When it comes to naming functions in Python, we can use underscores as well as letters and numbers. When underscores are used between words, they don’t mean much — they just help readability by creating spaces between words. This is known as the snake naming style. For instance,
calculate_mean_score is easier to read than
calculatemeanscore. Besides this common way of using underscores, as you may know, we also prefix function names with one or two underscores (e.g.,
__func) to denote that these functions are intended for private use within the class or module. Names without an underscore prefix are considered public APIs.
Another use of underscores in function naming are magic methods, also known as special methods. Specifically, we place two underscores before and two underscores after the function name — something like
__func__. Because of the use of double underscores, some people refer to special methods as “dunder methods” or simply“ dunders.” In this article, I’d like to review five closely related pairs of common magic methods, with each pair representing a Python concept.
After learning the basics of Python data structures (e.g., dictionaries, lists), you should have seen some examples of defining custom classes, where you have the very first contact with a magic method —
__init__. This method is used to define the initialization behavior of the instance object. Specifically, in the
__init__ method, you want to set the initial attributes for the created instance object. Here’s a simple example:
When we use the
__init__ method, we don’t call it directly. Instead, the
__init__ method becomes the building basis of the constructor method of the class, which has the same function signature as the
__init__ method. For example, to create a new
Product instance, use the following code:
product = Product("Vacuum", 150.0)
Closely related to the
__init__ method is the
__new__ method, which we don’t usually implement in our custom class. In essence, the
__new__ method actually creates the instance object, which is passed to the
__init__ method to complete the initialization process.
In other words, constructing a new instance object (a process known as instantiation) involves calling both
___init___ methods sequentially.
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No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas.
By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities.
Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly.
Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.
Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions.
Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events.
Simple to read and compose
Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building.
The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties.
Utilized by the best
Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player.
Massive community support
Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions.
Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking.
Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.
The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.
Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential.
The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.
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Magic Methods are the special methods which gives us the ability to access built in syntactical features such as ‘<’, ‘>’, ‘==’, ‘+’ etc…
You must have worked with such methods without knowing them to be as magic methods. Magic methods can be identified with their names which start with __ and ends with __ like init, call, str etc. These methods are also called Dunder Methods, because of their name starting and ending with Double Underscore (Dunder).
Now there are a number of such special methods, which you might have come across too, in Python. We will just be taking an example of a few of them to understand how they work and how we can use them.
class AnyClass: def __init__(): print("Init called on its own") obj = AnyClass()
The first example is _init, _and as the name suggests, it is used for initializing objects. Init method is called on its own, ie. whenever an object is created for the class, the init method is called on its own.
The output of the above code will be given below. Note how we did not call the init method and it got invoked as we created an object for class AnyClass.
Init called on its own
Let’s move to some other example, add gives us the ability to access the built in syntax feature of the character +. Let’s see how,
class AnyClass: def __init__(self, var): self.some_var = var def __add__(self, other_obj): print("Calling the add method") return self.some_var + other_obj.some_var obj1 = AnyClass(5) obj2 = AnyClass(6) obj1 + obj2
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Python is awesome, it’s one of the easiest languages with simple and intuitive syntax but wait, have you ever thought that there might ways to write your python code simpler?
In this tutorial, you’re going to learn a variety of Python tricks that you can use to write your Python code in a more readable and efficient way like a pro.
Swapping value in Python
Instead of creating a temporary variable to hold the value of the one while swapping, you can do this instead
>>> FirstName = "kalebu" >>> LastName = "Jordan" >>> FirstName, LastName = LastName, FirstName >>> print(FirstName, LastName) ('Jordan', 'kalebu')
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Python has a set of magic methods that can be used to enrich data classes; they are special in the way they are invoked. These methods are also called “dunder methods” because they start and end with double underscores. Dunder methods allow developers to emulate built-in methods, and it’s also how operator overloading is implemented in Python. For example, when we add two integers together,
4 + 2, and when we add two strings together,
“machine” + “learning”, the behaviour is different. The strings get concatenated while the integers are actually added together.
If you have ever created a class of your own, you already know one of the dunder methods,
__init__(). Although it’s often referred to as the constructor, it’s not the real constructor; the
__new__() method is the constructor. The superclass’s
super().__new__(cls[, ...]), method is invoked, which creates an instance of the class, which is then passed to the
__init__() along with other arguments. Why go through the ordeal of creating the
__new__() method? You don’t need to; the
__new__() method was created mainly to facilitate the creation of subclasses of immutable types (such as int, str, list) and metaclasses.
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Today you’re going to learn how to use Python programming in a way that can ultimately save a lot of space on your drive by removing all the duplicates.
In many situations you may find yourself having duplicates files on your disk and but when it comes to tracking and checking them manually it can tedious.
Heres a solution
Instead of tracking throughout your disk to see if there is a duplicate, you can automate the process using coding, by writing a program to recursively track through the disk and remove all the found duplicates and that’s what this article is about.
But How do we do it?
If we were to read the whole file and then compare it to the rest of the files recursively through the given directory it will take a very long time, then how do we do it?
The answer is hashing, with hashing can generate a given string of letters and numbers which act as the identity of a given file and if we find any other file with the same identity we gonna delete it.
There’s a variety of hashing algorithms out there such as
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