What is Nexus Mutual (NXM) | What is Nexus Mutual token | What is NXM token

What Is NXM (NXM)?

Launched in May 2019, Nexus Mutual is a decentralized insurance protocol built on Ethereum. It offers users the ability to take out covers on smart contracts through the usage of its native token NXM.

Nexus Mutual uses a risk-sharing pool that allows anyone to purchase on insurance cover or contribute their capital to the pool for future rewards. Nexus Mutual tries to disrupt the insurance industry by transitioning the power over the pooled resources to the individual people. Anyone is allowed to participate, as the mutual is owned by its members. Users can contribute Ethereum ( ETH) to the pool for NXM.

Who Are the Founders of NXM?

NXM was founded by Hugh Karp. Before founding NXM, he worked as the CFO of Munich Re.

He has also worked as an actuary in life insurance at MLC & Nab Health.

What Makes NXM Unique?

Nexus Mutual is taking on the issue of smart contract vulnerability and provides users with a level of protection that can help avoid losses.

Nexus Mutual’s first product were smart contract covers that provided protection for value storing contracts. In order for the project to start processing claims, it needed to reach a pool of 12,000 ETH, which was achieved two months after the launch.

The NXM token represents the membership rights in Nexus Mutual, along with the ability to participate within the ecosystem through claim and risk assessments and governance. The token leverages a bonding curve to determine the price, which is driven by how much capital the Mutual has and how much capital it needs to meet all of the claims with a certain probability.

Users can stake NXM to vote on claim assessments and on whether or not a certain claim needs to be paid out. The members who decide to vote in accordance with the consensus are rewarded with NXM, whereas the ones that vote against it have their tokens locked for a period of time.

Members fulfill several roles, one of which is that of assessing the risk of each smart contract. Whenever a claim is filed, they are responsible for voting on the legitimacy of that claim and on whether the payout can be made or not.

Members can also use their tokens to vote on smart contracts based on how secure they think each particular contract is. The more NXM is staked on a smart contract, the cheaper it becomes to purchase cover for it; the large amount at stake is an indicator that the contract is considered safe by many members.

What Does Nexus Mutual Do?

As the project’s name implies, Nexus Mutual is a mutual like any other. An insurance mutual is a firm that is entirely owned by its policyholders.  PEMCO and  Mutual of Omaha are traditional examples of an insurance mutual.

Any profits these businesses make are recycled back into the company or distributed to policyholders as dividends. This model differs from how an insurance company, like  Allianz, works. Profits made in the latter model are distributed to shareholders, regardless if they are policyholders or not.

There are advantages and disadvantages to both, and Nexus Mutual incorporates features of each. But due to how nascent the project is, the current applications are limited. So far, though, these few applications have been compelling and worth our attention.

For starters, Nexus Mutual does not protect users from earthquakes, car damage, or long-term disability. Instead, it’s focused on a crypto-only use case: Smart contract failure.

As veterans and newcomers have seen time and again, the world of digital assets is  fraught with vulnerabilities. This could be in the form of exchanges being cracked, a token wallet malfunctioning, or even fat-finger errors. These days a common concern, especially in the decentralized finance (DeFi) space, is that of smart contract vulnerabilities.

Even smart contracts that have been audited by notable third-parties have  fallen victim to some complex attack. And in many cases, it’s the users, as well as project founders, who suffer lost funds.

Nexus Mutual is taking on this particular vulnerability. According to the project’s GitBook, so-called “ Smart Contract Cover“ would provide users an extra level of safety for events like the DAO hack in 2016. The definition is quite firm about which events would trigger a payout, too.

A payout isn’t triggered by a phishing attack or problems created by network congestion, for instance. Likewise, oracles, miners, and entities external to the smart contract are not covered.

That’s why users should review the conditions of the coverage they are purchasing.

But, as we’ll see below, the members of the mutual have the final word on whether a payout should be triggered or not.

How to Buy Smart Contract Cover

In broad strokes, Nexus Mutual allows members of its community to buy cover against a particular risk. It’s an enticing proposition, but how does it work?

Go to the Nexus Mutual site and click on “Buy Cover” from the home page. Then you need to decide which protocol you want coverage for. The range is broad and includes all the major DeFi protocols from  1inch.exchange,  yEarn Finance,  Opyn, and many others.

Nexus Mutual Cover

_Source: _Nexus Mutual

From there, you then need to decide how much coverage you want and for how long. After you complete this step, and you are not already a member, you will be asked to join the mutual.

Joining Nexus Mutual entails paying 0.002 ETH and filling out standard KYC/AML processes. Though it is a DeFi-centric protocol, Nexus Mutual is a  legally registered company based in the United Kingdom.

Being a member also means that you are an NXM token holder. Members are responsible for arbitrating governance proposals, as well as claims and risk assessments.

Let’s take a closer look at the role of Nexus Mutual members.

How Does the NXM Token Work?

The  NXM token represents governance rights and affords members the ability to participate in claims and risk assessment.  Hodlers of the NXM token operates Nexus Mutual. Members can’t vote until they stake NXM tokens. And earning NXM tokens incentivizes them to participate. Again, only those who vote on the winning side earn new tokens with rewards flowing in proportion to the size of the payout

NXM tokens gain value when Nexus Mutual’s insurance obligations are thoroughly covered. But prices drop as users purchase more cover. This incentivizes more investors to join.

To get more technical, Nexus Mutual leverages a  bonding curve to determine NXM’s price. The amount of capital locked in the protocol and capital requirements needed to meet potential outstanding claim demands determines the price.

That’s a long way of saying that the more capital that’s locked in the Nexus Mutual protocol, the higher the price of NXM will be. Also, members may share in any excess capital. NXM tokens can be redeemed for ETH directly from the Nexus platform. And there are no immediate plans to list NXM on an exchange.

The NXM token can only be purchased through the Nexus Mutual platform. It is not for sale on Uniswap, Binance, or any other trading platform.

The token economics for this cryptocurrency are designed so that all value created is a function of the health of the platform. Though the token’s price is technically market-driven, the formula is slightly more complicated than simple supply and demand. This is the equation:

Nexus Mutual NXM Token Price Formula
_Source: _Nexus Mutual Token Model

The MCR is the level that defines whether all claims on Nexus Mutual can be fulfilled or not. The higher this value, the higher the probability that all claims can be paid. So, the more funds that are on the platform, the more expensive the token will be.

And as every token holder is also a member of the platform, individual members benefit from the success of the whole. As the platform becomes richer, so too do all of its members.

Would you like to earn TOKEN right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy Nexus Mutual (NXM)?

NXM has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy NXM

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since NXM is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that NXM can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade NXM in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase NXM from the exchange.

Exchange: Nexus Mutual Exchange

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once NXM gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
https://www.bittrex.com
https://www.poloniex.com
https://www.bitfinex.com
https://www.huobi.com
https://www.mxc.ai
https://www.probit.com
https://www.gate.io
https://www.coinbase.com

Find more information NXM

WebsiteExplorerExplorer 2Source CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

Learn about Cryptocurrency in this article ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner

Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

#blockchain #bitcoin #crypto #nexus mutual #nxm

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What is Nexus Mutual (NXM) | What is Nexus Mutual token | What is NXM token

What is Nexus Mutual (NXM) | What is Nexus Mutual token | What is NXM token

What Is NXM (NXM)?

Launched in May 2019, Nexus Mutual is a decentralized insurance protocol built on Ethereum. It offers users the ability to take out covers on smart contracts through the usage of its native token NXM.

Nexus Mutual uses a risk-sharing pool that allows anyone to purchase on insurance cover or contribute their capital to the pool for future rewards. Nexus Mutual tries to disrupt the insurance industry by transitioning the power over the pooled resources to the individual people. Anyone is allowed to participate, as the mutual is owned by its members. Users can contribute Ethereum ( ETH) to the pool for NXM.

Who Are the Founders of NXM?

NXM was founded by Hugh Karp. Before founding NXM, he worked as the CFO of Munich Re.

He has also worked as an actuary in life insurance at MLC & Nab Health.

What Makes NXM Unique?

Nexus Mutual is taking on the issue of smart contract vulnerability and provides users with a level of protection that can help avoid losses.

Nexus Mutual’s first product were smart contract covers that provided protection for value storing contracts. In order for the project to start processing claims, it needed to reach a pool of 12,000 ETH, which was achieved two months after the launch.

The NXM token represents the membership rights in Nexus Mutual, along with the ability to participate within the ecosystem through claim and risk assessments and governance. The token leverages a bonding curve to determine the price, which is driven by how much capital the Mutual has and how much capital it needs to meet all of the claims with a certain probability.

Users can stake NXM to vote on claim assessments and on whether or not a certain claim needs to be paid out. The members who decide to vote in accordance with the consensus are rewarded with NXM, whereas the ones that vote against it have their tokens locked for a period of time.

Members fulfill several roles, one of which is that of assessing the risk of each smart contract. Whenever a claim is filed, they are responsible for voting on the legitimacy of that claim and on whether the payout can be made or not.

Members can also use their tokens to vote on smart contracts based on how secure they think each particular contract is. The more NXM is staked on a smart contract, the cheaper it becomes to purchase cover for it; the large amount at stake is an indicator that the contract is considered safe by many members.

What Does Nexus Mutual Do?

As the project’s name implies, Nexus Mutual is a mutual like any other. An insurance mutual is a firm that is entirely owned by its policyholders.  PEMCO and  Mutual of Omaha are traditional examples of an insurance mutual.

Any profits these businesses make are recycled back into the company or distributed to policyholders as dividends. This model differs from how an insurance company, like  Allianz, works. Profits made in the latter model are distributed to shareholders, regardless if they are policyholders or not.

There are advantages and disadvantages to both, and Nexus Mutual incorporates features of each. But due to how nascent the project is, the current applications are limited. So far, though, these few applications have been compelling and worth our attention.

For starters, Nexus Mutual does not protect users from earthquakes, car damage, or long-term disability. Instead, it’s focused on a crypto-only use case: Smart contract failure.

As veterans and newcomers have seen time and again, the world of digital assets is  fraught with vulnerabilities. This could be in the form of exchanges being cracked, a token wallet malfunctioning, or even fat-finger errors. These days a common concern, especially in the decentralized finance (DeFi) space, is that of smart contract vulnerabilities.

Even smart contracts that have been audited by notable third-parties have  fallen victim to some complex attack. And in many cases, it’s the users, as well as project founders, who suffer lost funds.

Nexus Mutual is taking on this particular vulnerability. According to the project’s GitBook, so-called “ Smart Contract Cover“ would provide users an extra level of safety for events like the DAO hack in 2016. The definition is quite firm about which events would trigger a payout, too.

A payout isn’t triggered by a phishing attack or problems created by network congestion, for instance. Likewise, oracles, miners, and entities external to the smart contract are not covered.

That’s why users should review the conditions of the coverage they are purchasing.

But, as we’ll see below, the members of the mutual have the final word on whether a payout should be triggered or not.

How to Buy Smart Contract Cover

In broad strokes, Nexus Mutual allows members of its community to buy cover against a particular risk. It’s an enticing proposition, but how does it work?

Go to the Nexus Mutual site and click on “Buy Cover” from the home page. Then you need to decide which protocol you want coverage for. The range is broad and includes all the major DeFi protocols from  1inch.exchange,  yEarn Finance,  Opyn, and many others.

Nexus Mutual Cover

_Source: _Nexus Mutual

From there, you then need to decide how much coverage you want and for how long. After you complete this step, and you are not already a member, you will be asked to join the mutual.

Joining Nexus Mutual entails paying 0.002 ETH and filling out standard KYC/AML processes. Though it is a DeFi-centric protocol, Nexus Mutual is a  legally registered company based in the United Kingdom.

Being a member also means that you are an NXM token holder. Members are responsible for arbitrating governance proposals, as well as claims and risk assessments.

Let’s take a closer look at the role of Nexus Mutual members.

How Does the NXM Token Work?

The  NXM token represents governance rights and affords members the ability to participate in claims and risk assessment.  Hodlers of the NXM token operates Nexus Mutual. Members can’t vote until they stake NXM tokens. And earning NXM tokens incentivizes them to participate. Again, only those who vote on the winning side earn new tokens with rewards flowing in proportion to the size of the payout

NXM tokens gain value when Nexus Mutual’s insurance obligations are thoroughly covered. But prices drop as users purchase more cover. This incentivizes more investors to join.

To get more technical, Nexus Mutual leverages a  bonding curve to determine NXM’s price. The amount of capital locked in the protocol and capital requirements needed to meet potential outstanding claim demands determines the price.

That’s a long way of saying that the more capital that’s locked in the Nexus Mutual protocol, the higher the price of NXM will be. Also, members may share in any excess capital. NXM tokens can be redeemed for ETH directly from the Nexus platform. And there are no immediate plans to list NXM on an exchange.

The NXM token can only be purchased through the Nexus Mutual platform. It is not for sale on Uniswap, Binance, or any other trading platform.

The token economics for this cryptocurrency are designed so that all value created is a function of the health of the platform. Though the token’s price is technically market-driven, the formula is slightly more complicated than simple supply and demand. This is the equation:

Nexus Mutual NXM Token Price Formula
_Source: _Nexus Mutual Token Model

The MCR is the level that defines whether all claims on Nexus Mutual can be fulfilled or not. The higher this value, the higher the probability that all claims can be paid. So, the more funds that are on the platform, the more expensive the token will be.

And as every token holder is also a member of the platform, individual members benefit from the success of the whole. As the platform becomes richer, so too do all of its members.

Would you like to earn TOKEN right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy Nexus Mutual (NXM)?

NXM has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy NXM

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step - Transfer your cryptos to an Altcoin Exchange

Since NXM is an altcoin we need to transfer our coins to an exchange that NXM can be traded. Below is a list of exchanges that offers to trade NXM in various market pairs, head to their websites and register for an account.

Once finished you will then need to make a BTC/ETH/USDT deposit to the exchange from Binance depending on the available market pairs. After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase NXM from the exchange.

Exchange: Nexus Mutual Exchange

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once NXM gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
https://www.bittrex.com
https://www.poloniex.com
https://www.bitfinex.com
https://www.huobi.com
https://www.mxc.ai
https://www.probit.com
https://www.gate.io
https://www.coinbase.com

Find more information NXM

WebsiteExplorerExplorer 2Source CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

Learn about Cryptocurrency in this article ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner

Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

#blockchain #bitcoin #crypto #nexus mutual #nxm

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

aaron silva

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