Vaughn  Sauer

Vaughn Sauer

1624013460

Deep Few-shot Anomaly Detection

Existing (deep or shallow) anomaly detection methods are typically designed as unsupervised learning (trained on fully unlabeled data) or semi-supervised learning (trained on exclusively labeled normal data) due to the lack of large-scale labeled anomaly data. As a result, they are difficult to leverage prior knowledge (e.g., a few labeled anomalies) when such information is available as in many real-world anomaly detection applications. These limited labeled anomalies may originate from a deployed detection system, e.g., a few successfully detected network intrusion records, or they may be from users, such as a small number of fraudulent credit card transactions that are reported by clients and confirmed by the banks. As it is assumed only a very small number of labeled anomalies are available during training, the approaches in this research line may be grouped under the umbrella ‘few-shot anomaly detection’. However, they also have some fundamental differences from the general few-shot learning. I will discuss more on the differences at the end. In this post, I will share some of our exciting work on leveraging deep learning techniques to address this problem.

The Research Problem

Given a set of large normal (or unlabeled) training data and a very limited number of labeled anomaly data, we aim to properly leverage those small labeled anomaly data and the large normal/unlabeled data to learn an anomaly detection model.

Deep Distance-based Anomaly Detection Approach

REPEN [1] is probably the first deep anomaly detection method that is designed to leverage the few labeled anomalies to learn anomaly-informed detection models. The key idea in REPEN is to learn feature representations such that anomalies have a larger nearest neighbor distance in a random data subsample than normal data instances. This random nearest neighbor distance is one of the most effective and efficient anomaly measures, as shown in [2, 3]. REPEN aims to learn feature representations that are tailored to this state-of-the-art anomaly measure. The framework of REPEN is illustrated as follows.

#few-shot-learning #editors-pick #deep-learning #anomaly detection

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Deep Few-shot Anomaly Detection
Vaughn  Sauer

Vaughn Sauer

1624013460

Deep Few-shot Anomaly Detection

Existing (deep or shallow) anomaly detection methods are typically designed as unsupervised learning (trained on fully unlabeled data) or semi-supervised learning (trained on exclusively labeled normal data) due to the lack of large-scale labeled anomaly data. As a result, they are difficult to leverage prior knowledge (e.g., a few labeled anomalies) when such information is available as in many real-world anomaly detection applications. These limited labeled anomalies may originate from a deployed detection system, e.g., a few successfully detected network intrusion records, or they may be from users, such as a small number of fraudulent credit card transactions that are reported by clients and confirmed by the banks. As it is assumed only a very small number of labeled anomalies are available during training, the approaches in this research line may be grouped under the umbrella ‘few-shot anomaly detection’. However, they also have some fundamental differences from the general few-shot learning. I will discuss more on the differences at the end. In this post, I will share some of our exciting work on leveraging deep learning techniques to address this problem.

The Research Problem

Given a set of large normal (or unlabeled) training data and a very limited number of labeled anomaly data, we aim to properly leverage those small labeled anomaly data and the large normal/unlabeled data to learn an anomaly detection model.

Deep Distance-based Anomaly Detection Approach

REPEN [1] is probably the first deep anomaly detection method that is designed to leverage the few labeled anomalies to learn anomaly-informed detection models. The key idea in REPEN is to learn feature representations such that anomalies have a larger nearest neighbor distance in a random data subsample than normal data instances. This random nearest neighbor distance is one of the most effective and efficient anomaly measures, as shown in [2, 3]. REPEN aims to learn feature representations that are tailored to this state-of-the-art anomaly measure. The framework of REPEN is illustrated as follows.

#few-shot-learning #editors-pick #deep-learning #anomaly detection

Michael  Hamill

Michael Hamill

1618310820

These Tips Will Help You Step Up Anomaly Detection Using ML

In this article, you will learn a couple of Machine Learning-Based Approaches for Anomaly Detection and then show how to apply one of these approaches to solve a specific use case for anomaly detection (Credit Fraud detection) in part two.

A common need when you analyzing real-world data-sets is determining which data point stand out as being different from all other data points. Such data points are known as anomalies, and the goal of anomaly detection (also known as outlier detection) is to determine all such data points in a data-driven fashion. Anomalies can be caused by errors in the data but sometimes are indicative of a new, previously unknown, underlying process.

#machine-learning #machine-learning-algorithms #anomaly-detection #detecting-data-anomalies #data-anomalies #machine-learning-use-cases #artificial-intelligence #fraud-detection

Applying Anomaly Detection with Autoencoders to Fraud Detection

I recently read an article called Anomaly Detection with Autoencoders. The article was based on generated data, so it sounded like a good idea to apply this idea to a real-world fraud detection task and validate it.

I decided to use Credit Card Fraud Dataset From Kaggle*:

The datasets contains transactions made by credit cards in September 2013 by european cardholders.

This dataset presents transactions that occurred in two days, where we have 492 frauds out of 284,807 transactions. The dataset is highly unbalanced, the positive class (frauds) account for 0.172% of all transactions.

It is a very unbalanced dataset and a good candidate to identify fraud through anomalies.

Let’s start with data discovery:

We are going to do a smaller plot after decreasing our dimensions from 30 to 3 with Principal Component Analysis. This data has 32 columns where the first column is the time index, 29 unknown features, 1 transaction amount, and 1 class. I will ignore the time index since it is not stationary.

def show_pca_df(df):
		x = df[df.columns[1:30]].to_numpy()
		y = df[df.columns[30]].to_numpy()

		x = preprocessing.MinMaxScaler().fit_transform(x)
		pca = decomposition.PCA(n_components=3)
		pca_result = pca.fit_transform(x)
		print(pca.explained_variance_ratio_)

		pca_df = pd.DataFrame(data=pca_result, columns=['pc_1', 'pc_2', 'pc_3'])
		pca_df = pd.concat([pca_df, pd.DataFrame({'label': y})], axis=1)

		ax = Axes3D(plt.figure(figsize=(8, 8)))
		ax.scatter(xs=pca_df['pc_1'], ys=pca_df['pc_2'], zs=pca_df['pc_3'], c=pca_df['label'], s=25)
		ax.set_xlabel("pc_1")
		ax.set_ylabel("pc_2")
		ax.set_zlabel("pc_3")
		plt.show()

	df = pd.read_csv('creditcard.csv')

	show_pca_df(df)
view raw
anomaly_detection_part1_1.py hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Image for post

Your first reaction could be that there are two clusters and this would be an easy task but fraud data is yellow points! There are three visible yellow points in the large cluster. So let’s subsample the normal data while keeping the number of fraud data.

df_anomaly = df[df[df.columns[30]] > 0]
	df_normal = df[df[df.columns[30]] == 0].sample(n=df_anomaly.size, random_state=1, axis='index')
	df = pd.concat([ df_anomaly, df_normal])

	show_pca_df(df)
view raw
anomaly_detection_part1_2.py hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Image for post

#keras #anomaly-detection #deep-learning #tensorflow #fraud-detection #deep learning

Ismael  Stark

Ismael Stark

1618128600

Credit Card Fraud Detection via Machine Learning: A Case Study

This is the second and last part of my series which focuses on Anomaly Detection using Machine Learning. If you haven’t already, I recommend you read my first article here which will introduce you to Anomaly Detection and its applications in the business world.

In this article, I will take you through a case study focus on Credit Card Fraud Detection. It is important that credit card companies are able to recognize fraudulent credit card transactions so that customers are not charged for items that they did not purchase. So the main task is to identify fraudulent credit card transactions by using Machine learning. We are going to use a Python library called PyOD which is specifically developed for anomaly detection purposes.

#machine-learning #anomaly-detection #data-anomalies #detecting-data-anomalies #fraud-detection #fraud-detector #data-science #machine-learning-tutorials

Tia  Gottlieb

Tia Gottlieb

1596789600

Deep Learning for Anomaly Detection: A Comprehensive Survey

Reviewing challenges, methods and opportunities in deep anomaly detection

This post summarizes a comprehensive survey paper on deep learning for anomaly detection — “Deep Learning for Anomaly Detection: A Review” [1], discussing challenges, methods and opportunities in this direction.

Anomaly detection, a.k.a. outlier detection, has been an active research area for several decades, due to its broad applications in a large number of key domains such as risk management, compliance, security, financial surveillance, health and medical risk, and AI safety. Although it is a problem widely studied in various communities including data mining, machine learning, computer vision and statistics, there are still some unique problem complexities and challenges that require advanced approaches. In recent years, deep learning enabled anomaly detection has emerged as a critical direction towards addressing these challenges. However, there is a lack of systematic review and discussion of the research progress in this direction. We aim to present a comprehensive review of this direction to discuss the main challenges, a large number of state-of-the-art methods, how they address the challenges, as well as future opportunities.


Largely Unsolved Challenges in Anomaly Detection

Although anomaly detection is a lasting active research area for years, there are still a number of largely unsolved challenges due to some unique and complex nature of anomalies, e.g., _unknownness _(they remain unknown until actually occur), _heterogeneity _(different anomalies demonstrate completely different abnormal characteristics), _rareness _(anomalies are rarely occurred data instances), diverse form of anomalies (point anomaly, contextual anomaly, and group anomaly).

One of the most challenging issues is the difficulty to achieve high anomaly detection recall rate (Challenge #1). Since anomalies are highly rare and heterogeneous, it is difficult to identify all of the anomalies. Many normal instances are wrongly reported as anomalies while true yet sophisticated anomalies are missed.

Anomaly detection in high-dimensional and/or not-independent data (Challenge #2) is also a significant challenge. Anomalies often exhibit evident abnormal characteristics in a low-dimensional space yet become hidden and unnoticeable in a high-dimensional space. High-dimensional anomaly detection has been a long-standing problem. Subspace/feature selection-based methods may be a straightforward solution. However, identifying intricate (e.g., high-order, nonlinear and heterogeneous) feature interactions and couplings may be essential in high-dimensional data yet remains a major challenge for anomaly detection.

Due to the difficulty and cost of collecting large-scale labeled anomaly data, it is important to have data-efficient learning of normality/abnormality (Challenge #3). wo major challenges are how to learn expressive normality/abnormality representations with a small amount of labeled anomaly data and how to learn detection models that are generalized to novel anomalies uncovered by the given labeled anomaly data.

Many weakly/semi-supervised anomaly detection methods assume the given labeled training data is clean, which can be highly vulnerable to noisy instances that are mistakenly labeled as an opposite class label. One main challenge here is how to develop noise-resilient anomaly detection (Challenge #4).

Most of existing methods are for point anomalies, which cannot be used for conditional anomaly and group anomaly since they exhibit completely different behaviors from point anomalies. One main challenge here is to incorporate the concept of conditional/group anomalies into anomaly measures/models for the detection of those complex anomalies (Challenge #5).

In many critical domains there may be some major risks if anomaly detection models are directly used as black-box models. For example, the _rare _data instances reported as anomalies may lead to possible algorithmic bias against the minority groups presented in the data, such as under-represented groups in fraud detection and crime detection systems. An effective approach to mitigate this type of risk is to have anomaly explanation (Challenge #6) algorithms that provide straightforward clues about why a specific data instance is identified as anomaly. Providing such explanation can be as important as detection accuracy in some applications. To derive anomaly explanation from specific detection methods is still a largely unsolved problem, especially for complex models. Developing inherently interpretable anomaly detection models is also crucial, but it remains a main challenge to well balance the model’s interpretability and effectiveness.

#ai & machine learning #anomaly detection #deep learning #deep learning