Tia  Gottlieb

Tia Gottlieb

1596861360

Transformers (State-of-the-art Natural Language Processing)

This is a 3 part series where we will be going through Transformers, BERT, and a hands-on Kaggle challenge — Google QUEST Q&A Labeling to see Transformers in action (top 4.4% on the leaderboard).

In this part (1/3) we will be looking at how Transformers became state-of-the-art in various modern natural language processing tasks and their working.

The Transformer is a deep learning model proposed in the paper Attention is All You Need by researchers at Google and the University of Toronto in 2017, used primarily in the field of natural language processing (NLP).

Like recurrent neural networks (RNNs), Transformers are designed to handle sequential data, such as natural language, for tasks such as translation and text summarization. However, unlike RNNs, Transformers do not require that the sequential data be processed in the order. For example, if the input data is a natural language sentence, the Transformer does not need to process the beginning of it before the end. Due to this feature, the Transformer allows for much more parallelization than RNNs and therefore reduced training times.

Transformers were designed around the concept of attention mechanism which was designed to help memorize long source sentences in neural machine translation.

Sounds cool right?

Let’s take a look under the hood and see how things work.

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Transformers are based on an encoder-decoder architecture that comprises of encoders which consists of a set of encoding layers that processes the input iteratively one layer after another and decoders that consists of a set of decoding layers that does the same thing to the output of the encoder.

So, when we pass a sentence into a transformer, it is embedded and passed into a stack of encoders. The output from the final encoder is then passed into each decoder block in the decoder stack. The decoder stack then generates the output.

All the encoder blocks in the transformer are identical and similarly, all the decoder blocks in the transformer are identical.

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This was a very high-level representation of a transformer and it wouldn’t probably make much sense when understanding how transformers are so efficient in modern NLP tasks.

Don’t worry, to make things clearer, we will go through the internals of an encoder and decoder cell now…

#deep-learning #education #machine-learning #artificial-intelligence #nlp #deep learning

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Transformers (State-of-the-art Natural Language Processing)
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1623250620

Introduction to Natural Language Processing

We’re officially a part of a digitally dominated world where our lives revolve around technology and its innovations. Each second the world produces an incomprehensible amount of data, a majority of which is unstructured. And ever since Big Data and Data Science have started gaining traction both in the IT and business domains, it has become crucial to making sense of this vast trove of raw, unstructured data to foster data-driven decisions and innovations. But how exactly are we able to give coherence to the unstructured data?

The answer is simple – through Natural Language Processing (NLP).

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

In simple terms, NLP refers to the ability of computers to understand human speech or text as it is spoken or written. In a more comprehensive way, natural language processing can be defined as a branch of Artificial Intelligence that enables computers to grasp, understand, interpret, and also manipulate the ways in which computers interact with humans and human languages. It draws inspiration both from computational linguistics and computer science to bridge the gap that exists between human language and a computer’s understanding.

Deep Learning: Dive into the World of Machine Learning!

The concept of natural language processing isn’t new – nearly seventy years ago, computer programmers made use of ‘punch cards’ to communicate with the computers. Now, however, we have smart personal assistants like Siri and Alexa with whom we can easily communicate in human terms. For instance, if you ask Siri, “Hey, Siri, play me the song Careless Whisper”, Siri will be quick to respond to you with an “Okay” or “Sure” and play the song for you! How cool is that?

Nope, it is not magic! It is solely possible because of NLP powered by AI, ML, and Deep Learning technologies. Let’s break it down for you – as you speak into your device, it becomes activated. Once activated, it executes a specific action to process your speech and understand it. Then, very cleverly, it responds to you with a well-articulated reply in a human-like voice. And the most impressive thing is that all of this is done in less than five seconds!

#artificial intelligence #big data #data sciences #machine learning #natural language processing #introduction to natural language processing

Chelsie  Towne

Chelsie Towne

1596716340

A Deep Dive Into the Transformer Architecture – The Transformer Models

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

It may seem like a long time since the world of natural language processing (NLP) was transformed by the seminal “Attention is All You Need” paper by Vaswani et al., but in fact that was less than 3 years ago. The relative recency of the introduction of transformer architectures and the ubiquity with which they have upended language tasks speaks to the rapid rate of progress in machine learning and artificial intelligence. There’s no better time than now to gain a deep understanding of the inner workings of transformer architectures, especially with transformer models making big inroads into diverse new applications like predicting chemical reactions and reinforcement learning.

Whether you’re an old hand or you’re only paying attention to transformer style architecture for the first time, this article should offer something for you. First, we’ll dive deep into the fundamental concepts used to build the original 2017 Transformer. Then we’ll touch on some of the developments implemented in subsequent transformer models. Where appropriate we’ll point out some limitations and how modern models inheriting ideas from the original Transformer are trying to overcome various shortcomings or improve performance.

What Do Transformers Do?

Transformers are the current state-of-the-art type of model for dealing with sequences. Perhaps the most prominent application of these models is in text processing tasks, and the most prominent of these is machine translation. In fact, transformers and their conceptual progeny have infiltrated just about every benchmark leaderboard in natural language processing (NLP), from question answering to grammar correction. In many ways transformer architectures are undergoing a surge in development similar to what we saw with convolutional neural networks following the 2012 ImageNet competition, for better and for worse.

#natural language processing #ai artificial intelligence #transformers #transformer architecture #transformer models

Paula  Hall

Paula Hall

1623392820

Structured natural language processing with Pandas and spaCy

Accelerate analysis by bringing structure to unstructured data

Working with natural language data can often be challenging due to its lack of structure. Most data scientists, analysts and product managers are familiar with structured tables, consisting of rows and columns, but less familiar with unstructured documents, consisting of sentences and words. For this reason, knowing how to approach a natural language dataset can be quite challenging. In this post I want to demonstrate how you can use the awesome Python packages, spaCy and Pandas, to structure natural language and extract interesting insights quickly.

Introduction to Spacy

spaCy is a very popular Python package for advanced NLP — I have a beginner friendly introduction to NLP with SpaCy here. spaCy is the perfect toolkit for applied data scientists when working on NLP projects. The api is very intuitive, the package is blazing fast and it is very well documented. It’s probably fair to say that it is the best general purpose package for NLP available. Before diving into structuring NLP data, it is useful to get familiar with the basics of the spaCy library and api.

After installing the package, you can load a model (in this case I am loading the simple Engilsh model, which is optimized for efficiency rather than accuracy) — i.e. the underlying neural network has fewer parameters.

import spacy
nlp = spacy.load("en_core_web_sm")

We instantiate this model as nlp by convention. Throughout this post I’ll work with this dataset of famous motivational quotes. Let’s apply the nlp model to a single quote from the data and store it in a variable.

#analytics #nlp #machine-learning #data-science #structured natural language processing with pandas and spacy #natural language processing

Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea

1624381200

Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tutorial with Python & NLTK

This video will provide you with a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of Natural Language Processing, popularly known as NLP. You will also learn about the different steps involved in processing the human language like Tokenization, Stemming, Lemmatization and more. Python, NLTK, & Jupyter Notebook are used to demonstrate the concepts.

📺 The video in this post was made by freeCodeCamp.org
The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2vAabgKiuM&list=PLWKjhJtqVAbnqBxcdjVGgT3uVR10bzTEB&index=16
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#natural language processing #nlp #python #python & nltk #nltk #natural language processing (nlp) tutorial with python & nltk

Eve  Klocko

Eve Klocko

1596736920

A Deep Dive Into the Transformer Architecture

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

It may seem like a long time since the world of natural language processing (NLP) was transformed by the seminal “Attention is All You Need” paper by Vaswani et al., but in fact that was less than 3 years ago. The relative recency of the introduction of transformer architectures and the ubiquity with which they have upended language tasks speaks to the rapid rate of progress in machine learning and artificial intelligence. There’s no better time than now to gain a deep understanding of the inner workings of transformer architectures, especially with transformer models making big inroads into diverse new applications like predicting chemical reactions and reinforcement learning.

Whether you’re an old hand or you’re only paying attention to transformer style architecture for the first time, this article should offer something for you. First, we’ll dive deep into the fundamental concepts used to build the original 2017 Transformer. Then we’ll touch on some of the developments implemented in subsequent transformer models. Where appropriate we’ll point out some limitations and how modern models inheriting ideas from the original Transformer are trying to overcome various shortcomings or improve performance.

What Do Transformers Do?

Transformers are the current state-of-the-art type of model for dealing with sequences. Perhaps the most prominent application of these models is in text processing tasks, and the most prominent of these is machine translation. In fact, transformers and their conceptual progeny have infiltrated just about every benchmark leaderboard in natural language processing (NLP), from question answering to grammar correction. In many ways transformer architectures are undergoing a surge in development similar to what we saw with convolutional neural networks following the 2012 ImageNet competition, for better and for worse.

#natural language processing #ai artificial intelligence #transformers #transformer architecture #transformer models