1597978800

# Find value after N operations to remove N characters of string S with given constraints

Given a string** S** of Size N. Initially, the value of count is 0. The task is to find the value of count after N operations to remove all the N characters of the given string S where each operation is:

• In each operation, select an alphabetically the smallest character in the string S and remove that character from S and add its index to count.
• If multiple characters are present then remove the character having the smallest index.

Note: Consider string as 1-based indexing.

Examples:

Input:_ N = 5, S = “abcab” _

Output:_ 8 _

Explanation:

_Remove character ‘a’ then string becomes “bcab” and the count = 1. _

_Remove character ‘a’ then string becomes “bcb” and the count = 1 + 3 = 4. _

_Remove character ‘b’ then string becomes “cb” and the count = 4 + 1 = 5. _

_Remove character ‘b’ then string becomes “c” and the count = 5 + 2 = 7. _

Remove character ‘c’ then string becomes “” and the count = 7 + 1 = 8.

Input:_ N = 5 S = “aabbc” _

Output:_ 5 _

Explanation:

The value after 5 operations to remove all the 5 characters of String aabbc is 5.

Recommended: Please try your approach on {IDE} first, before moving on to the solution.

**Naive Approach: **The idea is to check if the string is empty or not. If it is not empty then following are the steps to solve the problem:

• Find the first occurrence of the smallest alphabets in the current string, let’s say ind and remove it from the string.
• Increase the count by **ind **+ 1.
• Repeat the above step until the string becomes empty.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

• C++
• Java
• C#

`// C++ program for the above approach`

`#include <iostream>`

`#include <string>`

`**using**` `**namespace**` `std;`

`// Function to find the value after`

`// N operations to remove all the N`

`// characters of string S`

`**void**` `charactersCount(string str,` `**int**` `n)`

`{`

`**int**` `count = 0;`

`// Iterate till N`

`**while**` `(n > 0) {`

`**char**` `cur = str[0];`

`**int**` `ind = 0;`

`**for**` `(``**int**` `j = 1; j < n; j++) {`

`**if**` `(str[j] < cur) {`

`cur = str[j];`

`ind = j;`

`}`

`}`

`// Remove character at ind and`

`// decrease n(size of string)`

`str.erase(str.begin() + ind);`

`n--;`

`// Increase count by ind+1`

`count += ind + 1;`

`}`

`cout << count << endl;`

`}`

`// Driver Code`

`**int**` `main()`

`{`

`// Given string str`

`string str =` `"aabbc"``;`

`**int**` `n = 5;`

`// Function call`

`charactersCount(str, n);`

`**return**` `0;`

`}`

Output:

``````5

``````

Time Complexity:_ O(N2)_

Auxiliary Space:_ O(1)_

**Efficient Approach: **This problem can be solved using the concept of Binary Index Tree or Fenwick Tree. Below are the steps:

• Initially, Store the values of indices of all the characters/alphabet in increasing order.
• Start with the smallest alphabet ‘a’ and remove all ‘a’s in the order of there occurrence. After removing, select the next alphabet ‘b’, and repeat this step until all alphabets are removed.
• Removing the character means that its corresponding value in the array is changed to 0, indicating that it is removed.
• Before removing, find the position of the character in the string using the sum() method in Fenwick Tree and add the position value to the count.
• After removing all the characters in the string, the value of count is obtained.

#advanced data structure #divide and conquer #strings #tree #segment-tree #trees

1597978800

## Find value after N operations to remove N characters of string S with given constraints

Given a string** S** of Size N. Initially, the value of count is 0. The task is to find the value of count after N operations to remove all the N characters of the given string S where each operation is:

• In each operation, select an alphabetically the smallest character in the string S and remove that character from S and add its index to count.
• If multiple characters are present then remove the character having the smallest index.

Note: Consider string as 1-based indexing.

Examples:

Input:_ N = 5, S = “abcab” _

Output:_ 8 _

Explanation:

_Remove character ‘a’ then string becomes “bcab” and the count = 1. _

_Remove character ‘a’ then string becomes “bcb” and the count = 1 + 3 = 4. _

_Remove character ‘b’ then string becomes “cb” and the count = 4 + 1 = 5. _

_Remove character ‘b’ then string becomes “c” and the count = 5 + 2 = 7. _

Remove character ‘c’ then string becomes “” and the count = 7 + 1 = 8.

Input:_ N = 5 S = “aabbc” _

Output:_ 5 _

Explanation:

The value after 5 operations to remove all the 5 characters of String aabbc is 5.

Recommended: Please try your approach on {IDE} first, before moving on to the solution.

**Naive Approach: **The idea is to check if the string is empty or not. If it is not empty then following are the steps to solve the problem:

• Find the first occurrence of the smallest alphabets in the current string, let’s say ind and remove it from the string.
• Increase the count by **ind **+ 1.
• Repeat the above step until the string becomes empty.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

• C++
• Java
• C#

`// C++ program for the above approach`

`#include <iostream>`

`#include <string>`

`**using**` `**namespace**` `std;`

`// Function to find the value after`

`// N operations to remove all the N`

`// characters of string S`

`**void**` `charactersCount(string str,` `**int**` `n)`

`{`

`**int**` `count = 0;`

`// Iterate till N`

`**while**` `(n > 0) {`

`**char**` `cur = str[0];`

`**int**` `ind = 0;`

`**for**` `(``**int**` `j = 1; j < n; j++) {`

`**if**` `(str[j] < cur) {`

`cur = str[j];`

`ind = j;`

`}`

`}`

`// Remove character at ind and`

`// decrease n(size of string)`

`str.erase(str.begin() + ind);`

`n--;`

`// Increase count by ind+1`

`count += ind + 1;`

`}`

`cout << count << endl;`

`}`

`// Driver Code`

`**int**` `main()`

`{`

`// Given string str`

`string str =` `"aabbc"``;`

`**int**` `n = 5;`

`// Function call`

`charactersCount(str, n);`

`**return**` `0;`

`}`

Output:

``````5

``````

Time Complexity:_ O(N2)_

Auxiliary Space:_ O(1)_

**Efficient Approach: **This problem can be solved using the concept of Binary Index Tree or Fenwick Tree. Below are the steps:

• Initially, Store the values of indices of all the characters/alphabet in increasing order.
• Start with the smallest alphabet ‘a’ and remove all ‘a’s in the order of there occurrence. After removing, select the next alphabet ‘b’, and repeat this step until all alphabets are removed.
• Removing the character means that its corresponding value in the array is changed to 0, indicating that it is removed.
• Before removing, find the position of the character in the string using the sum() method in Fenwick Tree and add the position value to the count.
• After removing all the characters in the string, the value of count is obtained.

#advanced data structure #divide and conquer #strings #tree #segment-tree #trees

1656151740

## Test_cov_console: Flutter Console Coverage Test

Flutter Console Coverage Test

This small dart tools is used to generate Flutter Coverage Test report to console

## How to install

Add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

``````dev_dependencies:
test_cov_console: ^0.2.2
``````

## How to run

### run the following command to make sure all flutter library is up-to-date

``````flutter pub get
Running "flutter pub get" in coverage...                            0.5s
``````

### run the following command to generate lcov.info on coverage directory

``````flutter test --coverage
00:02 +1: All tests passed!
``````

### run the tool to generate report from lcov.info

``````flutter pub run test_cov_console
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
print_cov_constants.dart                    |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
``````

## Optional parameter

``````If not given a FILE, "coverage/lcov.info" will be used.
-f, --file=<FILE>                      The target lcov.info file to be reported
-e, --exclude=<STRING1,STRING2,...>    A list of contains string for files without unit testing
to be excluded from report
-l, --line                             It will print Lines & Uncovered Lines only
Branch & Functions coverage percentage will not be printed
-i, --ignore                           It will not print any file without unit testing
-m, --multi                            Report from multiple lcov.info files
-c, --csv                              Output to CSV file
-o, --output=<CSV-FILE>                Full path of output CSV file
If not given, "coverage/test_cov_console.csv" will be used
-t, --total                            Print only the total coverage
Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-p, --pass=<MINIMUM>                   Print only the whether total coverage is passed MINIMUM value or not
If the value >= MINIMUM, it will print PASSED, otherwise FAILED
Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-h, --help                             Show this help
``````

### example run the tool with parameters

``````flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
``````

### report for multiple lcov.info files (-m, --multi)

``````It support to run for multiple lcov.info files with the followings directory structures:
1. No root module
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
2. With root module
<root>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/lib/src
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
You must run test_cov_console on <root> dir, and the report would be grouped by module, here is
the sample output for directory structure 'with root module':
flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock --multi
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_a -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_b -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
``````

### Output to CSV file (-c, --csv, -o, --output)

``````flutter pub run test_cov_console -c --output=coverage/test_coverage.csv

#### sample CSV output file:
File,% Branch,% Funcs,% Lines,Uncovered Line #s
lib/,,,,
test_cov_console.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
lib/src/,,,,
parser.dart,100.00,100.00,97.22,"97"
parser_constants.dart,100.00,100.00,100.00,""
print_cov.dart,100.00,100.00,82.91,"29,49,51,52,171,174,177,180,183,184,185,186,187,188,279,324,325,387,388,389,390,391,392,393,394,395,398"
print_cov_constants.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
All files with unit testing,100.00,100.00,86.07,""``````

## Use this package as an executable

### Install it

You can install the package from the command line:

``dart pub global activate test_cov_console``

### Use it

The package has the following executables:

``````\$ test_cov_console
``````

## Use this package as a library

### Depend on it

Run this command:

With Dart:

`` \$ dart pub add test_cov_console``

With Flutter:

`` \$ flutter pub add test_cov_console``

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit `dart pub get`):

``````dependencies:
test_cov_console: ^0.2.2``````

Alternatively, your editor might support `dart pub get` or `flutter pub get`. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

### Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

``import 'package:test_cov_console/test_cov_console.dart';``

example/lib/main.dart

``````import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
// This widget is the root of your application.
@override
Widget build(BuildContext context) {
return MaterialApp(
title: 'Flutter Demo',
theme: ThemeData(
// This is the theme of your application.
//
// Try running your application with "flutter run". You'll see the
// application has a blue toolbar. Then, without quitting the app, try
// changing the primarySwatch below to Colors.green and then invoke
// "hot reload" (press "r" in the console where you ran "flutter run",
// or simply save your changes to "hot reload" in a Flutter IDE).
// Notice that the counter didn't reset back to zero; the application
// is not restarted.
primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
// This makes the visual density adapt to the platform that you run
// the app on. For desktop platforms, the controls will be smaller and
// closer together (more dense) than on mobile platforms.
),
);
}
}

class MyHomePage extends StatefulWidget {
MyHomePage({Key? key, required this.title}) : super(key: key);

// that it has a State object (defined below) that contains fields that affect
// how it looks.

// This class is the configuration for the state. It holds the values (in this
// case the title) provided by the parent (in this case the App widget) and
// used by the build method of the State. Fields in a Widget subclass are
// always marked "final".

final String title;

@override
_MyHomePageState createState() => _MyHomePageState();
}

class _MyHomePageState extends State<MyHomePage> {
int _counter = 0;

void _incrementCounter() {
setState(() {
// This call to setState tells the Flutter framework that something has
// changed in this State, which causes it to rerun the build method below
// so that the display can reflect the updated values. If we changed
// _counter without calling setState(), then the build method would not be
// called again, and so nothing would appear to happen.
_counter++;
});
}

@override
Widget build(BuildContext context) {
// This method is rerun every time setState is called, for instance as done
// by the _incrementCounter method above.
//
// The Flutter framework has been optimized to make rerunning build methods
// fast, so that you can just rebuild anything that needs updating rather
// than having to individually change instances of widgets.
return Scaffold(
appBar: AppBar(
// Here we take the value from the MyHomePage object that was created by
// the App.build method, and use it to set our appbar title.
title: Text(widget.title),
),
body: Center(
// Center is a layout widget. It takes a single child and positions it
// in the middle of the parent.
child: Column(
// Column is also a layout widget. It takes a list of children and
// arranges them vertically. By default, it sizes itself to fit its
// children horizontally, and tries to be as tall as its parent.
//
// Invoke "debug painting" (press "p" in the console, choose the
// "Toggle Debug Paint" action from the Flutter Inspector in Android
// Studio, or the "Toggle Debug Paint" command in Visual Studio Code)
// to see the wireframe for each widget.
//
// Column has various properties to control how it sizes itself and
// how it positions its children. Here we use mainAxisAlignment to
// center the children vertically; the main axis here is the vertical
// axis because Columns are vertical (the cross axis would be
// horizontal).
mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
children: <Widget>[
Text(
'You have pushed the button this many times:',
),
Text(
'\$_counter',
),
],
),
),
floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
onPressed: _incrementCounter,
tooltip: 'Increment',
), // This trailing comma makes auto-formatting nicer for build methods.
);
}
}``````

Author: DigitalKatalis
Source Code: https://github.com/DigitalKatalis/test_cov_console

1659283860

## Activeinteraction: Manage Application Specific Business Logic Of Ruby

ActiveInteraction

ActiveInteraction manages application-specific business logic. It's an implementation of service objects designed to blend seamlessly into Rails.

ActiveInteraction gives you a place to put your business logic. It also helps you write safer code by validating that your inputs conform to your expectations. If ActiveModel deals with your nouns, then ActiveInteraction handles your verbs.

API Documentation

## Installation

``````gem 'active_interaction', '~> 5.1'
``````

Or install it manually:

``````\$ gem install active_interaction --version '~> 5.1'
``````

This project uses Semantic Versioning. Check out GitHub releases for a detailed list of changes.

## Basic usage

To define an interaction, create a subclass of `ActiveInteraction::Base`. Then you need to do two things:

Define your inputs. Use class filter methods to define what you expect your inputs to look like. For instance, if you need a boolean flag for pepperoni, use `boolean :pepperoni`. Check out the filters section for all the available options.

Define your business logic. Do this by implementing the `#execute` method. Each input you defined will be available as the type you specified. If any of the inputs are invalid, `#execute` won't be run. Filters are responsible for checking your inputs. Check out the validations section if you need more than that.

That covers the basics. Let's put it all together into a simple example that squares a number.

``````require 'active_interaction'

class Square < ActiveInteraction::Base
float :x

def execute
x**2
end
end
``````

Call `.run` on your interaction to execute it. You must pass a single hash to `.run`. It will return an instance of your interaction. By convention, we call this an outcome. You can use the `#valid?` method to ask the outcome if it's valid. If it's invalid, take a look at its errors with `#errors`. In either case, the value returned from `#execute` will be stored in `#result`.

``````outcome = Square.run(x: 'two point one')
outcome.valid?
# => nil
outcome.errors.messages
# => {:x=>["is not a valid float"]}

outcome = Square.run(x: 2.1)
outcome.valid?
# => true
outcome.result
# => 4.41
``````

You can also use `.run!` to execute interactions. It's like `.run` but more dangerous. It doesn't return an outcome. If the outcome would be invalid, it will instead raise an error. But if the outcome would be valid, it simply returns the result.

``````Square.run!(x: 'two point one')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: X is not a valid float
Square.run!(x: 2.1)
# => 4.41
``````

### Validations

ActiveInteraction checks your inputs. Often you'll want more than that. For instance, you may want an input to be a string with at least one non-whitespace character. Instead of writing your own validation for that, you can use validations from ActiveModel.

These validations aren't provided by ActiveInteraction. They're from ActiveModel. You can also use any custom validations you wrote yourself in your interactions.

``````class SayHello < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :name

validates :name,
presence: true

def execute
"Hello, #{name}!"
end
end
``````

When you run this interaction, two things will happen. First ActiveInteraction will check your inputs. Then ActiveModel will validate them. If both of those are happy, it will be executed.

``````SayHello.run!(name: nil)
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Name is required

SayHello.run!(name: '')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Name can't be blank

SayHello.run!(name: 'Taylor')
# => "Hello, Taylor!"
``````

## Filters

You can define filters inside an interaction using the appropriate class method. Each method has the same signature:

Some symbolic names. These are the attributes to create.

An optional hash of options. Each filter supports at least these two options:

`default` is the fallback value to use if `nil` is given. To make a filter optional, set `default: nil`.

`desc` is a human-readable description of the input. This can be useful for generating documentation. For more information about this, read the descriptions section.

An optional block of sub-filters. Only array and hash filters support this. Other filters will ignore blocks when given to them.

Let's take a look at an example filter. It defines three inputs: `x`, `y`, and `z`. Those inputs are optional and they all share the same description ("an example filter").

``````array :x, :y, :z,
default: nil,
desc: 'an example filter' do
# Some filters support sub-filters here.
end
``````

In general, filters accept values of the type they correspond to, plus a few alternatives that can be reasonably coerced. Typically the coercions come from Rails, so `"1"` can be interpreted as the boolean value `true`, the string `"1"`, or the number `1`.

### Basic Filters

#### Array

In addition to accepting arrays, array inputs will convert `ActiveRecord::Relation`s into arrays.

``````class ArrayInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
array :toppings

def execute
toppings.size
end
end

ArrayInteraction.run!(toppings: 'everything')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Toppings is not a valid array
ArrayInteraction.run!(toppings: [:cheese, 'pepperoni'])
# => 2
``````

Use a block to constrain the types of elements an array can contain. Note that you can only have one filter inside an array block, and it must not have a name.

``````array :birthdays do
date
end
``````

For `interface`, `object`, and `record` filters, the name of the array filter will be singularized and used to determine the type of value passed. In the example below, the objects passed would need to be of type `Cow`.

``````array :cows do
object
end
``````

You can override this by passing the necessary information to the inner filter.

``````array :managers do
object class: People
end
``````

Errors that occur will be indexed based on the Rails configuration setting `index_nested_attribute_errors`. You can also manually override this setting with the `:index_errors` option. In this state is is possible to get multiple errors from a single filter.

``````class ArrayInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
array :favorite_numbers, index_errors: true do
integer
end

def execute
favorite_numbers
end
end

ArrayInteraction.run(favorite_numbers: [8, 'bazillion']).errors.details
=> {:"favorite_numbers[1]"=>[{:error=>:invalid_type, :type=>"array"}]}
``````

With `:index_errors` set to `false` the error would have been:

``````{:favorite_numbers=>[{:error=>:invalid_type, :type=>"array"}]}
``````

#### Boolean

Boolean filters convert the strings `"1"`, `"true"`, and `"on"` (case-insensitive) into `true`. They also convert `"0"`, `"false"`, and `"off"` into `false`. Blank strings will be treated as `nil`.

``````class BooleanInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
boolean :kool_aid

def execute
'Oh yeah!' if kool_aid
end
end

BooleanInteraction.run!(kool_aid: 1)
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Kool aid is not a valid boolean
BooleanInteraction.run!(kool_aid: true)
# => "Oh yeah!"
``````

#### File

File filters also accept `TempFile`s and anything that responds to `#rewind`. That means that you can pass the `params` from uploading files via forms in Rails.

``````class FileInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base

def execute
end
end

# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Readme is not a valid file
# => 21563
``````

#### Hash

Hash filters accept hashes. The expected value types are given by passing a block and nesting other filters. You can have any number of filters inside a hash, including other hashes.

``````class HashInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
hash :preferences do
boolean :sweepstakes
end

def execute
puts 'Good luck in the sweepstakes!' if preferences[:sweepstakes]
end
end

HashInteraction.run!(preferences: 'yes, no')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Preferences is not a valid hash
HashInteraction.run!(preferences: { newsletter: true, 'sweepstakes' => false })
# Thanks for joining the newsletter!
# => nil
``````

Setting default hash values can be tricky. The default value has to be either `nil` or `{}`. Use `nil` to make the hash optional. Use `{}` if you want to set some defaults for values inside the hash.

``````hash :optional,
default: nil
# => {:optional=>nil}

hash :with_defaults,
default: {} do
default: true
end
``````

By default, hashes remove any keys that aren't given as nested filters. To allow all hash keys, set `strip: false`. In general we don't recommend doing this, but it's sometimes necessary.

``````hash :stuff,
strip: false
``````

#### String

String filters define inputs that only accept strings.

``````class StringInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :name

def execute
"Hello, #{name}!"
end
end

# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Name is not a valid string
StringInteraction.run!(name: 'Taylor')
# => "Hello, Taylor!"
``````

String filter strips leading and trailing whitespace by default. To disable it, set the `strip` option to `false`.

``````string :comment,
strip: false
``````

#### Symbol

Symbol filters define inputs that accept symbols. Strings will be converted into symbols.

``````class SymbolInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
symbol :method

def execute
method.to_proc
end
end

SymbolInteraction.run!(method: -> {})
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Method is not a valid symbol
SymbolInteraction.run!(method: :object_id)
# => #<Proc:0x007fdc9ba94118>
``````

#### Dates and times

Filters that work with dates and times behave similarly. By default, they all convert strings into their expected data types using `.parse`. Blank strings will be treated as `nil`. If you give the `format` option, they will instead convert strings using `.strptime`. Note that formats won't work with `DateTime` and `Time` filters if a time zone is set.

Date

``````class DateInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
date :birthday

def execute
birthday + (18 * 365)
end
end

DateInteraction.run!(birthday: 'yesterday')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Birthday is not a valid date
DateInteraction.run!(birthday: Date.new(1989, 9, 1))
# => #<Date: 2007-08-28 ((2454341j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>
``````
``````date :birthday,
format: '%Y-%m-%d'
``````

DateTime

``````class DateTimeInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
date_time :now

def execute
now.iso8601
end
end

DateTimeInteraction.run!(now: 'now')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Now is not a valid date time
DateTimeInteraction.run!(now: DateTime.now)
# => "2015-03-11T11:04:40-05:00"
``````
``````date_time :start,
format: '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S'
``````

Time

In addition to converting strings with `.parse` (or `.strptime`), time filters convert numbers with `.at`.

``````class TimeInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
time :epoch

def execute
Time.now - epoch
end
end

TimeInteraction.run!(epoch: 'a long, long time ago')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Epoch is not a valid time
TimeInteraction.run!(epoch: Time.new(1970))
# => 1426068362.5136619
``````
``````time :start,
format: '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S'
``````

#### Numbers

All numeric filters accept numeric input. They will also convert strings using the appropriate method from `Kernel` (like `.Float`). Blank strings will be treated as `nil`.

Decimal

``````class DecimalInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
decimal :price

def execute
price * 1.0825
end
end

DecimalInteraction.run!(price: 'one ninety-nine')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Price is not a valid decimal
DecimalInteraction.run!(price: BigDecimal(1.99, 2))
# => #<BigDecimal:7fe792a42028,'0.2165E1',18(45)>
``````

To specify the number of significant digits, use the `digits` option.

``````decimal :dollars,
digits: 2
``````

Float

``````class FloatInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
float :x

def execute
x**2
end
end

FloatInteraction.run!(x: 'two point one')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: X is not a valid float
FloatInteraction.run!(x: 2.1)
# => 4.41
``````

Integer

``````class IntegerInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
integer :limit

def execute
limit.downto(0).to_a
end
end

IntegerInteraction.run!(limit: 'ten')
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Limit is not a valid integer
IntegerInteraction.run!(limit: 10)
# => [10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
``````

When a `String` is passed into an `integer` input, the value will be coerced. A default base of `10` is used though it may be overridden with the `base` option. If a base of `0` is provided, the coercion will respect radix indicators present in the string.

``````class IntegerInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
integer :limit1
integer :limit2, base: 8
integer :limit3, base: 0

def execute
[limit1, limit2, limit3]
end
end

IntegerInteraction.run!(limit1: 71, limit2: 71, limit3: 71)
# => [71, 71, 71]
IntegerInteraction.run!(limit1: "071", limit2: "071", limit3: "0x71")
# => [71, 57, 113]
IntegerInteraction.run!(limit1: "08", limit2: "08", limit3: "08")
ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Limit2 is not a valid integer, Limit3 is not a valid integer
``````

#### Interface

Interface filters allow you to specify an interface that the passed value must meet in order to pass. The name of the interface is used to look for a constant inside the ancestor listing for the passed value. This allows for a variety of checks depending on what's passed. Class instances are checked for an included module or an inherited ancestor class. Classes are checked for an extended module or an inherited ancestor class. Modules are checked for an extended module.

``````class InterfaceInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
interface :exception

def execute
exception
end
end

InterfaceInteraction.run!(exception: Exception)
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Exception is not a valid interface
InterfaceInteraction.run!(exception: NameError) # a subclass of Exception
# => NameError
``````

You can use `:from` to specify a class or module. This would be the equivalent of what's above.

``````class InterfaceInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
interface :error,
from: Exception

def execute
error
end
end
``````

You can also create an anonymous interface on the fly by passing the `methods` option.

``````class InterfaceInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
interface :serializer,

def execute
input = '{ "is_json" : true }'
output = serializer.dump(object)

output
end
end

require 'json'

InterfaceInteraction.run!(serializer: Object.new)
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Serializer is not a valid interface
InterfaceInteraction.run!(serializer: JSON)
# => "{\"is_json\":true}"
``````

#### Object

Object filters allow you to require an instance of a particular class or one of its subclasses.

``````class Cow
def moo
'Moo!'
end
end

class ObjectInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :cow

def execute
cow.moo
end
end

ObjectInteraction.run!(cow: Object.new)
# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Cow is not a valid object
ObjectInteraction.run!(cow: Cow.new)
# => "Moo!"
``````

The class name is automatically determined by the filter name. If your filter name is different than your class name, use the `class` option. It can be either the class, a string, or a symbol.

``````object :dolly1,
class: Sheep
object :dolly2,
class: 'Sheep'
object :dolly3,
class: :Sheep
``````

If you have value objects or you would like to build one object from another, you can use the `converter` option. It is only called if the value provided is not an instance of the class or one of its subclasses. The `converter` option accepts a symbol that specifies a class method on the object class or a proc. Both will be passed the value and any errors thrown inside the converter will cause the value to be considered invalid. Any returned value that is not the correct class will also be treated as invalid. Any `default` that is not an instance of the class or subclass and is not `nil` will also be converted.

``````class ObjectInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
converter: :new

def execute
end
end

# ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError: Ip address is not a valid object
``````

#### Record

Record filters allow you to require an instance of a particular class (or one of its subclasses) or a value that can be used to locate an instance of the object. If the value does not match, it will call `find` on the class of the record. This is particularly useful when working with ActiveRecord objects. Like an object filter, the class is derived from the name passed but can be specified with the `class` option. Any `default` that is not an instance of the class or subclass and is not `nil` will also be found. Blank strings passed in will be treated as `nil`.

``````class RecordInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
record :encoding

def execute
encoding
end
end

> RecordInteraction.run!(encoding: Encoding::US_ASCII)
=> #<Encoding:US-ASCII>

> RecordInteraction.run!(encoding: 'ascii')
=> #<Encoding:US-ASCII>
``````

A different method can be specified by providing a symbol to the `finder` option.

## Rails

ActiveInteraction plays nicely with Rails. You can use interactions to handle your business logic instead of models or controllers. To see how it all works, let's take a look at a complete example of a controller with the typical resourceful actions.

### Setup

We recommend putting your interactions in `app/interactions`. It's also very helpful to group them by model. That way you can look in `app/interactions/accounts` for all the ways you can interact with accounts.

``````- app/
- controllers/
- accounts_controller.rb
- interactions/
- accounts/
- create_account.rb
- destroy_account.rb
- find_account.rb
- list_accounts.rb
- update_account.rb
- models/
- account.rb
- views/
- account/
- edit.html.erb
- index.html.erb
- new.html.erb
- show.html.erb
``````

### Controller

#### Index

``````# GET /accounts
def index
@accounts = ListAccounts.run!
end
``````

Since we're not passing any inputs to `ListAccounts`, it makes sense to use `.run!` instead of `.run`. If it failed, that would mean we probably messed up writing the interaction.

``````class ListAccounts < ActiveInteraction::Base
def execute
Account.not_deleted.order(last_name: :asc, first_name: :asc)
end
end
``````

#### Show

Up next is the show action. For this one we'll define a helper method to handle raising the correct errors. We have to do this because calling `.run!` would raise an `ActiveInteraction::InvalidInteractionError` instead of an `ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound`. That means Rails would render a 500 instead of a 404.

``````# GET /accounts/:id
def show
@account = find_account!
end

private

def find_account!
outcome = FindAccount.run(params)

if outcome.valid?
outcome.result
else
fail ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound, outcome.errors.full_messages.to_sentence
end
end
``````

This probably looks a little different than you're used to. Rails commonly handles this with a `before_filter` that sets the `@account` instance variable. Why is all this interaction code better? Two reasons: One, you can reuse the `FindAccount` interaction in other places, like your API controller or a Resque task. And two, if you want to change how accounts are found, you only have to change one place.

Inside the interaction, we could use `#find` instead of `#find_by_id`. That way we wouldn't need the `#find_account!` helper method in the controller because the error would bubble all the way up. However, you should try to avoid raising errors from interactions. If you do, you'll have to deal with raised exceptions as well as the validity of the outcome.

``````class FindAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
integer :id

def execute
account = Account.not_deleted.find_by_id(id)

if account
account
else
end
end
end
``````

Note that it's perfectly fine to add errors during execution. Not all errors have to come from checking or validation.

#### New

The new action will be a little different than the ones we've looked at so far. Instead of calling `.run` or `.run!`, it's going to initialize a new interaction. This is possible because interactions behave like ActiveModels.

``````# GET /accounts/new
def new
@account = CreateAccount.new
end
``````

Since interactions behave like ActiveModels, we can use ActiveModel validations with them. We'll use validations here to make sure that the first and last names are not blank. The validations section goes into more detail about this.

``````class CreateAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :first_name, :last_name

validates :first_name, :last_name,
presence: true

def to_model
Account.new
end

def execute
account = Account.new(inputs)

unless account.save
errors.merge!(account.errors)
end

account
end
end
``````

We used a couple of advanced features here. The `#to_model` method helps determine the correct form to use in the view. Check out the section on forms for more about that. Inside `#execute`, we merge errors. This is a convenient way to move errors from one object to another. Read more about it in the errors section.

#### Create

The create action has a lot in common with the new action. Both of them use the `CreateAccount` interaction. And if creating the account fails, this action falls back to rendering the new action.

``````# POST /accounts
def create
outcome = CreateAccount.run(params.fetch(:account, {}))

if outcome.valid?
redirect_to(outcome.result)
else
@account = outcome
render(:new)
end
end
``````

Note that we have to pass a hash to `.run`. Passing `nil` is an error.

Since we're using an interaction, we don't need strong parameters. The interaction will ignore any inputs that weren't defined by filters. So you can forget about `params.require` and `params.permit` because interactions handle that for you.

#### Destroy

The destroy action will reuse the `#find_account!` helper method we wrote earlier.

``````# DELETE /accounts/:id
def destroy
DestroyAccount.run!(account: find_account!)
redirect_to(accounts_url)
end
``````

In this simple example, the destroy interaction doesn't do much. It's not clear that you gain anything by putting it in an interaction. But in the future, when you need to do more than `account.destroy`, you'll only have to update one spot.

``````class DestroyAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :account

def execute
account.destroy
end
end
``````

#### Edit

Just like the destroy action, editing uses the `#find_account!` helper. Then it creates a new interaction instance to use as a form object.

``````# GET /accounts/:id/edit
def edit
account = find_account!
@account = UpdateAccount.new(
account: account,
first_name: account.first_name,
last_name: account.last_name)
end
``````

The interaction that updates accounts is more complicated than the others. It requires an account to update, but the other inputs are optional. If they're missing, it'll ignore those attributes. If they're present, it'll update them.

``````class UpdateAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :account

string :first_name, :last_name,
default: nil

validates :first_name,
presence: true,
unless: -> { first_name.nil? }
validates :last_name,
presence: true,
unless: -> { last_name.nil? }

def execute
account.first_name = first_name if first_name.present?
account.last_name = last_name if last_name.present?

unless account.save
errors.merge!(account.errors)
end

account
end
end
``````

#### Update

Hopefully you've gotten the hang of this by now. We'll use `#find_account!` to get the account. Then we'll build up the inputs for `UpdateAccount`. Then we'll run the interaction and either redirect to the updated account or back to the edit page.

``````# PUT /accounts/:id
def update
inputs = { account: find_account! }.reverse_merge(params[:account])
outcome = UpdateAccount.run(inputs)

if outcome.valid?
redirect_to(outcome.result)
else
@account = outcome
render(:edit)
end
end
``````

### Callbacks

ActiveSupport::Callbacks provides a powerful framework for defining callbacks. ActiveInteraction uses that framework to allow hooking into various parts of an interaction's lifecycle.

``````class Increment < ActiveInteraction::Base
set_callback :filter, :before, -> { puts 'before filter' }

integer :x

set_callback :validate, :after, -> { puts 'after validate' }

validates :x,
numericality: { greater_than_or_equal_to: 0 }

set_callback :execute, :around, lambda { |_interaction, block|
puts '>>>'
block.call
puts '<<<'
}

def execute
puts 'executing'
x + 1
end
end

Increment.run!(x: 1)
# before filter
# after validate
# >>>
# executing
# <<<
# => 2
``````

In order, the available callbacks are `filter`, `validate`, and `execute`. You can set `before`, `after`, or `around` on any of them.

### Composition

You can run interactions from within other interactions with `#compose`. If the interaction is successful, it'll return the result (just like if you had called it with `.run!`). If something went wrong, execution will halt immediately and the errors will be moved onto the caller.

``````class Add < ActiveInteraction::Base
integer :x, :y

def execute
x + y
end
end

integer :x

def execute
end
end

# => 8
``````

To bring in filters from another interaction, use `.import_filters`. Combined with `inputs`, delegating to another interaction is a piece of cake.

``````class AddAndDouble < ActiveInteraction::Base

def execute
end
end
``````

Note that errors in composed interactions have a few tricky cases. See the errors section for more information about them.

### Defaults

The default value for an input can take on many different forms. Setting the default to `nil` makes the input optional. Setting it to some value makes that the default value for that input. Setting it to a lambda will lazily set the default value for that input. That means the value will be computed when the interaction is run, as opposed to when it is defined.

Lambda defaults are evaluated in the context of the interaction, so you can use the values of other inputs in them.

``````# This input is optional.
time :a, default: nil
# This input defaults to `Time.at(123)`.
time :b, default: Time.at(123)
# This input lazily defaults to `Time.now`.
time :c, default: -> { Time.now }
# This input defaults to the value of `c` plus 10 seconds.
time :d, default: -> { c + 10 }
``````

### Descriptions

Use the `desc` option to provide human-readable descriptions of filters. You should prefer these to comments because they can be used to generate documentation. The interaction class has a `.filters` method that returns a hash of filters. Each filter has a `#desc` method that returns the description.

``````class Descriptive < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :first_name,
string :last_name,
end

Descriptive.filters.each do |name, filter|
puts "#{name}: #{filter.desc}"
end
``````

### Errors

ActiveInteraction provides detailed errors for easier introspection and testing of errors. Detailed errors improve on regular errors by adding a symbol that represents the type of error that has occurred. Let's look at an example where an item is purchased using a credit card.

``````class BuyItem < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :credit_card, :item
hash :options do
end

def execute
order = credit_card.purchase(item)
notify(credit_card.account)
order
end

private def notify(account)
# ...
end
end
``````

Having missing or invalid inputs causes the interaction to fail and return errors.

``````outcome = BuyItem.run(item: 'Thing', options: { gift_wrapped: 'yes' })
outcome.errors.messages
# => {:credit_card=>["is required"], :item=>["is not a valid object"], :"options.gift_wrapped"=>["is not a valid boolean"]}
``````

Determining the type of error based on the string is difficult if not impossible. Calling `#details` instead of `#messages` on `errors` gives you the same list of errors with a testable label representing the error.

``````outcome.errors.details
# => {:credit_card=>[{:error=>:missing}], :item=>[{:error=>:invalid_type, :type=>"object"}], :"options.gift_wrapped"=>[{:error=>:invalid_type, :type=>"boolean"}]}
``````

Detailed errors can also be manually added during the execute call by passing a symbol to `#add` instead of a string.

``````def execute
end
``````

ActiveInteraction also supports merging errors. This is useful if you want to delegate validation to some other object. For example, if you have an interaction that updates a record, you might want that record to validate itself. By using the `#merge!` helper on `errors`, you can do exactly that.

``````class UpdateThing < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :thing

def execute
unless thing.save
errors.merge!(thing.errors)
end

thing
end
end
``````

When a composed interaction fails, its errors are merged onto the caller. This generally produces good error messages, but there are a few cases to look out for.

``````class Inner < ActiveInteraction::Base
boolean :x, :y
end

class Outer < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :x
boolean :z, default: nil

def execute
compose(Inner, x: x, y: z)
end
end

outcome = Outer.run(x: 'yes')
outcome.errors.details
# => { :x    => [{ :error => :invalid_type, :type => "boolean" }],
#      :base => [{ :error => "Y is required" }] }
outcome.errors.full_messages.join(' and ')
# => "X is not a valid boolean and Y is required"
``````

Since both interactions have an input called `x`, the inner error for that input is moved to the `x` error on the outer interaction. This results in a misleading error that claims the input `x` is not a valid boolean even though it's a string on the outer interaction.

Since only the inner interaction has an input called `y`, the inner error for that input is moved to the `base` error on the outer interaction. This results in a confusing error that claims the input `y` is required even though it's not present on the outer interaction.

### Forms

The outcome returned by `.run` can be used in forms as though it were an ActiveModel object. You can also create a form object by calling `.new` on the interaction.

Given an application with an `Account` model we'll create a new `Account` using the `CreateAccount` interaction.

``````# GET /accounts/new
def new
@account = CreateAccount.new
end

# POST /accounts
def create
outcome = CreateAccount.run(params.fetch(:account, {}))

if outcome.valid?
redirect_to(outcome.result)
else
@account = outcome
render(:new)
end
end
``````

The form used to create a new `Account` has slightly more information on the `form_for` call than you might expect.

``````<%= form_for @account, as: :account, url: accounts_path do |f| %>
<%= f.text_field :first_name %>
<%= f.text_field :last_name %>
<%= f.submit 'Create' %>
<% end %>
``````

This is necessary because we want the form to act like it is creating a new `Account`. Defining `to_model` on the `CreateAccount` interaction tells the form to treat our interaction like an `Account`.

``````class CreateAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
# ...

def to_model
Account.new
end
end
``````

Now our `form_for` call knows how to generate the correct URL and param name (i.e. `params[:account]`).

``````# app/views/accounts/new.html.erb
<%= form_for @account do |f| %>
<%# ... %>
<% end %>
``````

If you have an interaction that updates an `Account`, you can define `to_model` to return the object you're updating.

``````class UpdateAccount < ActiveInteraction::Base
# ...

object :account

def to_model
account
end
end
``````

ActiveInteraction also supports formtastic and simple_form. The filters used to define the inputs on your interaction will relay type information to these gems. As a result, form fields will automatically use the appropriate input type.

### Shared input options

It can be convenient to apply the same options to a bunch of inputs. One common use case is making many inputs optional. Instead of setting `default: nil` on each one of them, you can use `with_options` to reduce duplication.

``````with_options default: nil do
date :birthday
string :name
boolean :wants_cake
end
``````

### Optional inputs

Optional inputs can be defined by using the `:default` option as described in the filters section. Within the interaction, provided and default values are merged to create `inputs`. There are times where it is useful to know whether a value was passed to `run` or the result of a filter default. In particular, it is useful when `nil` is an acceptable value. For example, you may optionally track your users' birthdays. You can use the `inputs.given?` predicate to see if an input was even passed to `run`. With `inputs.given?` you can also check the input of a hash or array filter by passing a series of keys or indexes to check.

``````class UpdateUser < ActiveInteraction::Base
object :user
date :birthday,
default: nil

def execute
user.birthday = birthday if inputs.given?(:birthday)
errors.merge!(user.errors) unless user.save
user
end
end
``````

Now you have a few options. If you don't want to update their birthday, leave it out of the hash. If you want to remove their birthday, set `birthday: nil`. And if you want to update it, pass in the new value as usual.

``````user = User.find(...)

# Don't update their birthday.
UpdateUser.run!(user: user)

# Remove their birthday.
UpdateUser.run!(user: user, birthday: nil)

# Update their birthday.
UpdateUser.run!(user: user, birthday: Date.new(2000, 1, 2))
``````

### Translations

ActiveInteraction is i18n aware out of the box! All you have to do is add translations to your project. In Rails, these typically go into `config/locales`. For example, let's say that for some reason you want to print everything out backwards. Simply add translations for ActiveInteraction to your `hsilgne` locale.

``````# config/locales/hsilgne.yml
hsilgne:
active_interaction:
types:
array: yarra
boolean: naeloob
decimal: lamiced
file: elif
float: taolf
hash: hsah
integer: regetni
interface: ecafretni
object: tcejbo
string: gnirts
symbol: lobmys
time: emit
errors:
messages:
invalid: dilavni si
invalid_type: '%{type} dilav a ton si'
missing: deriuqer si
``````

Then set your locale and run interactions like normal.

``````class I18nInteraction < ActiveInteraction::Base
string :name
end

I18nInteraction.run(name: false).errors.messages[:name]
# => ["is not a valid string"]

I18n.locale = :hsilgne
I18nInteraction.run(name: false).errors.messages[:name]
# => ["gnirts dilav a ton si"]
``````

Everything else works like an `activerecord` entry. For example, to rename an attribute you can use `attributes`.

Here we'll rename the `num` attribute on an interaction named `product`:

``````en:
active_interaction:
attributes:
product:
num: 'Number'
``````

## Credits

ActiveInteraction is brought to you by Aaron Lasseigne. Along with Aaron, Taylor Fausak helped create and maintain ActiveInteraction but has since moved on.

If you want to contribute to ActiveInteraction, please read our contribution guidelines. A complete list of contributors is available on GitHub.

Author: AaronLasseigne
Source code: https://github.com/AaronLasseigne/active_interaction

1669099573

## What Is Face Recognition? Facial Recognition with Python and OpenCV

In this article, we will know what is face recognition and how is different from face detection. We will go briefly over the theory of face recognition and then jump on to the coding section. At the end of this article, you will be able to make a face recognition program for recognizing faces in images as well as on a live webcam feed.

## What is Face Detection?

In computer vision, one essential problem we are trying to figure out is to automatically detect objects in an image without human intervention. Face detection can be thought of as such a problem where we detect human faces in an image. There may be slight differences in the faces of humans but overall, it is safe to say that there are certain features that are associated with all the human faces. There are various face detection algorithms but Viola-Jones Algorithm is one of the oldest methods that is also used today and we will use the same later in the article. You can go through the Viola-Jones Algorithm after completing this article as I’ll link it at the end of this article.

Face detection is usually the first step towards many face-related technologies, such as face recognition or verification. However, face detection can have very useful applications. The most successful application of face detection would probably be photo taking. When you take a photo of your friends, the face detection algorithm built into your digital camera detects where the faces are and adjusts the focus accordingly.

For a tutorial on Real-Time Face detection

## What is Face Recognition?

Now that we are successful in making such algorithms that can detect faces, can we also recognise whose faces are they?

Face recognition is a method of identifying or verifying the identity of an individual using their face. There are various algorithms that can do face recognition but their accuracy might vary. Here I am going to describe how we do face recognition using deep learning.

So now let us understand how we recognise faces using deep learning. We make use of face embedding in which each face is converted into a vector and this technique is called deep metric learning. Let me further divide this process into three simple steps for easy understanding:

Face Detection: The very first task we perform is detecting faces in the image or video stream. Now that we know the exact location/coordinates of face, we extract this face for further processing ahead.

Feature Extraction: Now that we have cropped the face out of the image, we extract features from it. Here we are going to use face embeddings to extract the features out of the face. A neural network takes an image of the person’s face as input and outputs a vector which represents the most important features of a face. In machine learning, this vector is called embedding and thus we call this vector as face embedding. Now how does this help in recognizing faces of different persons?

While training the neural network, the network learns to output similar vectors for faces that look similar. For example, if I have multiple images of faces within different timespan, of course, some of the features of my face might change but not up to much extent. So in this case the vectors associated with the faces are similar or in short, they are very close in the vector space. Take a look at the below diagram for a rough idea:

Now after training the network, the network learns to output vectors that are closer to each other(similar) for faces of the same person(looking similar). The above vectors now transform into:

We are not going to train such a network here as it takes a significant amount of data and computation power to train such networks. We will use a pre-trained network trained by Davis King on a dataset of ~3 million images. The network outputs a vector of 128 numbers which represent the most important features of a face.

Now that we know how this network works, let us see how we use this network on our own data. We pass all the images in our data to this pre-trained network to get the respective embeddings and save these embeddings in a file for the next step.

Comparing faces: Now that we have face embeddings for every face in our data saved in a file, the next step is to recognise a new t image that is not in our data. So the first step is to compute the face embedding for the image using the same network we used above and then compare this embedding with the rest of the embeddings we have. We recognise the face if the generated embedding is closer or similar to any other embedding as shown below:

So we passed two images, one of the images is of Vladimir Putin and other of George W. Bush. In our example above, we did not save the embeddings for Putin but we saved the embeddings of Bush. Thus when we compared the two new embeddings with the existing ones, the vector for Bush is closer to the other face embeddings of Bush whereas the face embeddings of Putin are not closer to any other embedding and thus the program cannot recognise him.

## What is OpenCV

In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Computer Vision is one of the most interesting and Challenging tasks. Computer Vision acts like a bridge between Computer Software and visualizations around us. It allows computer software to understand and learn about the visualizations in the surroundings. For Example: Based on the color, shape and size determining the fruit. This task can be very easy for the human brain however in the Computer Vision pipeline, first we gather the data, then we perform the data processing activities and then we train and teach the model to understand how to distinguish between the fruits based on size, shape and color of fruit.

Currently, various packages are present to perform machine learning, deep learning and computer vision tasks. By far, computer vision is the best module for such complex activities. OpenCV is an open-source library. It is supported by various programming languages such as R, Python. It runs on most of the platforms such as Windows, Linux and MacOS.

To know more about how face recognition works on opencv, check out the free course on face recognition in opencv.

• OpenCV is an open-source library and is free of cost.
• As compared to other libraries, it is fast since it is written in C/C++.
• It works better on System with lesser RAM
• To supports most of the Operating Systems such as Windows, Linux and MacOS.
•

Installation:

Here we will be focusing on installing OpenCV for python only. We can install OpenCV using pip or conda(for anaconda environment).

1. Using pip:

Using pip, the installation process of openCV can be done by using the following command in the command prompt.

pip install opencv-python

1. Anaconda:

If you are using anaconda environment, either you can execute the above code in anaconda prompt or you can execute the following code in anaconda prompt.

conda install -c conda-forge opencv

## Face Recognition using Python

In this section, we shall implement face recognition using OpenCV and Python. First, let us see the libraries we will need and how to install them:

• OpenCV
• dlib
• Face_recognition

OpenCV is an image and video processing library and is used for image and video analysis, like facial detection, license plate reading, photo editing, advanced robotic vision, optical character recognition, and a whole lot more.

The dlib library, maintained by Davis King, contains our implementation of “deep metric learning” which is used to construct our face embeddings used for the actual recognition process.

The face_recognition  library, created by Adam Geitgey, wraps around dlib’s facial recognition functionality, and this library is super easy to work with and we will be using this in our code. Remember to install dlib library first before you install face_recognition.

To install OpenCV, type in command prompt

I have tried various ways to install dlib on Windows but the easiest of all of them is via Anaconda. First, install Anaconda (here is a guide to install it) and then use this command in your command prompt:

Next to install face_recognition, type in command prompt

Now that we have all the dependencies installed, let us start coding. We will have to create three files, one will take our dataset and extract face embedding for each face using dlib. Next, we will save these embedding in a file.

In the next file we will compare the faces with the existing the recognise faces in images and next we will do the same but recognise faces in live webcam feed

#### Extracting features from Face

First, you need to get a dataset or even create one of you own. Just make sure to arrange all images in folders with each folder containing images of just one person.

Next, save the dataset in a folder the same as you are going to make the file. Now here is the code:

Now that we have stored the embedding in a file named “face_enc”, we can use them to recognise faces in images or live video stream.

#### Face Recognition in Live webcam Feed

Here is the script to recognise faces on a live webcam feed:

Although in the example above we have used haar cascade to detect faces, you can also use face_recognition.face_locations to detect a face as we did in the previous script

#### Face Recognition in Images

The script for detecting and recognising faces in images is almost similar to what you saw above. Try it yourself and if you can’t take a look at the code below:

Output:

InputOutput

You can also upskill with Great Learning’s PGP Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Course. The course offers mentorship from industry leaders, and you will also have the opportunity to work on real-time industry-relevant projects.

Original article source at: https://www.mygreatlearning.com

#python #opencv

1659511140

## Roadie: Making HTML Emails Comfortable for The Ruby Rockstars

Making HTML emails comfortable for the Ruby rockstars

Roadie tries to make sending HTML emails a little less painful by inlining stylesheets and rewriting relative URLs for you inside your emails.

## How does it work?

Email clients have bad support for stylesheets, and some of them blocks stylesheets from downloading. The easiest way to handle this is to work with inline styles (`style="..."`), but that is error prone and hard to work with as you cannot use classes and/or reuse styling over your HTML.

This gem makes this easier by automatically inlining stylesheets into the document. You give Roadie your CSS, or let it find it by itself from the `<link>` and `<style>` tags in the markup, and it will go through all of the selectors assigning the styles to the matching elements. Careful attention has been put into selectors being applied in the correct order, so it should behave just like in the browser.

"Dynamic" selectors (`:hover`, `:visited`, `:focus`, etc.), or selectors not understood by Nokogiri will be inlined into a single `<style>` element for those email clients that support it. This changes specificity a great deal for these rules, so it might not work 100% out of the box. (See more about this below)

Roadie also rewrites all relative URLs in the email to an absolute counterpart, making images you insert and those referenced in your stylesheets work. No more headaches about how to write the stylesheets while still having them work with emails from your acceptance environments. You can disable this on specific elements using a `data-roadie-ignore` marker.

## Features

• Writes CSS styles inline.
• Respects `!important` styles.
• Does not overwrite styles already present in the `style` attribute of tags.
• Supports the same CSS selectors as Nokogiri; use CSS3 selectors in your emails!
• Keeps `:hover`, `@media { ... }` and friends around in a separate `<style>` element.
• Makes image urls absolute.
• Hostname and port configurable on a per-environment basis.
• Can be disabled on individual elements.
• Makes link `href`s and `img` `src`s absolute.
• Automatically adds proper HTML skeleton when missing; you don't have to create a layout for emails.
• Also supports HTML fragments / partial documents, where layout is not added.
• Allows you to inject stylesheets in a number of ways, at runtime.
• Removes `data-roadie-ignore` markers before finishing the HTML.

## Install & Usage

Add this gem to your Gemfile as recommended by Rubygems and run `bundle install`.

``````gem 'roadie', '~> 4.0'
``````

Your document instance can be configured with several options:

• `url_options` - Dictates how absolute URLs should be built.
• `keep_uninlinable_css` - Set to false to skip CSS that cannot be inlined.
• `merge_media_queries` - Set to false to not group media queries. Some users might prefer to not group rules within media queries because it will result in rules getting reordered. e.g.
``````@media(max-width: 600px) { .col-6 { display: block; } }
@media(max-width: 400px) { .col-12 { display: inline-block; } }
@media(max-width: 600px) { .col-12 { display: block; } }``````
• will become
``````@media(max-width: 600px) { .col-6 { display: block; } .col-12 { display: block; } }
@media(max-width: 400px) { .col-12 { display: inline-block; } }``````
• `asset_providers` - A list of asset providers that are invoked when CSS files are referenced. See below.
• `external_asset_providers` - A list of asset providers that are invoked when absolute CSS URLs are referenced. See below.
• `before_transformation` - A callback run before transformation starts.
• `after_transformation` - A callback run after transformation is completed.

### Making URLs absolute

In order to make URLs absolute you need to first configure the URL options of the document.

``````html = '... <a href="/about-us">Read more!</a> ...'
document.url_options = {host: "myapp.com", protocol: "https"}
document.transform
``````

The following URLs will be rewritten for you:

• `a[href]` (HTML)
• `img[src]` (HTML)
• `url()` (CSS)

You can disable individual elements by adding an `data-roadie-ignore` marker on them. CSS will still be inlined on those elements, but URLs will not be rewritten.

``````<a href="|UNSUBSCRIBE_URL|" data-roadie-ignore>Unsubscribe</a>
``````

### Referenced stylesheets

By default, `style` and `link` elements in the email document's `head` are processed along with the stylesheets and removed from the `head`.

You can set a special `data-roadie-ignore` attribute on `style` and `link` tags that you want to ignore (the attribute will be removed, however). This is the place to put things like `:hover` selectors that you want to have for email clients allowing them.

Style and link elements with `media="print"` are also ignored.

``````<head>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/assets/emails/rock.css">         <!-- Will be inlined with normal providers -->
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://www.metal.org/metal.css">  <!-- Will be inlined with external providers, *IF* specified; otherwise ignored. -->
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/assets/jazz.css" media="print">  <!-- Will NOT be inlined; print style -->
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/ambient.css" data-roadie-ignore> <!-- Will NOT be inlined; ignored -->
<style></style>                    <!-- Will be inlined -->
<style data-roadie-ignore></style> <!-- Will NOT be inlined; ignored -->
``````

Roadie will use the given asset providers to look for the actual CSS that is referenced. If you don't change the default, it will use the `Roadie::FilesystemProvider` which looks for stylesheets on the filesystem, relative to the current working directory.

Example:

``````# /home/user/foo/stylesheets/primary.css
body { color: green; }

# /home/user/foo/script.rb
html = <<-HTML
<html>
<body>
</body>
</html>
HTML

Dir.pwd # => "/home/user/foo"
document.transform # =>
# <!DOCTYPE html>
# <html>
#   <body style="color:green;"></body>
# </html>
``````

If a referenced stylesheet cannot be found, the `#transform` method will raise an `Roadie::CssNotFound` error. If you instead want to ignore missing stylesheets, you can use the `NullProvider`.

### Configuring providers

You can write your own providers if you need very specific behavior for your app, or you can use the built-in providers. Providers come in two groups: normal and external. Normal providers handle paths without host information (`/style/foo.css`) while external providers handle URLs with host information (`//example.com/foo.css`, `localhost:3001/bar.css`, and so on).

The default configuration is to not have any external providers configured, which will cause those referenced stylesheets to be ignored. Adding one or more providers for external assets causes all of them to be searched and inlined, so if you only want this to happen to specific stylesheets you need to add ignore markers to every other styleshheet (see above).

Included providers:

• `FilesystemProvider` – Looks for files on the filesystem, relative to the given directory unless otherwise specified.
• `ProviderList` – Wraps a list of other providers and searches them in order. The `asset_providers` setting is an instance of this. It behaves a lot like an array, so you can push, pop, shift and unshift to it.
• `NullProvider` – Does not actually provide anything, it always finds empty stylesheets. Use this in tests or if you want to ignore stylesheets that cannot be found by your other providers (or if you want to force the other providers to never run).
• `NetHttpProvider` – Downloads stylesheets using `Net::HTTP`. Can be given a whitelist of hosts to download from.
• `CachedProvider` – Wraps another provider (or `ProviderList`) and caches responses inside the provided cache store.
• `PathRewriterProvider` – Rewrites the passed path and then passes it on to another provider (or `ProviderList`).

If you want to search several locations on the filesystem, you can declare that:

``````document.asset_providers = [
]
``````

#### `NullProvider`

If you want to ignore stylesheets that cannot be found instead of crashing, push the `NullProvider` to the end:

``````# Don't crash on missing assets

``````

Note: This will cause the referenced stylesheet to be removed from the source code, so email client will never see it either.

#### `NetHttpProvider`

The `NetHttpProvider` will download the URLs that is is given using Ruby's standard `Net::HTTP` library.

You can give it a whitelist of hosts that downloads are allowed from:

``````document.external_asset_providers << Roadie::NetHttpProvider.new(
whitelist: ["myapp.com", "assets.myapp.com", "cdn.cdnnetwork.co.jp"],
)
document.external_asset_providers << Roadie::NetHttpProvider.new # Allows every host
``````

#### `CachedProvider`

You might want to cache providers from working several times. If you are sending several emails quickly from the same process, this might also save a lot of time on parsing the stylesheets if you use in-memory storage such as a hash.

You can wrap any other kind of providers with it, even a `ProviderList`:

``````document.external_asset_providers = Roadie::CachedProvider.new(document.external_asset_providers, my_cache)
``````

If you don't pass a cache backend, it will use a normal `Hash`. The cache store must follow this protocol:

``````my_cache["key"] = some_stylesheet_instance # => #<Roadie::Stylesheet instance>
my_cache["missing"]                        # => nil
``````

Warning: The default `Hash` store will never be cleared, so make sure you don't allow the number of unique asset paths to grow too large in a single run. This is especially important if you run Roadie in a daemon that accepts arbritary documents, and/or if you use hash digests in your filenames. Making a new instance of `CachedProvider` will use a new `Hash` instance.

You can implement your own custom cache store by implementing the `[]` and `[]=` methods.

``````class MyRoadieMemcacheStore
def initialize(memcache)
@memcache = memcache
end

def [](path)
if css
name = memcache.read("assets/#{path}/name") || "cached #{path}"
end
end

def []=(path, stylesheet)
memcache.write("assets/#{path}/css", stylesheet.to_s)
memcache.write("assets/#{path}/name", stylesheet.name)
stylesheet # You need to return the set Stylesheet
end
end

document.external_asset_providers,
)
``````

If you are using Rspec, you can test your implementation by using the shared examples for the "roadie cache store" role:

``````require "roadie/rspec"

let(:memcache_client) { MemcacheClient.instance }

before { memcache_client.clear }
end
end
``````

#### `PathRewriterProvider`

With this provider, you can rewrite the paths that are searched in order to more easily support another provider. Examples could include rewriting absolute URLs into something that can be found on the filesystem, or to access internal hosts instead of external ones.

``````filesystem = Roadie::FilesystemProvider.new("assets")
path.sub('stylesheets', 'css').downcase
end

if url =~ /myapp\.com/
URI.parse(url).path.sub(%r{^/assets}, '')
else
url
end
end
``````

You can also wrap a list, for example to implement `external_asset_providers` by composing the normal `asset_providers`:

``````document.external_asset_providers =
URI.parse(url).path
end
``````

Writing your own provider is also easy. You need to provide:

• `#find_stylesheet(name)`, returning either a `Roadie::Stylesheet` or `nil`.
• `#find_stylesheet!(name)`, returning either a `Roadie::Stylesheet` or raising `Roadie::CssNotFound`.
``````class UserAssetsProvider
def initialize(user_collection)
@user_collection = user_collection
end

def find_stylesheet(name)
if name =~ %r{^/users/(\d+)\.css\$}
user = @user_collection.find_user(\$1)
end
end

def find_stylesheet!(name)
find_stylesheet(name) or
css_name: name, message: "does not match a user stylesheet", provider: self
)
end

# Instead of implementing #find_stylesheet!, you could also:
# That will give you a default implementation without any error message. If
# you have multiple error cases, it's recommended that you implement
# #find_stylesheet! without #find_stylesheet and raise with an explanatory
# error message.
end

# Try to look for a user stylesheet first, then fall back to normal filesystem lookup.
document.asset_providers = [
UserAssetsProvider.new(app),
]
``````

You can test for compliance by using the built-in RSpec examples:

``````require 'spec_helper'

describe MyOwnProvider do
# Will use the default `subject` (MyOwnProvider.new)
it_behaves_like "roadie asset provider", valid_name: "found.css", invalid_name: "does_not_exist.css"

# Extra setup just for these tests:
it_behaves_like "roadie asset provider", valid_name: "found.css", invalid_name: "does_not_exist.css" do
subject { MyOwnProvider.new(...) }
before { stub_dependencies }
end
end
``````

### Keeping CSS that is impossible to inline

Some CSS is impossible to inline properly. `:hover` and `::after` comes to mind. Roadie tries its best to keep these around by injecting them inside a new `<style>` element in the `<head>` (or at the beginning of the partial if transforming a partial document).

The problem here is that Roadie cannot possible adjust the specificity for you, so they will not apply the same way as they did before the styles were inlined.

Another caveat is that a lot of email clients does not support this (which is the entire point of inlining in the first place), so don't put anything important in here. Always handle the case of these selectors not being part of the email.

#### Specificity problems

Inlined styles will have much higher specificity than styles in a `<style>`. Here's an example:

``````<style>p:hover { color: blue; }</style>
<p style="color: green;">Hello world</p>
``````

When hovering over this `<p>`, the color will not change as the `color: green` rule takes precedence. You can get it to work by adding `!important` to the `:hover` rule.

It would be foolish to try to automatically inject `!important` on every rule automatically, so this is a manual process.

#### Turning it off

If you'd rather skip this and have the styles not possible to inline disappear, you can turn off this feature by setting the `keep_uninlinable_css` option to false.

``````document.keep_uninlinable_css = false
``````

### Callbacks

Callbacks allow you to do custom work on documents before they are transformed. The Nokogiri document tree is passed to the callable along with the `Roadie::Document` instance:

``````class TrackNewsletterLinks
def call(dom, document)
end

divider = (link['href'] =~ /?/ ? '&' : '?')
end
end

document.before_transformation = ->(dom, document) {
logger.debug "Inlining document with title #{dom.at_css('head > title').try(:text)}"
}
``````

### XHTML vs HTML

You can configure the underlying HTML/XML engine to output XHTML or HTML (which is the default). One usecase for this is that `{` tokens usually gets escaped to `&#123;`, which would be a problem if you then pass the resulting HTML on to some other templating engine that uses those tokens (like Handlebars or Mustache).

``````document.mode = :xhtml
``````

This will also affect the emitted `<!DOCTYPE>` if transforming a full document. Partial documents does not have a `<!DOCTYPE>`.

## Build Status

Tested with Github CI using:

• MRI 2.6
• MRI 2.7
• MRI 3.0
• MRI 3.1

Let me know if you want any other runtime supported officially.

### Versioning

This project follows Semantic Versioning and has been since version 1.0.0.

## FAQ

### Why is my markup changed in subtle ways?

Roadie uses Nokogiri to parse and regenerate the HTML of your email, which means that some unintentional changes might show up.

One example would be that Nokogiri might remove your `&nbsp;`s in some cases.

Another example is Nokogiri's lack of HTML5 support, so certain new element might have spaces removed. I recommend you don't use HTML5 in emails anyway because of bad email client support (that includes web mail!).

### I'm getting segmentation faults (or other C-like problems)! What should I do?

Roadie uses Nokogiri to parse the HTML of your email, so any C-like problems like segfaults are likely in that end. The best way to fix this is to first upgrade libxml2 on your system and then reinstall Nokogiri. Instructions on how to do this on most platforms, see Nokogiri's official install guide.

### What happened to my `@keyframes`?

The CSS Parser used in Roadie does not handle keyframes. I don't think any email clients do either, but if you want to keep on trying you can add them manually to a `<style>` element (or a separate referenced stylesheet) and tell Roadie not to touch them.

### My `@media` queries are reordered, how can I fix this?

Different `@media` query blocks with the same conditions are merged by default, which will change the order in some cases. You can disable this by setting `merge_media_queries` to `false`. (See Install & Usage section above).

### How do I get rid of the `<body>` elements that are added?

It sounds like you want to transform a partial document. Maybe you are building partials or template fragments to later place in other documents. Use `Document#transform_partial` instead of `Document#transform` in order to treat the HTML as a partial document.

### Can I skip URL rewriting on a specific element?

If you add the `data-roadie-ignore` attribute on an element, URL rewriting will not be performed on that element. This could be really useful for you if you intend to send the email through some other rendering pipeline that replaces some placeholders/variables.

``````<a href="/about-us">About us</a>
``````

Note that this will not skip CSS inlining on the element; it will still get the correct styles applied.

### What should I do about "Invalid URL" errors?

If the URL is invalid on purpose, see Can I skip URL rewriting on a specific element? above. Otherwise, you can try to parse it yourself using Ruby's `URI` class and see if you can figure it out.

``````require "uri"
URI.parse("https://example.com/best image.jpg") # raises
URI.parse("https://example.com/best%20image.jpg") # Works!
``````

## Running specs

``````bundle install
rake
``````

## Security

Roadie is set up with the assumption that all CSS and HTML passing through it is under your control. It is not recommended to run arbritary HTML with the default settings.

Care has been given to try to secure all file system accesses, but it is never guaranteed that someone cannot access something they should not be able to access.

In order to secure Roadie against file system access, only use your own asset providers that you yourself can secure against your particular environment.

If you have found any security vulnerability, please email me at `magnus.bergmark+security@gmail.com` to disclose it. For very sensitive issues, please use my public GPG key. You can also encrypt your message with my public key and open an issue if you do not want to email me directly. Thank you.

## History and contributors

This gem was previously tied to Rails. It is now framework-agnostic and supports any type of HTML documents. If you want to use it with Rails, check out roadie-rails.

You can see all contributors on GitHub.