alice karl


Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Questions

It is your chance to pass the CKA exam and become a Certified Kubernetes Administrator. All you have to do is to go through PassQuestion Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Questions so you can clear the CKA certification exam on your first attempt. PassQuestion Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Questions provide you the possible shortest way to pass exam and get certified. It will help you build confidence and you will be able to find out important tips to attempt your CKA Certified Kubernetes Administrator exam.

Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Overview

CKA was created by The Linux Foundation and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) as a part of their ongoing effort to help develop the Kubernetes ecosystem. The exam is an online, proctored, performance-based test that requires solving multiple tasks from a command line running Kubernetes.This certification is for Kubernetes administrators, cloud administrators and other IT professionals who manage Kubernetes instances.

The Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) certification is designed to ensure that certification holders have the skills, knowledge, and competency to perform the responsibilities of Kubernetes Administrators. The CKA certification allows certified administrators to quickly establish their credibility and value in the job market, and also allowing companies to more quickly hire high-quality teams to support their growth.

Exam Information

The online exam consists of a set of performance-based items (problems) to be solved in a command line and candidates have 2 hours to complete the tasks.For the CKA Exam, a score of 66% or above must be earned to pass. Candidates are allowed 2 hours to complete the CKA exam. The cost is $375 and includes one free retake.CKA Exam tasks are available in English, Simplified Chinese, and Japanese. 

Exam Topics

  • Cluster Architecture, Installation & Configuration    25%
  • Workloads & Scheduling    15%
  • Services & Networking    20%
  • Storage    10%
  • Troubleshooting    30%

View Online Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Free Questions

Create a busybox pod that runs the command "env" and save the output to "envpod" file
A. Solution:
kubectl run busybox --image=busybox --restart=Never --rm -it -- env > envpod.yaml
Answer: A

List pod logs named "frontend" and search for the pattern "started" and write it to a file "/opt/error- logs"
A. Solution:
Kubectl logs frontend | grep -i "started" > /opt/error-logs
Answer: A

Create a pod that echo "hello world" and then exists. Have the pod deleted automatically when it's completed
A. Solution:
kubectl run busybox --image=busybox -it --rm --restart=Never -- /bin/sh -c 'echo hello world'
kubectl get po # You shouldn't see pod with the name "busybox"
Answer: A

Create a namespace called 'development' and a pod with image nginx called nginx on this namespace.
A. Solution:
kubectl create namespace development
kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --restart=Never -n development
Answer: A

Get list of all pods in all namespaces and write it to file "/opt/pods-list.yaml"
A. Solution:
kubectl get po -all-namespaces > /opt/pods-list.yaml
Answer: A

Create a pod with image nginx called nginx and allow traffic on port 80
A. Solution:
kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --restart=Never --port=80
Answer: A

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Buddha Community

Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr


50+ Useful Kubernetes Tools for 2020 - Part 2


Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.

According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

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Harish Kadari


▷ Kubernetes Training | Certified Kubernetes Administrator Course

What is Kubernetes

Kubernetes is basically a system designed specifically to manage containerized applications of distinct kinds across a cluster of nodes. It was designed to address the disconnect between the way on which the modern, clustered infrastructure is designed. Almost all cluster technologies strive hard to provide a platform that’s distinctive or application deployment.

The user should not have to care about where scheduling of the work. The unit of the work presented to the user is at the service level and might be accomplished by any of the member nodes. On the flip side, many applications built with scaling in mind are literally created up services of the smaller element, that should be regular on the constant host. it’s even a lot of necessary once they trust specific networking conditions so as to communicate appropriately.

Want to become a Certified Kubernetes Application Developer ? Visit here to Certified Kubernetes Application Developer Training

Consider Applications rather Servers

Kubernetes, with its elegant abstractions, permits developers to accept applications rather servers of individual containers on specific Servers, pet servers, hostnames etc. Pods, replication services and controllers are the basic units of Kubernetes and are used to describe the system’s desired state. In Kubernetes, the deployment is handled based on the rules and moves towards a forward step further by proactively monitoring, scaling and auto-healing of these services to maintain their desired state.

Kubernetes Features:

Kubernetes helps users to quickly and efficiently respond to the demands of their customer with the following features as follows:

  • Helps to deploy any applications quickly and predictably.
  • Roll out new features seamlessly and Scale your applications on the fly
  • Limit the usage of hardware to required resources only.
  • Helps to relieve the burden of running applications in public and private clouds.

This tutorial provides a walkthrough about the basics of the Kubernetes cluster composition system. Each module consists of some background information on major features of kubernetes and concepts including an interactive online tutorial. This tutorial let the reader to manage a simple cluster and its containerized applications.

Basic Components of Kubernetes

Using these interactive Kubernetes Tutorial , you can learn how to:

  • Deploy an application that is containerized on a cluster
  • Debug the containerized application and to Scale
  • Update the containerized application using a new software version.

Kubernetes Architecture
H3 Master Components
The systems like CoreOS, which are at infrastructure level strives hard to create an environment that is uniform where each host is interchangeable and disposable. On the other side, Kubernetes operates with a particular level of host specialization.

Kubernetes cluster controlling services are known as the master or control plane components. These operates according to the primary management contact point for administrators and also provides several cluster wide systems for the relatively dumb worker nodes, which can be installed on a single machine or distributed across multiple ones.

The cluster architecture follows client-server architecture with a master installed on one machine and the nodes on separate Linux machines.

Master Components of Kubernetes Master Machine: The key components of Kubernetes are as follows:

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It stores the information related to configuration that can be used by the cluster nodes. It is with high availability key value store distributed among multiple nodes and with a distributed key value store can accessible only by Kubernetes API server as it may be of some sensitive information.

API Server
Kubernetes, an API server implements all the operations on cluster using distinct tools and libraries which can readily communicate. Kubeconfig is used to expose Kubernetes API, comes with the server side tools and can be used for communication.

Controller Manager
This function of this component is to regulate the state of the clusters and perform a task and is mostly for collectors. It runs in a non terminating loop and is responsible for sending and collecting information to API server. To bring the server to desired state, it collects shared data and make changes. Its key controllers include replication controller, namespace controller, service account controller and endpoint controller. The controller manager runs distinct kinds of controllers to handle nodes, endpoints etc.

Being one of the key components of Kubernetes master, it is responsible for workload distribution and for tracking work utilization load on cluster nodes and then placing them on the available resources by accepting the workload. In short, it is responsible for allocating pods to available nodes and is responsible for workload utilization.

Get ahead in your career by learning CKAD through Mindmajix CKAD Training.
Components of Kubernetes Node
Following are the key components of Node server that are necessary to communicate with Kubernetes master.

Docker - Docker being the primary requirement of any node helps in running any encapsulated application containers and lightweight operating environment.

Kubelet Service - The service in each node is responsible for relaying information both to and from the control plane by interacting with etcd store to read the values of configuration and wright. It assumes the responsibility in maintaining work state and the node, also manages network rules, port forwarding, etc.

Kubernetes Proxy Service - This is a proxy service that runs on nodes and helps in making services that are available to external host. It is responsible for forwarding request to correct containers and performs primitive load balancing and ensures that the networking environment is accessible, predictable as well as isolated. Any key function of this is to manage secrets, pods on node, volumes, new container creation, etc.

Setting Kubernetes - It is necessary to set up a virtual Data Center(VDC) for setting up Kubernetes, which can be considered as a set of machines responsible for communicating each other via the network.

Once the IaaS setup on any cloud is complete, you need to configure the Master and the Node.

After setting up the IaaS on any cloud, configuring the Master and the Node should be done.


Docker Installation − Docker is necessary for every Kubernetes installation. Steps to install the Docker are as follows:
Step 1 − Log on to the machine with login credentials of root user.
Step 2 − Using an apt package, update the package information
Step 3 − Run the following commands.Step 4 − Add the new GPG key.

Add the new GPG key Certified Kubernetes Application Developer Certification Training! Explore Curriculum Step 5 − Update the API package image.

$ sudo apt-get update

After completing the above tasks, start with the actual Docker engine installation by verifying the kernel version

Docker Engine Installation
Run the following commands to install the Docker engine.

Step 1 − Logon to the machine.
Step 2 − Index package updating.

$ sudo apt-get update
Step 3 − Using the following command, update the information.

$ sudo apt-get install docker-engine
Step 4 − Start the Docker daemon.

$ sudo apt-get install docker-engine
Step 5 − Using the below command, verify the installation of Docker engine.

$ sudo docker run hello-world
Install etcd 2.0

Run the commands following in or to install Kubernetes Master Machine.

In the above set of command −
After downloading the etcd, Save it with a specified name and then un-tar the tar package.
Make a dir. Within the /opt named bin and then copy the extracted file to the targeted location.
Now, we can build Kubernetes by installing it on all the machines on the cluster.
Build Kubernetes by installing machines on the cluster

The above command will create a _output dir in the root of the kubernetes folder. Now, we have to extract the directory into any of the directory of our choice /opt/bin, etc.
Networking part is the next coming one need to step up with the Kubernetes master and node setup. To make this, making an entry in the host file has to be done on the node machine.

Following will be the output of the above command.

Now, actual configuration starts on Kubernetes Master.

Start with copying all the configuration files to their correct location.

copying all the configuration files The above command will copy all the configuration files to the required location. Now we will come back to the same directory where we have built the Kubernetes folder. built the Kubernetes folder The next step is to update the copied configuration file under /etc. dir.

Configure etcd on master using the following command.

$ ETCD_OPTS = “-listen-client-urls = http://kube-master:4001

Deploying an Application using Kubernetes
To deploy an application in Kubernetes, Kubeapps is the easiest and quick way. It is the Kubernetes Dashboard that supercharges cluster with simple browse and app deployment in any format. It also provides a complete application delivery environment to empower users to launch, review and share applications. Kubeapps is an open-source project designed to encourage to check out the latest version. It can be deployed in cluster in minutes.

Project in the Kubeapps includes the following:


This is mostly used to supercharge the cluster and bootstrap kubeapps to run Kubeapps CLI tool in the terminal window. The complete application delivery environment can be installed with a single command.


For Simplified deployment, Kubeapps provides an in-cluster toolset of over 100 kubernetes ready applications that are packaged as Helm charts and kubeless functions.


This is an web based community designed to discover, rate and review pre-packaged kubernetes applications, which are accessible with kubernetes cluster.

Why Kubernetes
Kubernetes at a minimum can Schedule and run utility packing containers on clusters of each bodily and digital machines. but, it additionally permits builders to ‘cut the cord’ to bodily and digital machines, transferring from a number-centric infrastructure to a field-centric one providing several advantages that inherit to containers. It provides the infrastructure required to build a complete container-centric development environment. Kubernetes comes with an underlying technology to Docker,that has already baked into the Linux Kernel for some time.

Kubernetes allows users to deploy cloud native applications and manage them exactly according to their requirement anywhere and at every point of time. Its key features include:

  • An Infrastructure framework for today
  • Modularity for better Management
  • Updating and Deploying software for Scale
  • Laying a strong foundation for Cloud-native apps

In addition to these, Kubernetes allows users to derive maximum container utility and build cloud-native applications thus enable to run independent of cloud-specific requirements anywhere. Clearly, it is the most effective model for application development and operations in a quick and easy way.

#kubernetes training #certified kubernetes administrator #cka online training #kubernetes

How to pass CKA — Kubernetes Certified Administrator

TL;DR How to prepare for CKA certification exam.

Just passed the CKA — Kubernetes Certified Administrator certification exam in January 2020 with the new format and I’ll share my preparation with you. Follow this recipe and you will be ready to get your hands on CKA too!

Study material & strategy

  1. Get this course and go over all the videos at least once.

There are a lot of details so maybe you want to keep notes. If you don’t feel like taking notes, check my curated CKA Cheatsheet and study notes.

Complete successfully all the practice tests along with the mock exams at least 3 times.

  1. While doing the practice tests try to use only the official documentation to simulate the real exam. In the examination, you’re only allowed to have one other browser tab open with the Kubernetes documentation. These pages only:

That means for example you can’t access Pay attention to that and try to complete the practice tests and exams only with the allowed resources.

#cka-training #certification #kubernetes-certification #kubernetes #cka

Learn how to Secure a Kubernetes Cluster — CKA Exam Preparation Series

This is one of the numerous posts by TechCommanders in a series for studying for the Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam.

Become a Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA)!

Before learning how to secure a Kubernetes Cluster. Let’s read about why it is important to secure a Kubernetes cluster. Last year, somewhere around January the world’s biggest orchestration system, experienced a major security vulnerability that hit the project ecosystem hard.

We won’t get much into the vulnerability but would like to provide you with an overview. Using this vulnerability attackers can compromise clusters using an API server. This allows them to execute malicious code and put in malware.

The other case that we had come across was because of the wrong configuration of the Kubernetes cluster which led to the installation of cryptocurrency mining software on tesla resources.

One attacker took the advantage of a non-protected Kubernetes Panel by which they were allowed to access the pods and make changes in a larger part of Tesla on AWS.

So, the organizations which are using this orchestration system or shifting to this should be aware of the best security practice to support customer data. Follow the following advice to protect your infrastructure.

#cka-training #kubernetes-cluster #kubernetes #cka #ckad

Maud  Rosenbaum

Maud Rosenbaum


Kubernetes in the Cloud: Strategies for Effective Multi Cloud Implementations

Kubernetes is a highly popular container orchestration platform. Multi cloud is a strategy that leverages cloud resources from multiple vendors. Multi cloud strategies have become popular because they help prevent vendor lock-in and enable you to leverage a wide variety of cloud resources. However, multi cloud ecosystems are notoriously difficult to configure and maintain.

This article explains how you can leverage Kubernetes to reduce multi cloud complexities and improve stability, scalability, and velocity.

Kubernetes: Your Multi Cloud Strategy

Maintaining standardized application deployments becomes more challenging as your number of applications and the technologies they are based on increase. As environments, operating systems, and dependencies differ, management and operations require more effort and extensive documentation.

In the past, teams tried to get around these difficulties by creating isolated projects in the data center. Each project, including its configurations and requirements were managed independently. This required accurately predicting performance and the number of users before deployment and taking down applications to update operating systems or applications. There were many chances for error.

Kubernetes can provide an alternative to the old method, enabling teams to deploy applications independent of the environment in containers. This eliminates the need to create resource partitions and enables teams to operate infrastructure as a unified whole.

In particular, Kubernetes makes it easier to deploy a multi cloud strategy since it enables you to abstract away service differences. With Kubernetes deployments you can work from a consistent platform and optimize services and applications according to your business needs.

The Compelling Attributes of Multi Cloud Kubernetes

Multi cloud Kubernetes can provide multiple benefits beyond a single cloud deployment. Below are some of the most notable advantages.


In addition to the built-in scalability, fault tolerance, and auto-healing features of Kubernetes, multi cloud deployments can provide service redundancy. For example, you can mirror applications or split microservices across vendors. This reduces the risk of a vendor-related outage and enables you to create failovers.

#kubernetes #multicloud-strategy #kubernetes-cluster #kubernetes-top-story #kubernetes-cluster-install #kubernetes-explained #kubernetes-infrastructure #cloud