Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick

1595346120

Microservices in Practice: Deployment Shouldn't Be an Afterthought

Microservice architecture is one of the most popular software architecture styles that enables the rapid, frequent, and reliable delivery of large, complex applications. There are numerous learning materials on the benefits of microservices, design, and implementations. However, there are very few resources that discuss how to write your code to cloud-native platforms like Kubernetes in a way that just works. In this article, I am going to use the same microservice E-Commerce sample used in the Rethinking Programming: Automated Observability article and discuss Ballerina’s built-in Kubernetes support to extend it to run in Kubernetes platforms.

The sample code covers the implementation of an e-commerce backend that simulates the microservices required to implement searching for goods, adding them to a shopping cart, doing payments, and shipping.

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

Code to Kubernetes

Docker helps to package the application with its dependencies while Kubernetes helps to automate deployment and scaling and to manage containerized applications. Kubernetes defines a set of unique building blocks that collectively provide mechanisms to deploy, maintain, and scale applications.

On the other hand, the developer has to write code in a certain way to work well in a given execution environment. The microservices have to be designed, architected, and implemented in a way that performs well in a platform like Kubernetes. Otherwise, the application code will not be well-fitting to the Kubernetes building blocks. In other words, deployment should not be an afterthought, we should design and write our code to run in Kubernetes.

Let’s look at potential Kubernetes deployment architecture for the above e-commerce application.

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

One of the main challenges that developers are facing is the lack of tools and programing language abstraction support to design and implement the microservices to work well in Kubernetes. As a solution to this problem, Ballerina has introduced a set of cloud-native abstractions and tools to write microservices that just work in platforms like Kubernetes.

Let’s look at how we can use Ballerina’s Kubernetes abstraction to extend the e-commerce microservices to run in Kubernetes.

Order Management Microservice

The order management microservice named OrderMgt is the simplest microservices because it provides a set of functionality for billing, shipping, and admins but it is not dependant on any other microservices to complete the tasks. Let’s see how we can extend the OrderMgt microservice to support running in Kubernetes.

Java

@kubernetes:HPA {
   minReplicas: 1,
   maxReplicas: 4,
   cpuPercentage: 75,
   name: "ordermgt-hpa"
}
@kubernetes:Service {
   name: "ordermgt-svc"
}
@kubernetes:Deployment {
   name: "ordermgt",
   image: "index.docker.io/$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}/ecommerce-ordermgt:1.0",
   username: "$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}",
   password: "$env{DOCKER_PASSWORD}",
   push: true,
   livenessProbe: true,
   readinessProbe: true,
   prometheus: true
}
service OrderMgt on new http:Listener(8081) {

Listing 1: OrderMgt Microservice

In the code snippet above, I have added three Kubernetes annotations on top of the OrderMgt service code block. I have set some properties in @kubernetes:Deployment to extend the code to run in Kubernetes.

  • _  image        : Name, registry and tag of the Docker image_
  • _  username     : Username for Docker registry_
  • _  password     : Password for Docker registry_
  • _  push         : Enable pushing Docker image to the registry_
  • _  livenessProbe. : Enable livenessProbe for the health check_
  • _  readinessProbe : Enable readinessProbe for the health check_
  • _  prometheus   : Enabled Prometheus for observability _

#microservice architecture #microservice #kubernates #ballerina #programing language #deploying microservices #deploying to kubernetes

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Microservices in Practice: Deployment Shouldn't Be an Afterthought
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick

1595346120

Microservices in Practice: Deployment Shouldn't Be an Afterthought

Microservice architecture is one of the most popular software architecture styles that enables the rapid, frequent, and reliable delivery of large, complex applications. There are numerous learning materials on the benefits of microservices, design, and implementations. However, there are very few resources that discuss how to write your code to cloud-native platforms like Kubernetes in a way that just works. In this article, I am going to use the same microservice E-Commerce sample used in the Rethinking Programming: Automated Observability article and discuss Ballerina’s built-in Kubernetes support to extend it to run in Kubernetes platforms.

The sample code covers the implementation of an e-commerce backend that simulates the microservices required to implement searching for goods, adding them to a shopping cart, doing payments, and shipping.

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

Code to Kubernetes

Docker helps to package the application with its dependencies while Kubernetes helps to automate deployment and scaling and to manage containerized applications. Kubernetes defines a set of unique building blocks that collectively provide mechanisms to deploy, maintain, and scale applications.

On the other hand, the developer has to write code in a certain way to work well in a given execution environment. The microservices have to be designed, architected, and implemented in a way that performs well in a platform like Kubernetes. Otherwise, the application code will not be well-fitting to the Kubernetes building blocks. In other words, deployment should not be an afterthought, we should design and write our code to run in Kubernetes.

Let’s look at potential Kubernetes deployment architecture for the above e-commerce application.

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

One of the main challenges that developers are facing is the lack of tools and programing language abstraction support to design and implement the microservices to work well in Kubernetes. As a solution to this problem, Ballerina has introduced a set of cloud-native abstractions and tools to write microservices that just work in platforms like Kubernetes.

Let’s look at how we can use Ballerina’s Kubernetes abstraction to extend the e-commerce microservices to run in Kubernetes.

Order Management Microservice

The order management microservice named OrderMgt is the simplest microservices because it provides a set of functionality for billing, shipping, and admins but it is not dependant on any other microservices to complete the tasks. Let’s see how we can extend the OrderMgt microservice to support running in Kubernetes.

Java

@kubernetes:HPA {
   minReplicas: 1,
   maxReplicas: 4,
   cpuPercentage: 75,
   name: "ordermgt-hpa"
}
@kubernetes:Service {
   name: "ordermgt-svc"
}
@kubernetes:Deployment {
   name: "ordermgt",
   image: "index.docker.io/$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}/ecommerce-ordermgt:1.0",
   username: "$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}",
   password: "$env{DOCKER_PASSWORD}",
   push: true,
   livenessProbe: true,
   readinessProbe: true,
   prometheus: true
}
service OrderMgt on new http:Listener(8081) {

Listing 1: OrderMgt Microservice

In the code snippet above, I have added three Kubernetes annotations on top of the OrderMgt service code block. I have set some properties in @kubernetes:Deployment to extend the code to run in Kubernetes.

  • _  image        : Name, registry and tag of the Docker image_
  • _  username     : Username for Docker registry_
  • _  password     : Password for Docker registry_
  • _  push         : Enable pushing Docker image to the registry_
  • _  livenessProbe. : Enable livenessProbe for the health check_
  • _  readinessProbe : Enable readinessProbe for the health check_
  • _  prometheus   : Enabled Prometheus for observability _

#microservice architecture #microservice #kubernates #ballerina #programing language #deploying microservices #deploying to kubernetes

Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1599055326

Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

#testing #software testing #test automation #microservice architecture #microservice #test #software test automation #microservice best practices #microservice deployment #microservice components

The Service Mesh in the Microservices World - DZone Microservices

The software industry has come a long journey and throughout this journey, Software Architecture has evolved a lot. Starting with 1-tier (Single-node), 2-tier (Client/ Server), 3-tier, and Distributed are some of the Software Architectural patterns we saw in this journey.

The Problem

The majority of software companies are moving from Monolithic architecture to Microservices architecture, and Microservices architecture is taking over the software industry day-by-day. While monolithic architecture has many benefits, it also has so many shortcomings when catering to modern software development needs. With those shortcomings of monolithic architecture, it is very difficult to meet the demand of the modern-world software requirements and as a result, microservices architecture is taking control of the software development aggressively. The Microservices architecture enables us to deploy our applications more frequently, independently, and reliably meeting modern-day software application development requirements.

#microservice architecture #istio #microservice best practices #linkerd #microservice communication #microservice design #envoy proxy #kubernetes architecture #api gateways #service mesh architecture

Norbert  Ernser

Norbert Ernser

1595301931

Microservices in Practice: Deployment Shouldn't Be an Afterthought

Microservice architecture is one of the most popular software architecture styles that enables the rapid, frequent, and reliable delivery of large, complex applications. There are numerous learning materials on the benefits of microservices, design, and implementations. However, there are very few resources that discuss how to write your code to cloud-native platforms like Kubernetes in a way that just works. In this article, I am going to use the same microservice E-Commerce sample used in the Rethinking Programming: Automated Observability article and discuss Ballerina’s built-in Kubernetes support to extend it to run in Kubernetes platforms.

The sample code covers the implementation of an e-commerce backend that simulates the microservices required to implement searching for goods, adding them to a shopping cart, doing payments, and shipping.

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

Code to Kubernetes

Docker helps to package the application with its dependencies while Kubernetes helps to automate deployment and scaling and to manage containerized applications. Kubernetes defines a set of unique building blocks that collectively provide mechanisms to deploy, maintain, and scale applications.

On the other hand, the developer has to write code in a certain way to work well in a given execution environment. The microservices have to be designed, architected, and implemented in a way that performs well in a platform like Kubernetes. Otherwise, the application code will not be well-fitting to the Kubernetes building blocks. In other words, deployment should not be an afterthought, we should design and write our code to run in Kubernetes.

Let’s look at potential Kubernetes deployment architecture for the above e-commerce application.

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

#microservice architecture #microservice #kubernates #ballerina #programing language

Norbert  Ernser

Norbert Ernser

1595305680

Microservices in Practice: Deployment Shouldn't Be an Afterthought

Microservice architecture is one of the most popular software architecture styles that enables the rapid, frequent, and reliable delivery of large, complex applications. There are numerous learning materials on the benefits of microservices, design, and implementations. However, there are very few resources that discuss how to write your code to cloud-native platforms like Kubernetes in a way that just works. In this article, I am going to use the same microservice E-Commerce sample used in the Rethinking Programming: Automated Observability article and discuss Ballerina’s built-in Kubernetes support to extend it to run in Kubernetes platforms.

The sample code covers the implementation of an e-commerce backend that simulates the microservices required to implement searching for goods, adding them to a shopping cart, doing payments, and shipping.

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

E-Commerce Backend Microservices Architecture

Code to Kubernetes

Docker helps to package the application with its dependencies while Kubernetes helps to automate deployment and scaling and to manage containerized applications. Kubernetes defines a set of unique building blocks that collectively provide mechanisms to deploy, maintain, and scale applications.

On the other hand, the developer has to write code in a certain way to work well in a given execution environment. The microservices have to be designed, architected, and implemented in a way that performs well in a platform like Kubernetes. Otherwise, the application code will not be well-fitting to the Kubernetes building blocks. In other words, deployment should not be an afterthought, we should design and write our code to run in Kubernetes.

Let’s look at potential Kubernetes deployment architecture for the above e-commerce application.

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

Kubernetes Deployment Architecture for E-commerce Backend Microservices

One of the main challenges that developers are facing is the lack of tools and programing language abstraction support to design and implement the microservices to work well in Kubernetes. As a solution to this problem, Ballerina has introduced a set of cloud-native abstractions and tools to write microservices that just work in platforms like Kubernetes.

Let’s look at how we can use Ballerina’s Kubernetes abstraction to extend the e-commerce microservices to run in Kubernetes.

Order Management Microservice

The order management microservice named OrderMgt is the simplest microservices because it provides a set of functionality for billing, shipping, and admins but it is not dependant on any other microservices to complete the tasks. Let’s see how we can extend the OrderMgt microservice to support running in Kubernetes.

Java

1

@kubernetes:HPA {

2

   minReplicas: 1,

3

   maxReplicas: 4,

4

   cpuPercentage: 75,

5

   name: "ordermgt-hpa"

6

}

7

@kubernetes:Service {

8

   name: "ordermgt-svc"

9

}

10

@kubernetes:Deployment {

11

   name: "ordermgt",

12

   image: "index.docker.io/$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}/ecommerce-ordermgt:1.0",

13

   username: "$env{DOCKER_USERNAME}",

14

   password: "$env{DOCKER_PASSWORD}",

15

   push: true,

16

   livenessProbe: true,

17

   readinessProbe: true,

18

   prometheus: true

19

}

20

service OrderMgt on new http:Listener(8081) {

#microservice architecture #microservice #kubernates #ballerina #programing language