What is the idea behind ^= 32, that converts lowercase letters to upper and vice versa?

What is the idea behind ^= 32, that converts lowercase letters to upper and vice versa?

I was solving some problem on codeforces. Normally I first check if the character is upper or lower English letter then subtract or add&nbsp;<code>32</code>&nbsp;to convert it to the corresponding letter. But I found someone do&nbsp;<code>^= 32</code>&nbsp;to do the same thing. Here it is:

I was solving some problem on codeforces. Normally I first check if the character is upper or lower English letter then subtract or add 32 to convert it to the corresponding letter. But I found someone do ^= 32 to do the same thing. Here it is:

char foo = 'a';
foo ^= 32;
char bar = 'A';
bar ^= 32;
cout << foo << ' ' << bar << '\n'; // foo is A, and bar is a

I have searched for an explanation for this and didn't find out. So why this works?

c++

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