day being senior enough to effect significant changes. And while the older generation would generally tell me to suck it up, I couldn’t see myself sucking it up for 5 years or more. I knew I’d get stale and afraid of change, much like those telling me to stay in my place.

For anyone in a similar situation,**_ do your best to improve on your skills _**and find an environment that works for you. That’s the whole purpose of these articles. To get you on your way to freedom.

Introduction

For this demonstration, I’ll use data from this Kaggle competition. It’s a simple CSV file containing data on individuals in the Titanic and the different profiles i.e. (age, marital status etc.)

I want to import this file to python. I’ll show you how to do this alongside all the possible troubleshoots you may encounter.

Table of Contents

  1. Where should you put your files?
  2. Reading CSV and TXT files
  3. Reading excel (XLSX) files

#python #programming #pandas #python for beginners #importing files to python with pandas #python for beginners #2 — importing files to python with pandas