data science

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Tools Used By Data Scientists

To finish your specific task successfully as a data scientist, then you need to be aware of the top Data Science tools available on the market. He or she would need a variety of statistical tools and programming languages to accomplish so. Choosing one for your travel and career can be difficult. They employ these technologies to speed up ordinary tasks so that they can focus their energy and brainpower on solving the current difficulty.


 

We'll go through some of the Data Science Tools that Data Scientists utilise to carry out their data operations in this article. The increased popularity of data science has resulted in an increase in the creation of data science tools. We'll learn about the tools' essential features, the benefits they give, and a comparison of different data science tools.


 

Tableau

Tableau is a specific data visualization programme that technically comes with a lot of cool images to help you create interactive and relevant representations. Tableau allows you to visually represent data in less time so that everyone can comprehend it. It's aimed at companies who work in the field of business intelligence. Tableau can only assist you to solve advanced data analytics problems in a shorter amount of time.


 

  • Tableau's capacity to integrate with databases, spreadsheets, OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cubes, and other data sources is its most important feature. 
  • Tableau can also show geographic data and plot longitudes and latitudes on maps, in addition to these features. 
  • Tableau enables customers to get the most out of their data and produce insightful insights.



 

Tensorflow

TensorFlow is used in a variety of modern technologies, including Data Science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence. Deep Learning and other advanced machine learning algorithms make considerable use of it. TensorFlow is called after tensors, which are multidimensional arrays created by the developers. TensorFlow is a Python package that allows you to create and train Data Science models. 

  • It's an open-source, constantly expanding toolkit that's noted for its speed and processing power. 
  • With this tool, you can ideally take data visualization to the next different level.
  • TensorFlow is easy to use and is frequently used for differential programming because it is developed in Python. 
  • TensorFlow is a programming language that runs on both CPUs and GPUs, and it's now available on more powerful TPU systems.


 

BigML

BigML is used to create datasets that can then be readily shared with other systems. Another popular and widely used Data Science tool is BigML. BigML, which was originally created for the use of Machine Learning (ML), is now frequently used to create practical Data Science methods. BigML creates standardized software for industry needs using cloud computing. BigML makes it simple to classify data and discover anomalies/outliers in a dataset.


 

  • BigML is a company that specializes in predictive modelling. 
  • BigML's certain and interactive data visualization approach technically makes decision-making simple for data scientists. 
  • BigML features a simple web interface that employs Rest APIs and based on your data demands, you may register a free or premium account. 


 

Time-series forecasting, topic modelling, association finding, and other activities are all possible with the Scalable BigML platform. BigML especially allows you to work with massive amounts of relevant data.


 

Apache Spark

Apache Spark, which is technically based on Hadoop MapReduce, could handle interactive queries and stream processing. This was technically built somehow from the ground up to specific perform batch as well as stream processing. Because of its in-memory cluster computing, it has become one of the greatest Data Science tools on the market. 


 

  • SQL queries are quite supported by the tool Apache Spark, which allows you to derive multiple associations from your collection. 
  • It outperforms Hadoop by 100 times and is 100 times faster than MapReduce. 
  • Spark also has APIs for constructing Data Science applications in Java, Scala, and Python.


 

MATLAB 

Businesses and organizations commonly use MATLAB as a Data Science tool. For processing mathematical data, MATLAB is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment. It's nothing but a programming platform for data scientists that technology allows them to access information from flat files, databases, cloud platforms, and other sources. 

  • MATLAB is so widely used in an era of modern scientific fields. 
  • With MATLAB, you can technically quickly do feature engineering on a dataset as well. 
  • You can ideally construct stunning visualizations with the trending MATLAB graphics library. 
  • The data types in MATLAB are specifically developed for Data Science and save a significant amount of time in data pre-processing.


 

Final lines

We come to the conclusion that data science necessitates a diverse set of tools. When processing huge data, data scientists employ a variety of methods to reduce latency and errors. Data science tools are widely used to analyze data, also to create aesthetically pleasing and interactive visualizations. Aside from that, It also builds effective predictive models which use machine learning techniques and insights as well. Some of the most commonly used Data Science tools are included in the list above.


 

Most data science tools allow you to do complex data science operations in one place. Learn more about the leading Data Science tools by taking Learnbay's data science course, which uses a seamless industry-oriented learning method.

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Tools Used By Data Scientists
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

1667425440

Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

 iOS App Dev

iOS App Dev

1620466520

Your Data Architecture: Simple Best Practices for Your Data Strategy

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you should probably think about your data architecture and possible best practices.

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you most probably need to think about your data architecture and consider possible best practices. Gaining a competitive edge, remaining customer-centric to the greatest extent possible, and streamlining processes to get on-the-button outcomes can all be traced back to an organization’s capacity to build a future-ready data architecture.

In what follows, we offer a short overview of the overarching capabilities of data architecture. These include user-centricity, elasticity, robustness, and the capacity to ensure the seamless flow of data at all times. Added to these are automation enablement, plus security and data governance considerations. These points from our checklist for what we perceive to be an anticipatory analytics ecosystem.

#big data #data science #big data analytics #data analysis #data architecture #data transformation #data platform #data strategy #cloud data platform #data acquisition

Ian  Robinson

Ian Robinson

1624399200

Top 10 Big Data Tools for Data Management and Analytics

Introduction to Big Data

What exactly is Big Data? Big Data is nothing but large and complex data sets, which can be both structured and unstructured. Its concept encompasses the infrastructures, technologies, and Big Data Tools created to manage this large amount of information.

To fulfill the need to achieve high-performance, Big Data Analytics tools play a vital role. Further, various Big Data tools and frameworks are responsible for retrieving meaningful information from a huge set of data.

List of Big Data Tools & Frameworks

The most important as well as popular Big Data Analytics Open Source Tools which are used in 2020 are as follows:

  1. Big Data Framework
  2. Data Storage Tools
  3. Data Visualization Tools
  4. Big Data Processing Tools
  5. Data Preprocessing Tools
  6. Data Wrangling Tools
  7. Big Data Testing Tools
  8. Data Governance Tools
  9. Security Management Tools
  10. Real-Time Data Streaming Tools

#big data engineering #top 10 big data tools for data management and analytics #big data tools for data management and analytics #tools for data management #analytics #top big data tools for data management and analytics

Gerhard  Brink

Gerhard Brink

1624692167

Top 10 Big Data Tools for 2021!

In today’s tech world, data is everything. As the focus on data grows, it keeps multiplying by leaps and bounds each day. If earlier mounds of data were talked about in kilobytes and megabytes, today terabytes have become the base unit for organizational data. This coming in of big data has transformed paradigms of data storage, processing, and analytics.

Instead of only gathering and storing information that can offer crucial insights to meet short-term goals, an increasing number of enterprises are storing much larger amounts of data gathered from multiple resources across business processes. However, all this data is meaningless on its own. It can add value only when it is processed and analyzed the right way to draw point insights that can improve decision-making.

Processing and analyzing big data is not an easy task. If not handled correctly, big data can turn into an obstacle rather than an effective solution for businesses. Effective handling of big data management  requires to use of tools that can steer you toward tangible, substantial results. For that, you need a set of great big data tools that will not only solve this problem but also help you in producing substantial results.

Data storage tools, warehouses, and data lakes all play a crucial role in helping companies store and sort vast amounts of information. However, the true power of big data lies in its analytics. There are a host of big data tools in the market today to aid a business’ journey from gathering data to storing, processing, analyzing, and reporting it. Let’s take a closer look at some of the top big data tools that can help you inch closer to your goal of establishing data-driven decision-making and workflow processes.

Apache Hadoop

Apache Spark

Flink

Apache Storm

Apache Cassandra

#big data #big data tools #big data management #big data tool #top 10 big data tools for 2021! #top-big-data-tool

Java Questions

Java Questions

1599137520

50 Data Science Jobs That Opened Just Last Week

Our latest survey report suggests that as the overall Data Science and Analytics market evolves to adapt to the constantly changing economic and business environments, data scientists and AI practitioners should be aware of the skills and tools that the broader community is working on. A good grip in these skills will further help data science enthusiasts to get the best jobs that various industries in their data science functions are offering.

In this article, we list down 50 latest job openings in data science that opened just last week.

(The jobs are sorted according to the years of experience r

1| Data Scientist at IBM

**Location: **Bangalore

Skills Required: Real-time anomaly detection solutions, NLP, text analytics, log analysis, cloud migration, AI planning, etc.

Apply here.

2| Associate Data Scientist at PayPal

**Location: **Chennai

Skills Required: Data mining experience in Python, R, H2O and/or SAS, cross-functional, highly complex data science projects, SQL or SQL-like tools, among others.

Apply here.

3| Data Scientist at Citrix

Location: Bangalore

Skills Required: Data modelling, database architecture, database design, database programming such as SQL, Python, etc., forecasting algorithms, cloud platforms, designing and developing ETL and ELT processes, etc.

Apply here.

4| Data Scientist at PayPal

**Location: **Bangalore

Skills Required: SQL and querying relational databases, statistical programming language (SAS, R, Python), data visualisation tool (Tableau, Qlikview), project management, etc.

Apply here.

5| Data Science at Accenture

**Location: **Bibinagar, Telangana

Skills Required: Data science frameworks Jupyter notebook, AWS Sagemaker, querying databases and using statistical computer languages: R, Python, SLQ, statistical and data mining techniques, distributed data/computing tools such as Map/Reduce, Flume, Drill, Hadoop, Hive, Spark, Gurobi, MySQL, among others.


#careers #data science #data science career #data science jobs #data science news #data scientist #data scientists #data scientists india