There are over 5 billion mobile device users all over the world. Such users generate massive amounts of data—via cameras, microphones, and other sensors like accelerometers—which can, in turn, be used for building intelligent applications. Such data is then collected in data centers for training machine/deep learning models in order to build intelligent applications.
However, due to data privacy concerns and bandwidth limitations, common centralized learning techniques aren’t appropriate—users are much less likely to share data, and thus the data will be only available on the devices.
This is where federated learning comes into play. According to Google’s research paper titled, Communication-Efficient Learning of Deep Networks from Decentralized Data , the researchers provide the following high-level definition of federated learning:
_A learning technique that allows users to collectively reap the beneﬁts of shared models trained from [this] rich data, without the need to centrally store it. We term our approach Federated Learning, since the learning task is solved by a loose federation of participating devices (which we refer to as clients) which are coordinated by a central server.
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Recently, researchers from Google proposed the solution of a very fundamental question in the machine learning community — What is being transferred in Transfer Learning? They explained various tools and analyses to address the fundamental question.
The ability to transfer the domain knowledge of one machine in which it is trained on to another where the data is usually scarce is one of the desired capabilities for machines. Researchers around the globe have been using transfer learning in various deep learning applications, including object detection, image classification, medical imaging tasks, among others.
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Reinforcement learning (RL) is surely a rising field, with the huge influence from the performance of AlphaZero (the best chess engine as of now). RL is a subfield of machine learning that teaches agents to perform in an environment to maximize rewards overtime.
Among RL’s model-free methods is temporal difference (TD) learning, with SARSA and Q-learning (QL) being two of the most used algorithms. I chose to explore SARSA and QL to highlight a subtle difference between on-policy learning and off-learning, which we will discuss later in the post.
This post assumes you have basic knowledge of the agent, environment, action, and rewards within RL’s scope. A brief introduction can be found here.
The outline of this post include:
We will compare these two algorithms via the CartPole game implementation. This post’s code can be found here :QL code ,SARSA code , and the fully functioning code . (the fully-functioning code has both algorithms implemented and trained on cart pole game)
The TD learning will be a bit mathematical, but feel free to skim through and jump directly to QL and SARSA.
#reinforcement-learning #artificial-intelligence #machine-learning #deep-learning #learning
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In the previous blog, we looked into the fact why Few Shot Learning is essential and what are the applications of it. In this article, I will be explaining the Relation Network for Few-Shot Classification (especially for image classification) in the simplest way possible. Moreover, I will be analyzing the Relation Network in terms of:
Moreover, effectiveness will be evaluated on the accuracy, time required for training, and the number of required training parameters.
Please watch the GitHub repository to check out the implementations and keep updated with further experiments.
In few shot classification, our objective is to design a method which can identify any object images by analyzing few sample images of the same class. Let’s the take one example to understand this. Suppose Bob has a client project to design a 5 class classifier, where 5 classes can be anything and these 5 classes can even change with time. As discussed in previous blog, collecting the huge amount of data is very tedious task. Hence, in such cases, Bob will rely upon few shot classification methods where his client can give few set of example images for each classes and after that his system can perform classification young these examples with or without the need of additional training.
In general, in few shot classification four terminologies (N way, K shot, support set, and query set) are used.
At this point, someone new to this concept will have doubt regarding the need of support and query set. So, let’s understand it intuitively. Whenever humans sees any object for the first time, we get the rough idea about that object. Now, in future if we see the same object second time then we will compare it with the image stored in memory from the when we see it for the first time. This applied to all of our surroundings things whether we see, read, or hear. Similarly, to recognise new images from query set, we will provide our model a set of examples i.e., support set to compare.
And this is the basic concept behind Relation Network as well. In next sections, I will be giving the rough idea behind Relation Network and I will be performing different experiments on 102-flower dataset.
The Core idea behind Relation Network is to learn the generalized image representations for each classes using support set such that we can compare lower dimensional representation of query images with each of the class representations. And based on this comparison decide the class of each query images. Relation Network has two modules which allows us to perform above two tasks:
We can define the whole procedure in just 5 steps.
Few things to know during the training is that we will use only images from the set of selective class, and during the testing, we will be using images from unseen classes. For example, from the 102-flower dataset, we will use 50% classes for training, and rest will be used for validation and testing. Moreover, in each episode, we will randomly select 5 classes to create the support and query set and follow the above 5 steps.
That is all need to know about the implementation point of view. Although the whole process is simple and easy to understand, I’ll recommend reading the published research paper, Learning to Compare: Relation Network for Few-Shot Learning, for better understanding.
#deep-learning #few-shot-learning #computer-vision #machine-learning #deep learning #deep learning