Blair Kemmer

Blair Kemmer

1607485320

How to Add a Domain Name (with SSL) to an App Running on Zeet (for NodeJs, ReactJs, NextJs, etc)

In this video you will learn how to add a domain name to an app running on Zeet Platform in 60 seconds or less 😊.

Zeet includes the following benefits:

  1. SSL Always
  2. Load balancing
  3. Global CDN
  4. Auto CI/CD
  5. Zero configuration
  6. Burstable CPU
  7. A lot more…

#node #react #next #javascript #web-development

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How to Add a Domain Name (with SSL) to an App Running on Zeet (for NodeJs, ReactJs, NextJs, etc)
Kiera Smart

Kiera Smart

1584696569

Everything you should know about JavaScript Classes

Class in Javascript is a type of function, but instead of initializing it with the function keyword, the class keyword is used. This post familiarizes you with JavaScript classes: how to define a class, initialize the instance, define fields and methods, understand the private and public fields, grasp the static fields and methods.

Classes are a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming, and they are used in many programming languages, but it wasn’t like this in Javascript. Until ECMAScript2015, known as ES6, classes didn’t exist in JS. In 2015 with the update classes were introduced as syntactic sugar for the existing prototype inheritance model. What classes bring is a more comfortable and more readable syntax for objects and inheritance.

Table of Contents

1. Definition: class keyword

2. Initialization: constructor()

3. Fields

  • 3.1 Public instance fields
  • 3.2 Private instance fields
  • 3.3 Public static fields
  • 3.4 Private static fields

4. Methods

  • 4.1 Instance methods
  • 4.2 Getters and setters
  • 4.3 Static methods

5. Inheritance: extends

  • 5.1 Parent constructor: super() in constructor()
  • 5.2 Parent instance: super in methods

6. Object type checking: instanceof

7. Classes and prototypes

8. Class features availability

9. Conclusion


The Complete Guide to JavaScript Classes

1. Definition: class keyword

The special keyword class defines a class in JavaScript:

class User {
  // The body of class
}

The code above defines a class User. The curly braces { } delimit the class body. Note that this syntax is named class declaration.

You’re not obligated to indicate the class name. By using a class expression you can assign the class to a variable:

const UserClass = class {
  // The body of class
};

You can easily export a class as part of an ES2015 module. Here’s the syntax for a default export:

export default class User {
 // The body of class
}

And a named export:

export class User {
  // The body of class
}

The class becomes useful when you create an instance of the class. An instance is an object containing data and behavior described by the class.
JavaScript class instances

The new operator instantiates the class in JavaScript: instance = new Class().

For example, you can instantiate the User class using the new operator:

const myUser = new User();

new User() creates an instance of the User class.

2. Initialization: constructor()

constructor(param1, param2, ...) is a special method in the body of a class that initializes the instance. That’s the place where you set the initial values for the fields, or do any kind of object setup.

In the following example the constructor sets the initial value of the field name:

class User {
  constructor(name) {    this.name = name;  }}

User’s constructor has one parameter name, which is used to set the initial value of the field this.name.

Inside the constructor this value equals to the newly created instance.

The arguments used to instantiate the class become the parameters of the constructor:

class User {
  constructor(name) {
    name; // => 'Jon Snow'    this.name = name;
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');

name parameter inside the constructor has the value 'Jon Snow'.

If you don’t define a constructor for the class, a default one is created. The default constructor is an empty function, which doesn’t modify the instance.

At the same time, a JavaScript class can have up to one constructor.

3. Fields

Class fields are variables that hold information. Fields can be attached to 2 entities:

  1. Fields on the class instance
  2. Fields on the class itself (aka static)

The fields also have 2 levels of accessibility:

  1. Public: the field is accessible anywhere
  2. Private: the field is accessible only within the body of the class

3.1 Public instance fields

Let’s look again at the previous code snippet:

class User {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;  }
}

The expression this.name = name creates an instance field name and assigns to it an initial value.

Later you can access name field using a property accessor:

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.name; // => 'Jon Snow'

name is a public field because you can access it outside of the User class body.

When the fields are created implicitly inside the constructor, like in the previous scenario, it could be difficult to grasp the fields list. You have to decipher them from the constructor’s code.

A better approach is to explicitly declare the class fields. No matter what constructor does, the instance always has the same set of fields.

The class fields proposal lets you define the fields inside the body of the class. Plus, you can indicate the initial value right away:

class SomeClass {
  field1;  field2 = 'Initial value';
  // ...
}

Let’s modify the User class and declare a public field name:

class User {
  name;  
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.name; // => 'Jon Snow'

name; inside the body of the class declares a public field name.

The public fields declared such a way is expressive: a quick look at the fields declarations is enough to understand the class’s data structure.

Moreover, the class field can be initialized right away at declaration.

class User {
  name = 'Unknown';
  constructor() {
    // No initialization
  }
}

const user = new User();
user.name; // => 'Unknown'

name = 'Unknown' inside the class body declares a field name and initializes it with value 'Unknown'.

There’s no restriction on access or update of the public fields. You can read and assign values to public fields inside the constructor, methods, and outside of the class.

3.2 Private instance fields

Encapsulation is an important concept that lets you hide the internal details of a class. Someone that uses an encapsulated class depends only on the public interface that the class provides, and doesn’t couple to the implementation details of the class.

Classes organized with encapsulation in mind are easier to update when implementation details change.

A good way to hide internal data of an object is to use the private fields. These are the fields that can be read and change only within the class they belong to. The outside world of the class cannot change private fields directly.

The private fields are accessible only within the body of the class.

Prefix the field name with the special symbol # to make it private, e.g. #myField. The prefix # must be kept every time you work with the field: declare it, read it, or modify it.

Let’s make sure that the field #name can be set once at the instance initialization:

class User {
  #name;
  constructor(name) {
    this.#name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.#name;
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.getName(); // => 'Jon Snow'

user.#name;     // SyntaxError is thrown

#name is a private field. You can access and modify #name within the body of the User. The method getName() (more about methods in next section) can access the private field #name.

But if you try to access the private field #name outside of User class body, a syntax error is thrown: SyntaxError: Private field '#name' must be declared in an enclosing class.

3.3 Public static fields

You can also define fields on the class itself: the static fields. These are helpful to define class constants or store information specific to the class.

To create static fields in a JavaScript class, use the special keyword static followed by the field name: static myStaticField.

Let’s add a new field type that indicates the user type: admin or regular. The static fields TYPE_ADMIN and TYPE_REGULAR are handy constants to differentiate the user types:

class User {
  static TYPE_ADMIN = 'admin';  static TYPE_REGULAR = 'regular';
  name;
  type;

  constructor(name, type) {
    this.name = name;
    this.type = type;
  }
}

const admin = new User('Site Admin', User.TYPE_ADMIN);
admin.type === User.TYPE_ADMIN; // => true

static TYPE_ADMIN and static TYPE_REGULAR define static variables inside the User class. To access the static fields, you have to use the class followed by the field name: User.TYPE_ADMIN and User.TYPE_REGULAR.

3.4 Private static fields

Sometimes even the static fields are an implementation detail that you’d like to hide. In this regard, you can make static fields private.

To make the static field private, prefix the field name with # special symbol: static #myPrivateStaticField.

Let’s say you’d like to limit the number of instances of the User class. To hide the details about instances limits, you can create the private static fields:

class User {
  static #MAX_INSTANCES = 2;  static #instances = 0;  
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    User.#instances++;
    if (User.#instances > User.#MAX_INSTANCES) {
      throw new Error('Unable to create User instance');
    }
    this.name = name;
  }
}

new User('Jon Snow');
new User('Arya Stark');
new User('Sansa Stark'); // throws Error

The static field User.#MAX_INSTANCES sets the maximum number of allowed instances, while User.#instances static field counts the actual number of instances.

These private static fields are accessible only within the User class. Nothing from the external world can interfere with the limits mechanism: that’s the benefit of encapsulation.

4. Methods

The fields hold data. But the ability to modify data is performed by special functions that are a part of the class: the methods.

The JavaScript classes support both instance and static methods.

4.1 Instance methods

Instance methods can access and modify instance data. Instance methods can call other instance methods, as well as any static method.

For example, let’s define a method getName() that returns the name in the User class:

class User {
  name = 'Unknown';

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {    return this.name;  }}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.getName(); // => 'Jon Snow'

getName() { ... } is a method inside the User class. user.getName() is a method invocation: it executes the method and returns the computed value if any.

In a class method, as well as in the constructor, this value equals to the class instance. Use this to access instance data: this.field, or even call other methods: this.method().

Let’s add a new method nameContains(str) that has one parameter and calls another method:

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }

  nameContains(str) {    return this.getName().includes(str);  }}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.nameContains('Jon');   // => true
user.nameContains('Stark'); // => false

nameContains(str) { ... } is a method of User class that accepts one parameter str. More than that, it executes another method of the instance this.getName() to get the user’s name.

A method can also be private. To make the method private prefix its name with #.

Let’s make getName() method private:

class User {
  #name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.#name = name;
  }

  #getName() {    return this.#name;  }
  nameContains(str) {
    return this.#getName().includes(str);  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.nameContains('Jon');   // => true
user.nameContains('Stark'); // => false

user.#getName(); // SyntaxError is thrown

#getName() is a private method. Inside the method nameContains(str) you call a private method such way: this.#getName().

Being private, #getName() cannot be called outside of User class body.

4.2 Getters and setters

The getter and setter mimic regular field, but with more control on how the field is accessed and changed.

The getter is executed on an attempt to get the field value, while setter on an attempt to set a value.

To make sure that the name property of the User cannot be empty, let’s wrap the private field #nameValue in a getter and setter:

class User {
  #nameValue;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  get name() {    return this.#nameValue;
  }

  set name(name) {    if (name === '') {
      throw new Error(`name field of User cannot be empty`);
    }
    this.#nameValue = name;
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
user.name; // The getter is invoked, => 'Jon Snow'
user.name = 'Jon White'; // The setter is invoked

user.name = ''; // The setter throws an Error

get name() {...} getter is executed when you access the value of the field: user.name.

While set name(name) {...} is executed when the field is updated user.name = 'Jon White'. The setter throws an error if the new value is an empty string.

4.3 Static methods

The static methods are functions attached directly to the class. They hold logic related to the class, rather than to the instance of the class.

To create a static method use the special keyword static followed by a regular method syntax: static myStaticMethod() { ... }.

When working with static methods, there are 2 simple rules to remember:

  1. A static method can access static fields
  2. A static method cannot access instance fields.

For example, let’s create a static method that detects whether a user with a specific name was already taken.

class User {
  static #takenNames = [];

  static isNameTaken(name) {    return User.#takenNames.includes(name);  }
  name = 'Unknown';

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
    User.#takenNames.push(name);
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');

User.isNameTaken('Jon Snow');   // => true
User.isNameTaken('Arya Stark'); // => false

isNameTaken() is a static method that uses the static private field User.#takenNames to check for taken names.

Static methods can be private: static #staticFunction() {...}. Again, they follow the rules of privacy: you can call a private static method only within the class body.

5. Inheritance: extends

The classes in JavaScript support single inheritance using the extends keyword.

In the expression class Child extends Parent { } the Child class inherits from Parent the constructor, fields, and methods.

For example, let’s create a new child class ContentWriter that extends the parent class User.

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

class ContentWriter extends User {  posts = [];
}

const writer = new ContentWriter('John Smith');

writer.name;      // => 'John Smith'
writer.getName(); // => 'John Smith'
writer.posts;     // => []

ContentWriter inherits from the User the constructor, the method getName() and the field name. As well, the ContentWriter class declares a new field posts.

Note that private members of a parent class are not inherited by the child class.

5.1 Parent constructor: super() in constructor()

If you’d like to call the parent constructor in a child class, you need to use the super() special function available in the child constructor.

For example, let’s make ContentWriter constructor call the parent constructor of User, as well as initialize the posts field:

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

class ContentWriter extends User {
  posts = [];

  constructor(name, posts) {
    super(name);    this.posts = posts;
  }
}

const writer = new ContentWriter('John Smith', ['Why I like JS']);
writer.name; // => 'John Smith'
writer.posts // => ['Why I like JS']

super(name) inside the child class ContentWriter executes the constructor of the parent class User.

Note that inside the child constructor you must execute super() before using this keyword. Calling super() makes sure that the parent constructor initializes the instance.

class Child extends Parent {
  constructor(value1, value2) {
    // Does not work!
    this.prop2 = value2;    super(value1);  }
}

5.2 Parent instance: super in methods

If you’d like to access the parent method inside of a child method, you can use the special shortcut super.

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

class ContentWriter extends User {
  posts = [];

  constructor(name, posts) {
    super(name);
    this.posts = posts;
  }

  getName() {
    const name = super.getName();    if (name === '') {
      return 'Unknwon';
    }
    return name;
  }
}

const writer = new ContentWriter('', ['Why I like JS']);
writer.getName(); // => 'Unknwon'

getName() of the child class ContentWriter accesses the method super.getName() directly from the parent class User.

This feature is called method overriding.

Note that you can use super with static methods too, to access the parent’s static methods.

6. Object type checking: instanceof

object instanceof Class is the operator that determines if object is an instance of Class.

Let’s see instanceof operator in action:

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

const user = new User('Jon Snow');
const obj = {};

user instanceof User; // => true
obj instanceof User; // => false

user is an instance of User class, user instanceof User evaluates to true.

The empty object {} is not an instance of User, correspondingly obj instanceof User is false.

instanceof is polymorphic: the operator detects a child as an instance of the parent class.

class User {
  name;

  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

class ContentWriter extends User {
  posts = [];

  constructor(name, posts) {
    super(name);
    this.posts = posts;
  }
}

const writer = new ContentWriter('John Smith', ['Why I like JS']);

writer instanceof ContentWriter; // => true
writer instanceof User;          // => true

writer is an instance of the child class ContentWriter. The operator writer instanceof ContentWriter evaluates to true.

At the same time ContentWriter is a child class of User. So writer instanceof User evaluates to true as well.

What if you’d like to determine the exact class of the instance? You can use the constructor property and compare directly with the class:

writer.constructor === ContentWriter; // => true
writer.constructor === User;          // => false

7. Classes and prototypes

I must say that the class syntax in JavaScript does a great job to abstract from the prototypal inheritance. To describe the class syntax I haven’t even used the term prototype.

But the classes are built on top of the prototypal inheritance. Every class is a function, and creates an instance when invoked as a constructor

The following two code snippets are equivalent.

The class version:

class User {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  getName() {
    return this.name;
  }
}

const user = new User('John');

user.getName();       // => 'John Snow'
user instanceof User; // => true

The version using prototype:

function User(name) {
  this.name = name;
}

User.prototype.getName = function() {
  return this.name;
}

const user = new User('John');

user.getName();       // => 'John Snow'
user instanceof User; // => true

The class syntax is way easier to work if you’re familiar with the classic inheritance mechanism of Java or Swift languages.

Anyways, even if you use class syntax in JavaScript, I recommend you to have a good grasp of prototypal inheritance.

8. Class features availability

The class features presented in this post are spread across ES2015 and proposals at stage 3.

At the end of 2019, the class features are split between:

9. Conclusion

JavaScript classes initialize instances with constructors, define fields and methods. You can attach fields and methods even on the class itself using the static keyword.

Inheritance is achieved using extends keyword: you can easily create a child class from a parent. super keyword is used to access the parent class from a child class.

To take advantage of encapsulation, make the fields and methods private to hide the internal details of your classes. The private fields and methods names must begin with #.

The classes in JavaScript become more and more convenient to use.

What do you think about using # to prefix private properties?_

#javascript #webdev #angular #nodejs #reactjs

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes

1595494844

How to start an electric scooter facility/fleet in a university campus/IT park

Are you leading an organization that has a large campus, e.g., a large university? You are probably thinking of introducing an electric scooter/bicycle fleet on the campus, and why wouldn’t you?

Introducing micro-mobility in your campus with the help of such a fleet would help the people on the campus significantly. People would save money since they don’t need to use a car for a short distance. Your campus will see a drastic reduction in congestion, moreover, its carbon footprint will reduce.

Micro-mobility is relatively new though and you would need help. You would need to select an appropriate fleet of vehicles. The people on your campus would need to find electric scooters or electric bikes for commuting, and you need to provide a solution for this.

To be more specific, you need a short-term electric bike rental app. With such an app, you will be able to easily offer micro-mobility to the people on the campus. We at Devathon have built Autorent exactly for this.

What does Autorent do and how can it help you? How does it enable you to introduce micro-mobility on your campus? We explain these in this article, however, we will touch upon a few basics first.

Micro-mobility: What it is

micro-mobility

You are probably thinking about micro-mobility relatively recently, aren’t you? A few relevant insights about it could help you to better appreciate its importance.

Micro-mobility is a new trend in transportation, and it uses vehicles that are considerably smaller than cars. Electric scooters (e-scooters) and electric bikes (e-bikes) are the most popular forms of micro-mobility, however, there are also e-unicycles and e-skateboards.

You might have already seen e-scooters, which are kick scooters that come with a motor. Thanks to its motor, an e-scooter can achieve a speed of up to 20 km/h. On the other hand, e-bikes are popular in China and Japan, and they come with a motor, and you can reach a speed of 40 km/h.

You obviously can’t use these vehicles for very long commutes, however, what if you need to travel a short distance? Even if you have a reasonable public transport facility in the city, it might not cover the route you need to take. Take the example of a large university campus. Such a campus is often at a considerable distance from the central business district of the city where it’s located. While public transport facilities may serve the central business district, they wouldn’t serve this large campus. Currently, many people drive their cars even for short distances.

As you know, that brings its own set of challenges. Vehicular traffic adds significantly to pollution, moreover, finding a parking spot can be hard in crowded urban districts.

Well, you can reduce your carbon footprint if you use an electric car. However, electric cars are still new, and many countries are still building the necessary infrastructure for them. Your large campus might not have the necessary infrastructure for them either. Presently, electric cars don’t represent a viable option in most geographies.

As a result, you need to buy and maintain a car even if your commute is short. In addition to dealing with parking problems, you need to spend significantly on your car.

All of these factors have combined to make people sit up and think seriously about cars. Many people are now seriously considering whether a car is really the best option even if they have to commute only a short distance.

This is where micro-mobility enters the picture. When you commute a short distance regularly, e-scooters or e-bikes are viable options. You limit your carbon footprints and you cut costs!

Businesses have seen this shift in thinking, and e-scooter companies like Lime and Bird have entered this field in a big way. They let you rent e-scooters by the minute. On the other hand, start-ups like Jump and Lyft have entered the e-bike market.

Think of your campus now! The people there might need to travel short distances within the campus, and e-scooters can really help them.

How micro-mobility can benefit you

benefits-micromobility

What advantages can you get from micro-mobility? Let’s take a deeper look into this question.

Micro-mobility can offer several advantages to the people on your campus, e.g.:

  • Affordability: Shared e-scooters are cheaper than other mass transportation options. Remember that the people on your campus will use them on a shared basis, and they will pay for their short commutes only. Well, depending on your operating model, you might even let them use shared e-scooters or e-bikes for free!
  • Convenience: Users don’t need to worry about finding parking spots for shared e-scooters since these are small. They can easily travel from point A to point B on your campus with the help of these e-scooters.
  • Environmentally sustainable: Shared e-scooters reduce the carbon footprint, moreover, they decongest the roads. Statistics from the pilot programs in cities like Portland and Denver showimpressive gains around this key aspect.
  • Safety: This one’s obvious, isn’t it? When people on your campus use small e-scooters or e-bikes instead of cars, the problem of overspeeding will disappear. you will see fewer accidents.

#android app #autorent #ios app #mobile app development #app like bird #app like bounce #app like lime #autorent #bird scooter business model #bird scooter rental #bird scooter rental cost #bird scooter rental price #clone app like bird #clone app like bounce #clone app like lime #electric rental scooters #electric scooter company #electric scooter rental business #how do you start a moped #how to start a moped #how to start a scooter rental business #how to start an electric company #how to start electric scooterrental business #lime scooter business model #scooter franchise #scooter rental business #scooter rental business for sale #scooter rental business insurance #scooters franchise cost #white label app like bird #white label app like bounce #white label app like lime

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes

1595491178

Best Electric Bikes and Scooters for Rental Business or Campus Facility

The electric scooter revolution has caught on super-fast taking many cities across the globe by storm. eScooters, a renovated version of old-school scooters now turned into electric vehicles are an environmentally friendly solution to current on-demand commute problems. They work on engines, like cars, enabling short traveling distances without hassle. The result is that these groundbreaking electric machines can now provide faster transport for less — cheaper than Uber and faster than Metro.

Since they are durable, fast, easy to operate and maintain, and are more convenient to park compared to four-wheelers, the eScooters trend has and continues to spike interest as a promising growth area. Several companies and universities are increasingly setting up shop to provide eScooter services realizing a would-be profitable business model and a ready customer base that is university students or residents in need of faster and cheap travel going about their business in school, town, and other surrounding areas.

Electric Scooters Trends and Statistics

In many countries including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, U.K., Germany, France, China, Japan, India, Brazil and Mexico and more, a growing number of eScooter users both locals and tourists can now be seen effortlessly passing lines of drivers stuck in the endless and unmoving traffic.

A recent report by McKinsey revealed that the E-Scooter industry will be worth― $200 billion to $300 billion in the United States, $100 billion to $150 billion in Europe, and $30 billion to $50 billion in China in 2030. The e-Scooter revenue model will also spike and is projected to rise by more than 20% amounting to approximately $5 billion.

And, with a necessity to move people away from high carbon prints, traffic and congestion issues brought about by car-centric transport systems in cities, more and more city planners are developing more bike/scooter lanes and adopting zero-emission plans. This is the force behind the booming electric scooter market and the numbers will only go higher and higher.

Companies that have taken advantage of the growing eScooter trend develop an appthat allows them to provide efficient eScooter services. Such an app enables them to be able to locate bike pick-up and drop points through fully integrated google maps.

List of Best Electric Bikes for Rental Business or Campus Facility 2020:

It’s clear that e scooters will increasingly become more common and the e-scooter business model will continue to grab the attention of manufacturers, investors, entrepreneurs. All this should go ahead with a quest to know what are some of the best electric bikes in the market especially for anyone who would want to get started in the electric bikes/scooters rental business.

We have done a comprehensive list of the best electric bikes! Each bike has been reviewed in depth and includes a full list of specs and a photo.

Billy eBike

mobile-best-electric-bikes-scooters https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/enkicycles/billy-were-redefining-joyrides

To start us off is the Billy eBike, a powerful go-anywhere urban electric bike that’s specially designed to offer an exciting ride like no other whether you want to ride to the grocery store, cafe, work or school. The Billy eBike comes in 4 color options – Billy Blue, Polished aluminium, Artic white, and Stealth black.

Price: $2490

Available countries

Available in the USA, Europe, Asia, South Africa and Australia.This item ships from the USA. Buyers are therefore responsible for any taxes and/or customs duties incurred once it arrives in your country.

Features

  • Control – Ride with confidence with our ultra-wide BMX bars and a hyper-responsive twist throttle.
  • Stealth- Ride like a ninja with our Gates carbon drive that’s as smooth as butter and maintenance-free.
  • Drive – Ride further with our high torque fat bike motor, giving a better climbing performance.
  • Accelerate – Ride quicker with our 20-inch lightweight cutout rims for improved acceleration.
  • Customize – Ride your own way with 5 levels of power control. Each level determines power and speed.
  • Flickable – Ride harder with our BMX /MotoX inspired geometry and lightweight aluminum package

Specifications

  • Maximum speed: 20 mph (32 km/h)
  • Range per charge: 41 miles (66 km)
  • Maximum Power: 500W
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  • Maximum Power: 3000W
  • Motor type: Brushless DC Motor
  • Load capacity: 100kg
  • Battery type: Lead-acid battery
  • Battery capacity: 60V 20AH
  • Weight: w/o battery 47kg

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Rust  Language

Rust Language

1652510548

The Rust Programming Language - Macros

Rust Macros

We’ve used macros like println! throughout this book, but we haven’t fully explored what a macro is and how it works. The term macro refers to a family of features in Rust: declarative macros with macro_rules! and three kinds of procedural macros:

  • Custom #[derive] macros that specify code added with the derive attribute used on structs and enums
  • Attribute-like macros that define custom attributes usable on any item
  • Function-like macros that look like function calls but operate on the tokens specified as their argument

We’ll talk about each of these in turn, but first, let’s look at why we even need macros when we already have functions.

The Difference Between Macros and Functions

Fundamentally, macros are a way of writing code that writes other code, which is known as metaprogramming. In Appendix C, we discuss the derive attribute, which generates an implementation of various traits for you. We’ve also used the println! and vec! macros throughout the book. All of these macros expand to produce more code than the code you’ve written manually.

Metaprogramming is useful for reducing the amount of code you have to write and maintain, which is also one of the roles of functions. However, macros have some additional powers that functions don’t.

A function signature must declare the number and type of parameters the function has. Macros, on the other hand, can take a variable number of parameters: we can call println!("hello") with one argument or println!("hello {}", name) with two arguments. Also, macros are expanded before the compiler interprets the meaning of the code, so a macro can, for example, implement a trait on a given type. A function can’t, because it gets called at runtime and a trait needs to be implemented at compile time.

The downside to implementing a macro instead of a function is that macro definitions are more complex than function definitions because you’re writing Rust code that writes Rust code. Due to this indirection, macro definitions are generally more difficult to read, understand, and maintain than function definitions.

Another important difference between macros and functions is that you must define macros or bring them into scope before you call them in a file, as opposed to functions you can define anywhere and call anywhere.

Declarative Macros with macro_rules! for General Metaprogramming

The most widely used form of macros in Rust is declarative macros. These are also sometimes referred to as “macros by example,” “macro_rules! macros,” or just plain “macros.” At their core, declarative macros allow you to write something similar to a Rust match expression. As discussed in Chapter 6, match expressions are control structures that take an expression, compare the resulting value of the expression to patterns, and then run the code associated with the matching pattern. Macros also compare a value to patterns that are associated with particular code: in this situation, the value is the literal Rust source code passed to the macro; the patterns are compared with the structure of that source code; and the code associated with each pattern, when matched, replaces the code passed to the macro. This all happens during compilation.

To define a macro, you use the macro_rules! construct. Let’s explore how to use macro_rules! by looking at how the vec! macro is defined. Chapter 8 covered how we can use the vec! macro to create a new vector with particular values. For example, the following macro creates a new vector containing three integers:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let v: Vec<u32> = vec![1, 2, 3];
}

We could also use the vec! macro to make a vector of two integers or a vector of five string slices. We wouldn’t be able to use a function to do the same because we wouldn’t know the number or type of values up front.

Listing 19-28 shows a slightly simplified definition of the vec! macro.

Filename: src/lib.rs

#[macro_export]
macro_rules! vec {
    ( $( $x:expr ),* ) => {
        {
            let mut temp_vec = Vec::new();
            $(
                temp_vec.push($x);
            )*
            temp_vec
        }
    };
}

Listing 19-28: A simplified version of the vec! macro definition

Note: The actual definition of the vec! macro in the standard library includes code to preallocate the correct amount of memory up front. That code is an optimization that we don’t include here to make the example simpler.

The #[macro_export] annotation indicates that this macro should be made available whenever the crate in which the macro is defined is brought into scope. Without this annotation, the macro can’t be brought into scope.

We then start the macro definition with macro_rules! and the name of the macro we’re defining without the exclamation mark. The name, in this case vec, is followed by curly brackets denoting the body of the macro definition.

The structure in the vec! body is similar to the structure of a match expression. Here we have one arm with the pattern ( $( $x:expr ),* ), followed by => and the block of code associated with this pattern. If the pattern matches, the associated block of code will be emitted. Given that this is the only pattern in this macro, there is only one valid way to match; any other pattern will result in an error. More complex macros will have more than one arm.

Valid pattern syntax in macro definitions is different than the pattern syntax covered in Chapter 18 because macro patterns are matched against Rust code structure rather than values. Let’s walk through what the pattern pieces in Listing 19-28 mean; for the full macro pattern syntax, see the reference.

First, a set of parentheses encompasses the whole pattern. A dollar sign ($) is next, followed by a set of parentheses that captures values that match the pattern within the parentheses for use in the replacement code. Within $() is $x:expr, which matches any Rust expression and gives the expression the name $x.

The comma following $() indicates that a literal comma separator character could optionally appear after the code that matches the code in $(). The * specifies that the pattern matches zero or more of whatever precedes the *.

When we call this macro with vec![1, 2, 3];, the $x pattern matches three times with the three expressions 1, 2, and 3.

Now let’s look at the pattern in the body of the code associated with this arm: temp_vec.push() within $()* is generated for each part that matches $() in the pattern zero or more times depending on how many times the pattern matches. The $x is replaced with each expression matched. When we call this macro with vec![1, 2, 3];, the code generated that replaces this macro call will be the following:

{
    let mut temp_vec = Vec::new();
    temp_vec.push(1);
    temp_vec.push(2);
    temp_vec.push(3);
    temp_vec
}

We’ve defined a macro that can take any number of arguments of any type and can generate code to create a vector containing the specified elements.

There are some strange edge cases with macro_rules!. In the future, Rust will have a second kind of declarative macro that will work in a similar fashion but fix some of these edge cases. After that update, macro_rules! will be effectively deprecated. With this in mind, as well as the fact that most Rust programmers will use macros more than write macros, we won’t discuss macro_rules! any further. To learn more about how to write macros, consult the online documentation or other resources, such as “The Little Book of Rust Macros” started by Daniel Keep and continued by Lukas Wirth.

Procedural Macros for Generating Code from Attributes

The second form of macros is procedural macros, which act more like functions (and are a type of procedure). Procedural macros accept some code as an input, operate on that code, and produce some code as an output rather than matching against patterns and replacing the code with other code as declarative macros do.

The three kinds of procedural macros (custom derive, attribute-like, and function-like) all work in a similar fashion.

When creating procedural macros, the definitions must reside in their own crate with a special crate type. This is for complex technical reasons that we hope to eliminate in the future. Using procedural macros looks like the code in Listing 19-29, where some_attribute is a placeholder for using a specific macro.

Filename: src/lib.rs

use proc_macro;

#[some_attribute]
pub fn some_name(input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
}

 

Listing 19-29: An example of using a procedural macro

The function that defines a procedural macro takes a TokenStream as an input and produces a TokenStream as an output. The TokenStream type is defined by the proc_macro crate that is included with Rust and represents a sequence of tokens. This is the core of the macro: the source code that the macro is operating on makes up the input TokenStream, and the code the macro produces is the output TokenStream. The function also has an attribute attached to it that specifies which kind of procedural macro we’re creating. We can have multiple kinds of procedural macros in the same crate.

Let’s look at the different kinds of procedural macros. We’ll start with a custom derive macro and then explain the small dissimilarities that make the other forms different.

How to Write a Custom derive Macro

Let’s create a crate named hello_macro that defines a trait named HelloMacro with one associated function named hello_macro. Rather than making our crate users implement the HelloMacro trait for each of their types, we’ll provide a procedural macro so users can annotate their type with #[derive(HelloMacro)] to get a default implementation of the hello_macro function. The default implementation will print Hello, Macro! My name is TypeName! where TypeName is the name of the type on which this trait has been defined. In other words, we’ll write a crate that enables another programmer to write code like Listing 19-30 using our crate.

Filename: src/main.rs

use hello_macro::HelloMacro;
use hello_macro_derive::HelloMacro;

#[derive(HelloMacro)]
struct Pancakes;

fn main() {
    Pancakes::hello_macro();
}

Listing 19-30: The code a user of our crate will be able to write when using our procedural macro

This code will print Hello, Macro! My name is Pancakes! when we’re done. The first step is to make a new library crate, like this:

$ cargo new hello_macro --lib

Next, we’ll define the HelloMacro trait and its associated function:

Filename: src/lib.rs

pub trait HelloMacro {
    fn hello_macro();
}

We have a trait and its function. At this point, our crate user could implement the trait to achieve the desired functionality, like so:

use hello_macro::HelloMacro;

struct Pancakes;

impl HelloMacro for Pancakes {
    fn hello_macro() {
        println!("Hello, Macro! My name is Pancakes!");
    }
}

fn main() {
    Pancakes::hello_macro();
}

However, they would need to write the implementation block for each type they wanted to use with hello_macro; we want to spare them from having to do this work.

Additionally, we can’t yet provide the hello_macro function with default implementation that will print the name of the type the trait is implemented on: Rust doesn’t have reflection capabilities, so it can’t look up the type’s name at runtime. We need a macro to generate code at compile time.

The next step is to define the procedural macro. At the time of this writing, procedural macros need to be in their own crate. Eventually, this restriction might be lifted. The convention for structuring crates and macro crates is as follows: for a crate named foo, a custom derive procedural macro crate is called foo_derive. Let’s start a new crate called hello_macro_derive inside our hello_macro project:

$ cargo new hello_macro_derive --lib

Our two crates are tightly related, so we create the procedural macro crate within the directory of our hello_macro crate. If we change the trait definition in hello_macro, we’ll have to change the implementation of the procedural macro in hello_macro_derive as well. The two crates will need to be published separately, and programmers using these crates will need to add both as dependencies and bring them both into scope. We could instead have the hello_macro crate use hello_macro_derive as a dependency and re-export the procedural macro code. However, the way we’ve structured the project makes it possible for programmers to use hello_macro even if they don’t want the derive functionality.

We need to declare the hello_macro_derive crate as a procedural macro crate. We’ll also need functionality from the syn and quote crates, as you’ll see in a moment, so we need to add them as dependencies. Add the following to the Cargo.toml file for hello_macro_derive:

Filename: hello_macro_derive/Cargo.toml

[lib]
proc-macro = true

[dependencies]
syn = "1.0"
quote = "1.0"

To start defining the procedural macro, place the code in Listing 19-31 into your src/lib.rs file for the hello_macro_derive crate. Note that this code won’t compile until we add a definition for the impl_hello_macro function.

Filename: hello_macro_derive/src/lib.rs

extern crate proc_macro;

use proc_macro::TokenStream;
use quote::quote;
use syn;

#[proc_macro_derive(HelloMacro)]
pub fn hello_macro_derive(input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
    // Construct a representation of Rust code as a syntax tree
    // that we can manipulate
    let ast = syn::parse(input).unwrap();

    // Build the trait implementation
    impl_hello_macro(&ast)
}

Listing 19-31: Code that most procedural macro crates will require in order to process Rust code

Notice that we’ve split the code into the hello_macro_derive function, which is responsible for parsing the TokenStream, and the impl_hello_macro function, which is responsible for transforming the syntax tree: this makes writing a procedural macro more convenient. The code in the outer function (hello_macro_derive in this case) will be the same for almost every procedural macro crate you see or create. The code you specify in the body of the inner function (impl_hello_macro in this case) will be different depending on your procedural macro’s purpose.

We’ve introduced three new crates: proc_macro, syn, and quote. The proc_macro crate comes with Rust, so we didn’t need to add that to the dependencies in Cargo.toml. The proc_macro crate is the compiler’s API that allows us to read and manipulate Rust code from our code.

The syn crate parses Rust code from a string into a data structure that we can perform operations on. The quote crate turns syn data structures back into Rust code. These crates make it much simpler to parse any sort of Rust code we might want to handle: writing a full parser for Rust code is no simple task.

The hello_macro_derive function will be called when a user of our library specifies #[derive(HelloMacro)] on a type. This is possible because we’ve annotated the hello_macro_derive function here with proc_macro_derive and specified the name, HelloMacro, which matches our trait name; this is the convention most procedural macros follow.

The hello_macro_derive function first converts the input from a TokenStream to a data structure that we can then interpret and perform operations on. This is where syn comes into play. The parse function in syn takes a TokenStream and returns a DeriveInput struct representing the parsed Rust code. Listing 19-32 shows the relevant parts of the DeriveInput struct we get from parsing the struct Pancakes; string:

DeriveInput {
    // --snip--

    ident: Ident {
        ident: "Pancakes",
        span: #0 bytes(95..103)
    },
    data: Struct(
        DataStruct {
            struct_token: Struct,
            fields: Unit,
            semi_token: Some(
                Semi
            )
        }
    )
}

Listing 19-32: The DeriveInput instance we get when parsing the code that has the macro’s attribute in Listing 19-30

The fields of this struct show that the Rust code we’ve parsed is a unit struct with the ident (identifier, meaning the name) of Pancakes. There are more fields on this struct for describing all sorts of Rust code; check the syn documentation for DeriveInput for more information.

Soon we’ll define the impl_hello_macro function, which is where we’ll build the new Rust code we want to include. But before we do, note that the output for our derive macro is also a TokenStream. The returned TokenStream is added to the code that our crate users write, so when they compile their crate, they’ll get the extra functionality that we provide in the modified TokenStream.

You might have noticed that we’re calling unwrap to cause the hello_macro_derive function to panic if the call to the syn::parse function fails here. It’s necessary for our procedural macro to panic on errors because proc_macro_derive functions must return TokenStream rather than Result to conform to the procedural macro API. We’ve simplified this example by using unwrap; in production code, you should provide more specific error messages about what went wrong by using panic! or expect.

Now that we have the code to turn the annotated Rust code from a TokenStream into a DeriveInput instance, let’s generate the code that implements the HelloMacro trait on the annotated type, as shown in Listing 19-33.

Filename: hello_macro_derive/src/lib.rs

extern crate proc_macro;

use proc_macro::TokenStream;
use quote::quote;
use syn;

#[proc_macro_derive(HelloMacro)]
pub fn hello_macro_derive(input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
    // Construct a representation of Rust code as a syntax tree
    // that we can manipulate
    let ast = syn::parse(input).unwrap();

    // Build the trait implementation
    impl_hello_macro(&ast)
}

fn impl_hello_macro(ast: &syn::DeriveInput) -> TokenStream {
    let name = &ast.ident;
    let gen = quote! {
        impl HelloMacro for #name {
            fn hello_macro() {
                println!("Hello, Macro! My name is {}!", stringify!(#name));
            }
        }
    };
    gen.into()
}

Listing 19-33: Implementing the HelloMacro trait using the parsed Rust code

We get an Ident struct instance containing the name (identifier) of the annotated type using ast.ident. The struct in Listing 19-32 shows that when we run the impl_hello_macro function on the code in Listing 19-30, the ident we get will have the ident field with a value of "Pancakes". Thus, the name variable in Listing 19-33 will contain an Ident struct instance that, when printed, will be the string "Pancakes", the name of the struct in Listing 19-30.

The quote! macro lets us define the Rust code that we want to return. The compiler expects something different to the direct result of the quote! macro’s execution, so we need to convert it to a TokenStream. We do this by calling the into method, which consumes this intermediate representation and returns a value of the required TokenStream type.

The quote! macro also provides some very cool templating mechanics: we can enter #name, and quote! will replace it with the value in the variable name. You can even do some repetition similar to the way regular macros work. Check out the quote crate’s docs for a thorough introduction.

We want our procedural macro to generate an implementation of our HelloMacro trait for the type the user annotated, which we can get by using #name. The trait implementation has one function, hello_macro, whose body contains the functionality we want to provide: printing Hello, Macro! My name is and then the name of the annotated type.

The stringify! macro used here is built into Rust. It takes a Rust expression, such as 1 + 2, and at compile time turns the expression into a string literal, such as "1 + 2". This is different than format! or println!, macros which evaluate the expression and then turn the result into a String. There is a possibility that the #name input might be an expression to print literally, so we use stringify!. Using stringify! also saves an allocation by converting #name to a string literal at compile time.

At this point, cargo build should complete successfully in both hello_macro and hello_macro_derive. Let’s hook up these crates to the code in Listing 19-30 to see the procedural macro in action! Create a new binary project in your projects directory using cargo new pancakes. We need to add hello_macro and hello_macro_derive as dependencies in the pancakes crate’s Cargo.toml. If you’re publishing your versions of hello_macro and hello_macro_derive to crates.io, they would be regular dependencies; if not, you can specify them as path dependencies as follows:

hello_macro = { path = "../hello_macro" }
hello_macro_derive = { path = "../hello_macro/hello_macro_derive" }

Put the code in Listing 19-30 into src/main.rs, and run cargo run: it should print Hello, Macro! My name is Pancakes! The implementation of the HelloMacro trait from the procedural macro was included without the pancakes crate needing to implement it; the #[derive(HelloMacro)] added the trait implementation.

Next, let’s explore how the other kinds of procedural macros differ from custom derive macros.

Attribute-like macros

Attribute-like macros are similar to custom derive macros, but instead of generating code for the derive attribute, they allow you to create new attributes. They’re also more flexible: derive only works for structs and enums; attributes can be applied to other items as well, such as functions. Here’s an example of using an attribute-like macro: say you have an attribute named route that annotates functions when using a web application framework:

#[route(GET, "/")]
fn index() {

This #[route] attribute would be defined by the framework as a procedural macro. The signature of the macro definition function would look like this:

#[proc_macro_attribute]
pub fn route(attr: TokenStream, item: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {

Here, we have two parameters of type TokenStream. The first is for the contents of the attribute: the GET, "/" part. The second is the body of the item the attribute is attached to: in this case, fn index() {} and the rest of the function’s body.

Other than that, attribute-like macros work the same way as custom derive macros: you create a crate with the proc-macro crate type and implement a function that generates the code you want!

Function-like macros

Function-like macros define macros that look like function calls. Similarly to macro_rules! macros, they’re more flexible than functions; for example, they can take an unknown number of arguments. However, macro_rules! macros can be defined only using the match-like syntax we discussed in the section “Declarative Macros with macro_rules! for General Metaprogramming” earlier. Function-like macros take a TokenStream parameter and their definition manipulates that TokenStream using Rust code as the other two types of procedural macros do. An example of a function-like macro is an sql! macro that might be called like so:

let sql = sql!(SELECT * FROM posts WHERE id=1);

This macro would parse the SQL statement inside it and check that it’s syntactically correct, which is much more complex processing than a macro_rules! macro can do. The sql! macro would be defined like this:

#[proc_macro]
pub fn sql(input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {

Summary

Whew! Now you have some Rust features in your toolbox that you won’t use often, but you’ll know they’re available in very particular circumstances. We’ve introduced several complex topics so that when you encounter them in error message suggestions or in other peoples’ code, you’ll be able to recognize these concepts and syntax. Use this chapter as a reference to guide you to solutions.


Macros By Example

Syntax
MacroRulesDefinition :
   macro_rules ! IDENTIFIER MacroRulesDef

MacroRulesDef :
      ( MacroRules ) ;
   | [ MacroRules ] ;
   | { MacroRules }

MacroRules :
   MacroRule ( ; MacroRule )* ;?

MacroRule :
   MacroMatcher => MacroTranscriber

MacroMatcher :
      ( MacroMatch* )
   | [ MacroMatch* ]
   | { MacroMatch* }

MacroMatch :
      Tokenexcept $ and delimiters
   | MacroMatcher
   | $ ( IDENTIFIER_OR_KEYWORD except crate | RAW_IDENTIFIER | _ ) : MacroFragSpec
   | $ ( MacroMatch+ ) MacroRepSep? MacroRepOp

MacroFragSpec :
      block | expr | ident | item | lifetime | literal
   | meta | pat | pat_param | path | stmt | tt | ty | vis

MacroRepSep :
   Tokenexcept delimiters and MacroRepOp

MacroRepOp :
   * | + | ?

MacroTranscriber :
   DelimTokenTree

macro_rules allows users to define syntax extension in a declarative way. We call such extensions "macros by example" or simply "macros".

Each macro by example has a name, and one or more rules. Each rule has two parts: a matcher, describing the syntax that it matches, and a transcriber, describing the syntax that will replace a successfully matched invocation. Both the matcher and the transcriber must be surrounded by delimiters. Macros can expand to expressions, statements, items (including traits, impls, and foreign items), types, or patterns.

Transcribing

When a macro is invoked, the macro expander looks up macro invocations by name, and tries each macro rule in turn. It transcribes the first successful match; if this results in an error, then future matches are not tried. When matching, no lookahead is performed; if the compiler cannot unambiguously determine how to parse the macro invocation one token at a time, then it is an error. In the following example, the compiler does not look ahead past the identifier to see if the following token is a ), even though that would allow it to parse the invocation unambiguously:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
macro_rules! ambiguity {
    ($($i:ident)* $j:ident) => { };
}

ambiguity!(error); // Error: local ambiguity
}

In both the matcher and the transcriber, the $ token is used to invoke special behaviours from the macro engine (described below in Metavariables and Repetitions). Tokens that aren't part of such an invocation are matched and transcribed literally, with one exception. The exception is that the outer delimiters for the matcher will match any pair of delimiters. Thus, for instance, the matcher (()) will match {()} but not {{}}. The character $ cannot be matched or transcribed literally.

When forwarding a matched fragment to another macro-by-example, matchers in the second macro will see an opaque AST of the fragment type. The second macro can't use literal tokens to match the fragments in the matcher, only a fragment specifier of the same type. The ident, lifetime, and tt fragment types are an exception, and can be matched by literal tokens. The following illustrates this restriction:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
macro_rules! foo {
    ($l:expr) => { bar!($l); }
// ERROR:               ^^ no rules expected this token in macro call
}

macro_rules! bar {
    (3) => {}
}

foo!(3);
}

The following illustrates how tokens can be directly matched after matching a tt fragment:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
// compiles OK
macro_rules! foo {
    ($l:tt) => { bar!($l); }
}

macro_rules! bar {
    (3) => {}
}

foo!(3);
}

Metavariables

In the matcher, $ name : fragment-specifier matches a Rust syntax fragment of the kind specified and binds it to the metavariable $name. Valid fragment specifiers are:

In the transcriber, metavariables are referred to simply by $name, since the fragment kind is specified in the matcher. Metavariables are replaced with the syntax element that matched them. The keyword metavariable $crate can be used to refer to the current crate; see Hygiene below. Metavariables can be transcribed more than once or not at all.

For reasons of backwards compatibility, though _ is also an expression, a standalone underscore is not matched by the expr fragment specifier. However, _ is matched by the expr fragment specifier when it appears as a subexpression.

Repetitions

In both the matcher and transcriber, repetitions are indicated by placing the tokens to be repeated inside $(), followed by a repetition operator, optionally with a separator token between. The separator token can be any token other than a delimiter or one of the repetition operators, but ; and , are the most common. For instance, $( $i:ident ),* represents any number of identifiers separated by commas. Nested repetitions are permitted.

The repetition operators are:

  • * — indicates any number of repetitions.
  • + — indicates any number but at least one.
  • ? — indicates an optional fragment with zero or one occurrences.

Since ? represents at most one occurrence, it cannot be used with a separator.

The repeated fragment both matches and transcribes to the specified number of the fragment, separated by the separator token. Metavariables are matched to every repetition of their corresponding fragment. For instance, the $( $i:ident ),* example above matches $i to all of the identifiers in the list.

During transcription, additional restrictions apply to repetitions so that the compiler knows how to expand them properly:

  1. A metavariable must appear in exactly the same number, kind, and nesting order of repetitions in the transcriber as it did in the matcher. So for the matcher $( $i:ident ),*, the transcribers => { $i }, => { $( $( $i)* )* }, and => { $( $i )+ } are all illegal, but => { $( $i );* } is correct and replaces a comma-separated list of identifiers with a semicolon-separated list.
  2. Each repetition in the transcriber must contain at least one metavariable to decide how many times to expand it. If multiple metavariables appear in the same repetition, they must be bound to the same number of fragments. For instance, ( $( $i:ident ),* ; $( $j:ident ),* ) => (( $( ($i,$j) ),* )) must bind the same number of $i fragments as $j fragments. This means that invoking the macro with (a, b, c; d, e, f) is legal and expands to ((a,d), (b,e), (c,f)), but (a, b, c; d, e) is illegal because it does not have the same number. This requirement applies to every layer of nested repetitions.

Scoping, Exporting, and Importing

For historical reasons, the scoping of macros by example does not work entirely like items. Macros have two forms of scope: textual scope, and path-based scope. Textual scope is based on the order that things appear in source files, or even across multiple files, and is the default scoping. It is explained further below. Path-based scope works exactly the same way that item scoping does. The scoping, exporting, and importing of macros is controlled largely by attributes.

When a macro is invoked by an unqualified identifier (not part of a multi-part path), it is first looked up in textual scoping. If this does not yield any results, then it is looked up in path-based scoping. If the macro's name is qualified with a path, then it is only looked up in path-based scoping.

use lazy_static::lazy_static; // Path-based import.

macro_rules! lazy_static { // Textual definition.
    (lazy) => {};
}

lazy_static!{lazy} // Textual lookup finds our macro first.
self::lazy_static!{} // Path-based lookup ignores our macro, finds imported one.

Textual Scope

Textual scope is based largely on the order that things appear in source files, and works similarly to the scope of local variables declared with let except it also applies at the module level. When macro_rules! is used to define a macro, the macro enters the scope after the definition (note that it can still be used recursively, since names are looked up from the invocation site), up until its surrounding scope, typically a module, is closed. This can enter child modules and even span across multiple files:

//// src/lib.rs
mod has_macro {
    // m!{} // Error: m is not in scope.

    macro_rules! m {
        () => {};
    }
    m!{} // OK: appears after declaration of m.

    mod uses_macro;
}

// m!{} // Error: m is not in scope.

//// src/has_macro/uses_macro.rs

m!{} // OK: appears after declaration of m in src/lib.rs

It is not an error to define a macro multiple times; the most recent declaration will shadow the previous one unless it has gone out of scope.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
macro_rules! m {
    (1) => {};
}

m!(1);

mod inner {
    m!(1);

    macro_rules! m {
        (2) => {};
    }
    // m!(1); // Error: no rule matches '1'
    m!(2);

    macro_rules! m {
        (3) => {};
    }
    m!(3);
}

m!(1);
}

Macros can be declared and used locally inside functions as well, and work similarly:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
fn foo() {
    // m!(); // Error: m is not in scope.
    macro_rules! m {
        () => {};
    }
    m!();
}


// m!(); // Error: m is not in scope.
}

The macro_use attribute

The macro_use attribute has two purposes. First, it can be used to make a module's macro scope not end when the module is closed, by applying it to a module:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[macro_use]
mod inner {
    macro_rules! m {
        () => {};
    }
}

m!();
}

Second, it can be used to import macros from another crate, by attaching it to an extern crate declaration appearing in the crate's root module. Macros imported this way are imported into the macro_use prelude, not textually, which means that they can be shadowed by any other name. While macros imported by #[macro_use] can be used before the import statement, in case of a conflict, the last macro imported wins. Optionally, a list of macros to import can be specified using the MetaListIdents syntax; this is not supported when #[macro_use] is applied to a module.

#[macro_use(lazy_static)] // Or #[macro_use] to import all macros.
extern crate lazy_static;

lazy_static!{}
// self::lazy_static!{} // Error: lazy_static is not defined in `self`

Macros to be imported with #[macro_use] must be exported with #[macro_export], which is described below.

Path-Based Scope

By default, a macro has no path-based scope. However, if it has the #[macro_export] attribute, then it is declared in the crate root scope and can be referred to normally as such:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
self::m!();
m!(); // OK: Path-based lookup finds m in the current module.

mod inner {
    super::m!();
    crate::m!();
}

mod mac {
    #[macro_export]
    macro_rules! m {
        () => {};
    }
}
}

Macros labeled with #[macro_export] are always pub and can be referred to by other crates, either by path or by #[macro_use] as described above.

Hygiene

By default, all identifiers referred to in a macro are expanded as-is, and are looked up at the macro's invocation site. This can lead to issues if a macro refers to an item or macro which isn't in scope at the invocation site. To alleviate this, the $crate metavariable can be used at the start of a path to force lookup to occur inside the crate defining the macro.

//// Definitions in the `helper_macro` crate.
#[macro_export]
macro_rules! helped {
    // () => { helper!() } // This might lead to an error due to 'helper' not being in scope.
    () => { $crate::helper!() }
}

#[macro_export]
macro_rules! helper {
    () => { () }
}

//// Usage in another crate.
// Note that `helper_macro::helper` is not imported!
use helper_macro::helped;

fn unit() {
    helped!();
}

Note that, because $crate refers to the current crate, it must be used with a fully qualified module path when referring to non-macro items:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pub mod inner {
    #[macro_export]
    macro_rules! call_foo {
        () => { $crate::inner::foo() };
    }

    pub fn foo() {}
}
}

Additionally, even though $crate allows a macro to refer to items within its own crate when expanding, its use has no effect on visibility. An item or macro referred to must still be visible from the invocation site. In the following example, any attempt to invoke call_foo!() from outside its crate will fail because foo() is not public.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[macro_export]
macro_rules! call_foo {
    () => { $crate::foo() };
}

fn foo() {}
}

Version & Edition Differences: Prior to Rust 1.30, $crate and local_inner_macros (below) were unsupported. They were added alongside path-based imports of macros (described above), to ensure that helper macros did not need to be manually imported by users of a macro-exporting crate. Crates written for earlier versions of Rust that use helper macros need to be modified to use $crate or local_inner_macros to work well with path-based imports.

When a macro is exported, the #[macro_export] attribute can have the local_inner_macros keyword added to automatically prefix all contained macro invocations with $crate::. This is intended primarily as a tool to migrate code written before $crate was added to the language to work with Rust 2018's path-based imports of macros. Its use is discouraged in new code.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
#[macro_export(local_inner_macros)]
macro_rules! helped {
    () => { helper!() } // Automatically converted to $crate::helper!().
}

#[macro_export]
macro_rules! helper {
    () => { () }
}
}

Follow-set Ambiguity Restrictions

The parser used by the macro system is reasonably powerful, but it is limited in order to prevent ambiguity in current or future versions of the language. In particular, in addition to the rule about ambiguous expansions, a nonterminal matched by a metavariable must be followed by a token which has been decided can be safely used after that kind of match.

As an example, a macro matcher like $i:expr [ , ] could in theory be accepted in Rust today, since [,] cannot be part of a legal expression and therefore the parse would always be unambiguous. However, because [ can start trailing expressions, [ is not a character which can safely be ruled out as coming after an expression. If [,] were accepted in a later version of Rust, this matcher would become ambiguous or would misparse, breaking working code. Matchers like $i:expr, or $i:expr; would be legal, however, because , and ; are legal expression separators. The specific rules are:

  • expr and stmt may only be followed by one of: =>, ,, or ;.
  • pat_param may only be followed by one of: =>, ,, =, |, if, or in.
  • pat may only be followed by one of: =>, ,, =, if, or in.
  • path and ty may only be followed by one of: =>, ,, =, |, ;, :, >, >>, [, {, as, where, or a macro variable of block fragment specifier.
  • vis may only be followed by one of: ,, an identifier other than a non-raw priv, any token that can begin a type, or a metavariable with a ident, ty, or path fragment specifier.
  • All other fragment specifiers have no restrictions.

Edition Differences: Before the 2021 edition, pat may also be followed by |.

When repetitions are involved, then the rules apply to every possible number of expansions, taking separators into account. This means:

  • If the repetition includes a separator, that separator must be able to follow the contents of the repetition.
  • If the repetition can repeat multiple times (* or +), then the contents must be able to follow themselves.
  • The contents of the repetition must be able to follow whatever comes before, and whatever comes after must be able to follow the contents of the repetition.
  • If the repetition can match zero times (* or ?), then whatever comes after must be able to follow whatever comes before.


Macros in Rust: A tutorial with examples

In this tutorial, we’ll cover everything you need to know about Rust macros, including an introduction to macros in Rust and a demonstration of how to use Rust macros with examples.

What are Rust macros?

Rust has excellent support for macros. Macros enable you to write code that writes other code, which is known as metaprogramming.

Macros provide functionality similar to functions but without the runtime cost. There is some compile-time cost, however, since macros are expanded during compile time.

Rust macros are very different from macros in C. Rust macros are applied to the token tree whereas C macros are text substitution.

Types of macros in Rust

Rust has two types of macros:

  1. Declarative macros enable you to write something similar to a match expression that operates on the Rust code you provide as arguments. It uses the code you provide to generate code that replaces the macro invocation
  2. Procedural macros allow you to operate on the abstract syntax tree (AST) of the Rust code it is given. A proc macro is a function from a TokenStream (or two) to another TokenStream, where the output replaces the macro invocation

Let’s zoom in on both declarative and procedural macros and explore some examples of how to use macros in Rust.

Declarative macros in Rust

These macros are declared using macro_rules!. Declarative macros are a bit less powerful but provide an easy to use interface for creating macros to remove duplicate code. One of the common declarative macro is println!. Declarative macros provide a match like an interface where on match the macro is replaced with code inside the matched arm.

Creating declarative macros

// use macro_rules! <name of macro>{<Body>}
macro_rules! add{
 // macth like arm for macro
    ($a:expr,$b:expr)=>{
 // macro expand to this code
        {
// $a and $b will be templated using the value/variable provided to macro
            $a+$b
        }
    }
}

fn main(){
 // call to macro, $a=1 and $b=2
    add!(1,2);
}

This code creates a macro to add two numbers. [macro_rules!] are used with the name of the macro, add, and the body of the macro.

 

The macro doesn’t add two numbers, it just replaces itself with the code to add two numbers. Each arm of the macro takes an argument for functions and multiple types can be assigned to arguments. If the add function can also take a single argument, we add another arm.

macro_rules! add{
 // first arm match add!(1,2), add!(2,3) etc
    ($a:expr,$b:expr)=>{
        {
            $a+$b
        }
    };
// Second arm macth add!(1), add!(2) etc
    ($a:expr)=>{
        {
            $a
        }
    }
}

fn main(){
// call the macro
    let x=0;
    add!(1,2);
    add!(x);
}

There can be multiple branches in a single macro expanding to different code based on different arguments. Each branch can take multiple arguments, starting with the $ sign and followed by a token type:

  • item — an item, like a function, struct, module, etc.
  • block — a block (i.e. a block of statements and/or an expression, surrounded by braces)
  • stmt — a statement
  • pat — a pattern
  • expr — an expression
  • ty — a type
  • ident — an identifier
  • path — a path (e.g., foo, ::std::mem::replace, transmute::<_, int>, …)
  • meta — a meta item; the things that go inside #[...] and #![...] attributes
  • tt — a single token tree
  • vis — a possibly empty Visibility qualifier

In the example, we use the $typ argument with token type ty as a datatype like u8, u16, etc. This macro converts to a particular type before adding the numbers.

macro_rules! add_as{
// using a ty token type for macthing datatypes passed to maccro
    ($a:expr,$b:expr,$typ:ty)=>{
        $a as $typ + $b as $typ
    }
}

fn main(){
    println!("{}",add_as!(0,2,u8));
}

Rust macros also support taking a nonfixed number of arguments. The operators are very similar to the regular expression. * is used for zero or more token types and + for zero or one argument.

macro_rules! add_as{
    (
  // repeated block
  $($a:expr)
 // seperator
   ,
// zero or more
   *
   )=>{
       { 
   // to handle the case without any arguments
   0
   // block to be repeated
   $(+$a)*
     }
    }
}

fn main(){
    println!("{}",add_as!(1,2,3,4)); // => println!("{}",{0+1+2+3+4})
}

The token type that repeats is enclosed in $(), followed by a separator and a * or a +, indicating the number of times the token will repeat. The separator is used to distinguish the tokens from each other. The $() block followed by * or + is used to indicate the repeating block of code. In the above example, +$a is a repeating code.

If you look closely, you’ll notice an additional zero is added to the code to make the syntax valid. To remove this zero and make the add expression the same as the argument, we need to create a new macro known as TT muncher.

macro_rules! add{
 // first arm in case of single argument and last remaining variable/number
    ($a:expr)=>{
        $a
    };
// second arm in case of two arument are passed and stop recursion in case of odd number ofarguments
    ($a:expr,$b:expr)=>{
        {
            $a+$b
        }
    };
// add the number and the result of remaining arguments 
    ($a:expr,$($b:tt)*)=>{
       {
           $a+add!($($b)*)
       }
    }
}

fn main(){
    println!("{}",add!(1,2,3,4));
}

The TT muncher processes each token separately in a recursive fashion. It’s easier to process a single token at a time. The macro has three arms:

  1. The first arms handle the case if a single argument is passed
  2. The second one handles the case if two arguments are passed
  3. The third arm calls the add macro again with the rest of the arguments

The macro arguments don’t need to be comma-separated. Multiple tokens can be used with different token types. For example, brackets can be used with the ident token type. The Rust compiler takes the matched arm and extracts the variable from the argument string.

macro_rules! ok_or_return{
// match something(q,r,t,6,7,8) etc
// compiler extracts function name and arguments. It injects the values in respective varibles.
    ($a:ident($($b:tt)*))=>{
       {
        match $a($($b)*) {
            Ok(value)=>value,
            Err(err)=>{
                return Err(err);
            }
        }
        }
    };
}

fn some_work(i:i64,j:i64)->Result<(i64,i64),String>{
    if i+j>2 {
        Ok((i,j))
    } else {
        Err("error".to_owned())
    }
}

fn main()->Result<(),String>{
    ok_or_return!(some_work(1,4));
    ok_or_return!(some_work(1,0));
    Ok(())
}

The ok_or_return macro returns the function if an operation returns Err or the value of an operation returns Ok. It takes a function as an argument and executes it inside a match statement. For arguments passed to function, it uses repetition.

Often, few macros need to be grouped into a single macro. In these cases, internal macro rules are used. It helps to manipulate the macro inputs and write clean TT munchers.

To create an internal rule, add the rule name starting with @ as the argument. Now the macro will never match for an internal rule until explicitly specified as an argument.

macro_rules! ok_or_return{
 // internal rule.
    (@error $a:ident,$($b:tt)* )=>{
        {
        match $a($($b)*) {
            Ok(value)=>value,
            Err(err)=>{
                return Err(err);
            }
        }
        }
    };

// public rule can be called by the user.
    ($a:ident($($b:tt)*))=>{
        ok_or_return!(@error $a,$($b)*)
    };
}

fn some_work(i:i64,j:i64)->Result<(i64,i64),String>{
    if i+j>2 {
        Ok((i,j))
    } else {
        Err("error".to_owned())
    }
}

fn main()->Result<(),String>{
   // instead of round bracket curly brackets can also be used
    ok_or_return!{some_work(1,4)};
    ok_or_return!(some_work(1,0));
    Ok(())
}

Advanced parsing in Rust with declarative macros

Macros sometimes perform tasks that require parsing of the Rust language itself.

Do put together all the concepts we’ve covered to this point, let’s create a macro that makes a struct public by suffixing the pub keyword.

First, we need to parse the Rust struct to get the name of the struct, fields of the struct, and field type.

Parsing the name and field of a struct

A struct declaration has a visibility keyword at the start (such as pub), followed by the struct keyword and then the name of the struct and the body of the struct.

macro_rules! make_public{
    (
  // use vis type for visibility keyword and ident for struct name
     $vis:vis struct $struct_name:ident { }
    ) => {
        {
            pub struct $struct_name{ }
        }
    }
}

The $vis will have visibility and $struct_name will have a struct name. To make a struct public, we just need to add the pub keyword and ignore the $vis variable.


 

A struct may contain multiple fields with the same or different data types and visibility. The ty token type is used for the data type, vis for visibility, and ident for the field name. We’ll use * repetition for zero or more fields.

 macro_rules! make_public{
    (
     $vis:vis struct $struct_name:ident {
        $(
 // vis for field visibility, ident for field name and ty for field data type
        $field_vis:vis $field_name:ident : $field_type:ty
        ),*
    }
    ) => {
        {
            pub struct $struct_name{
                $(
                pub $field_name : $field_type,
                )*
            }
        }
    }
}

Parsing metadata from the struct

Often the struct has some metadata attached or procedural macros, such as #[derive(Debug)]. This metadata needs to stay intact. Parsing this metadata is done using the meta type.

macro_rules! make_public{
    (
     // meta data about struct
     $(#[$meta:meta])* 
     $vis:vis struct $struct_name:ident {
        $(
        // meta data about field
        $(#[$field_meta:meta])*
        $field_vis:vis $field_name:ident : $field_type:ty
        ),*$(,)+
    }
    ) => {
        { 
            $(#[$meta])*
            pub struct $struct_name{
                $(
                $(#[$field_meta:meta])*
                pub $field_name : $field_type,
                )*
            }
        }
    }
}

Our make_public macro is ready now. To see how make_public works, let’s use Rust Playground to expand the macro to the actual code that is compiled.

macro_rules! make_public{
    (
     $(#[$meta:meta])* 
     $vis:vis struct $struct_name:ident {
        $(
        $(#[$field_meta:meta])*
        $field_vis:vis $field_name:ident : $field_type:ty
        ),*$(,)+
    }
    ) => {

            $(#[$meta])*
            pub struct $struct_name{
                $(
                $(#[$field_meta:meta])*
                pub $field_name : $field_type,
                )*
            }
    }
}

fn main(){
    make_public!{
        #[derive(Debug)]
        struct Name{
            n:i64,
            t:i64,
            g:i64,
        }
    }
}

The expanded code looks like this:

// some imports


macro_rules! make_public {
    ($ (#[$ meta : meta]) * $ vis : vis struct $ struct_name : ident
     {
         $
         ($ (#[$ field_meta : meta]) * $ field_vis : vis $ field_name : ident
          : $ field_type : ty), * $ (,) +
     }) =>
    {

            $ (#[$ meta]) * pub struct $ struct_name
            {
                $
                ($ (#[$ field_meta : meta]) * pub $ field_name : $
                 field_type,) *
            }
    }
}

fn main() {
        pub struct name {
            pub n: i64,
            pub t: i64,
            pub g: i64,
    }
}

Limitations of declarative macros

Declarative macros have a few limitations. Some are related to Rust macros themselves while others are more specific to declarative macros.

  • Lack of support for macros autocompletion and expansion
  • Debugging declarative macros is difficult
  • Limited modification capabilities
  • Larger binaries
  • Longer compile time (this applies to both declarative and procedural macros)

Procedural macros in Rust

Procedural macros are a more advanced version of macros. Procedural macros allow you to expand the existing syntax of Rust. It takes arbitrary input and returns valid Rust code.

Procedural macros are functions that take a TokenStream as input and return another Token Stream. Procedural macros manipulate the input TokenStream to produce an output stream.

There are three types of procedural macros:

  1. Attribute-like macros
  2. Derive macros
  3. Function-like macros

We’ll go into each procedural macro type in detail below.

Attribute-like macros

Attribute-like macros enable you to create a custom attribute that attaches itself to an item and allows manipulation of that item. It can also take arguments.

#[some_attribute_macro(some_argument)]
fn perform_task(){
// some code
}

In the above code, some_attribute_macros is an attribute macro. It manipulates the function perform_task.

To write an attribute-like macro, start by creating a project using cargo new macro-demo --lib. Once the project is ready, update the Cargo.toml to notify cargo the project will create procedural macros.

# Cargo.toml
[lib]
proc-macro = true

Now we are all set to venture into procedural macros.

Procedural macros are public functions that take TokenStream as input and return another TokenStream. To write a procedural macro, we need to write our parser to parse TokenStream. The Rust community has a very good crate, syn, for parsing TokenStream.

synprovides a ready-made parser for Rust syntax that can be used to parse TokenStream. You can also parse your syntax by combining low-level parsers providing syn.

Add syn and quote to Cargo.toml:

# Cargo.toml
[dependencies]
syn = {version="1.0.57",features=["full","fold"]}
quote = "1.0.8"

Now we can write an attribute-like a macro in lib.rs using the proc_macro crate provided by the compiler for writing procedural macros. A procedural macro crate cannot export anything else other than procedural macros and procedural macros defined in the crate can’t be used in the crate itself.

// lib.rs
extern crate proc_macro;
use proc_macro::{TokenStream};
use quote::{quote};

// using proc_macro_attribute to declare an attribute like procedural macro
#[proc_macro_attribute]
// _metadata is argument provided to macro call and _input is code to which attribute like macro attaches
pub fn my_custom_attribute(_metadata: TokenStream, _input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
    // returing a simple TokenStream for Struct
    TokenStream::from(quote!{struct H{}})
}

To test the macro we added, create an ingratiation test by creating a folder named tests and adding the file attribute_macro.rs in the folder. In this file, we can use our attribute-like macro for testing.

// tests/attribute_macro.rs

use macro_demo::*;

// macro converts struct S to struct H
#[my_custom_attribute]
struct S{}

#[test]
fn test_macro(){
// due to macro we have struct H in scope
    let demo=H{};
}

Run the above test using the cargo test command.

Now that we understand the basics of procedural macros, lets use syn for some advanced TokenStream manipulation and parsing.

To learn how syn is used for parsing and manipulation, let’s take an example from the syn GitHub repo. This example creates a Rust macro that trace variables when value changes.

First, we need to identify how our macro will manipulate the code it attaches.

#[trace_vars(a)]
fn do_something(){
  let a=9;
  a=6;
  a=0;
}

The trace_vars macro takes the name of the variable it needs to trace and injects a print statement each time the value of the input variable i.e a changes. It tracks the value of input variables.

First, parse the code to which the attribute-like macro attaches. syn provides an inbuilt parser for Rust function syntax. ItemFn will parse the function and throw an error if the syntax is invalid.

#[proc_macro_attribute]
pub fn trace_vars(_metadata: TokenStream, input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
// parsing rust function to easy to use struct
    let input_fn = parse_macro_input!(input as ItemFn);
    TokenStream::from(quote!{fn dummy(){}})
}

Now that we have the parsed input, let’s move to metadata. For metadata, no inbuilt parser will work, so we’ll have to write one ourselves using syn‘s parse module.

#[trace_vars(a,c,b)] // we need to parse a "," seperated list of tokens
// code

For syn to work, we need to implement the Parse trait provided by syn. Punctuated is used to create a vector of Indent separated by ,.

struct Args{
    vars:HashSet<Ident>
}

impl Parse for Args{
    fn parse(input: ParseStream) -> Result<Self> {
        // parses a,b,c, or a,b,c where a,b and c are Indent
        let vars = Punctuated::<Ident, Token![,]>::parse_terminated(input)?;
        Ok(Args {
            vars: vars.into_iter().collect(),
        })
    }
}

Once we implement the Parse trait, we can use parse_macro_input macro for parsing metadata.

#[proc_macro_attribute]
pub fn trace_vars(metadata: TokenStream, input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
    let input_fn = parse_macro_input!(input as ItemFn);
// using newly created struct Args
    let args= parse_macro_input!(metadata as Args);
    TokenStream::from(quote!{fn dummy(){}})
}

We will now modify the input_fn to add println! when the variable changes the value. To add this, we need to filter outlines that have an assignment and insert a print statement after that line.

impl Args {
    fn should_print_expr(&self, e: &Expr) -> bool {
        match *e {
            Expr::Path(ref e) => {
 // variable shouldn't start wiht ::
                if e.path.leading_colon.is_some() {
                    false
// should be a single variable like `x=8` not n::x=0 
                } else if e.path.segments.len() != 1 {
                    false
                } else {
// get the first part
                    let first = e.path.segments.first().unwrap();
// check if the variable name is in the Args.vars hashset
                    self.vars.contains(&first.ident) && first.arguments.is_empty()
                }
            }
            _ => false,
        }
    }

// used for checking if to print let i=0 etc or not
    fn should_print_pat(&self, p: &Pat) -> bool {
        match p {
// check if variable name is present in set
            Pat::Ident(ref p) => self.vars.contains(&p.ident),
            _ => false,
        }
    }

// manipulate tree to insert print statement
    fn assign_and_print(&mut self, left: Expr, op: &dyn ToTokens, right: Expr) -> Expr {
 // recurive call on right of the assigment statement
        let right = fold::fold_expr(self, right);
// returning manipulated sub-tree
        parse_quote!({
            #left #op #right;
            println!(concat!(stringify!(#left), " = {:?}"), #left);
        })
    }

// manipulating let statement
    fn let_and_print(&mut self, local: Local) -> Stmt {
        let Local { pat, init, .. } = local;
        let init = self.fold_expr(*init.unwrap().1);
// get the variable name of assigned variable
        let ident = match pat {
            Pat::Ident(ref p) => &p.ident,
            _ => unreachable!(),
        };
// new sub tree
        parse_quote! {
            let #pat = {
                #[allow(unused_mut)]
                let #pat = #init;
                println!(concat!(stringify!(#ident), " = {:?}"), #ident);
                #ident
            };
        }
    }
}

In the above example, the quote macro is used for templating and writing Rust. # is used for injecting the value of the variable.

Now we’ll do a DFS over input_fn and insert the print statement. syn provides a Fold trait that can be implemented for DFS over any Item. We just need to modify the trait methods that correspond with the token type we want to manipulate.

impl Fold for Args {
    fn fold_expr(&mut self, e: Expr) -> Expr {
        match e {
// for changing assignment like a=5
            Expr::Assign(e) => {
// check should print
                if self.should_print_expr(&e.left) {
                    self.assign_and_print(*e.left, &e.eq_token, *e.right)
                } else {
// continue with default travesal using default methods
                    Expr::Assign(fold::fold_expr_assign(self, e))
                }
            }
// for changing assigment and operation like a+=1
            Expr::AssignOp(e) => {
// check should print
                if self.should_print_expr(&e.left) {
                    self.assign_and_print(*e.left, &e.op, *e.right)
                } else {
// continue with default behaviour
                    Expr::AssignOp(fold::fold_expr_assign_op(self, e))
                }
            }
// continue with default behaviour for rest of expressions
            _ => fold::fold_expr(self, e),
        }
    }

// for let statements like let d=9
    fn fold_stmt(&mut self, s: Stmt) -> Stmt {
        match s {
            Stmt::Local(s) => {
                if s.init.is_some() && self.should_print_pat(&s.pat) {
                    self.let_and_print(s)
                } else {
                    Stmt::Local(fold::fold_local(self, s))
                }
            }
            _ => fold::fold_stmt(self, s),
        }
    }
}

The Fold trait is used to do a DFS of Item. It enables you to use different behavior for various token types.

Now we can use fold_item_fn to inject print statements in our parsed code.

#[proc_macro_attribute]
pub fn trace_var(args: TokenStream, input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
// parse the input
    let input = parse_macro_input!(input as ItemFn);
// parse the arguments
    let mut args = parse_macro_input!(args as Args);
// create the ouput
    let output = args.fold_item_fn(input);
// return the TokenStream
    TokenStream::from(quote!(#output))
}

This code example is from the syn examples repo, which is an excellent resource to learn about procedural macros.

Custom derive macros

Custom derive macros in Rust allow auto implement traits. These macros enable you to implement traits using #[derive(Trait)].

syn has excellent support for derive macros.

#[derive(Trait)]
struct MyStruct{}

To write a custom derive macro in Rust, we can use DeriveInput for parsing input to derive macro. We’ll also use the proc_macro_derive macro to define a custom derive macro.

#[proc_macro_derive(Trait)]
pub fn derive_trait(input: proc_macro::TokenStream) -> proc_macro::TokenStream {
    let input = parse_macro_input!(input as DeriveInput);

    let name = input.ident;

    let expanded = quote! {
        impl Trait for #name {
            fn print(&self) -> usize {
                println!("{}","hello from #name")
           }
        }
    };

    proc_macro::TokenStream::from(expanded)
}

More advanced procedural macros can be written using syn. Check out this example from syn‘s repo.

Function-like macros

Function-like macros are similar to declarative macros in that they’re invoked with the macro invocation operator ! and look like function calls. They operate on the code that is inside the parentheses.

Here’s how to write a function-like macro in Rust:

#[proc_macro]
pub fn a_proc_macro(_input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
    TokenStream::from(quote!(
            fn anwser()->i32{
                5
            }
))
}

Function-like macros are executed not at runtime but at compile time. They can be used anywhere in Rust code. Function-like macros also take a TokenStream and return a TokenStream.

Advantages of using procedural macros include:

  • Better error handling using span
  • Better control over output
  • Community-built crates syn and quote
  • More powerful than declarative macros

Conclusion

In this Rust macros tutorial, we covered the basics of macros in Rust, defined declarative and procedural macros, and walked through how to write both types of macros using various syntax and community-built crates. We also outlined the advantages of using each type of Rust macro.


References:
- Please support those who need it the most right now: https://help.gov.ua/en
- Source Code: https://github.com/tsoding/noq
- Macros by Example: https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/macros-by-example.html
- TT munchers: https://danielkeep.github.io/tlborm/book/pat-incremental-tt-munchers.html

#rust #programming