Server-Side Sessions in Flask with Flask-Session

In this video I will show you how to use Flask-Session to enable server-side sessions in your Flask apps.

Get the code here: https://prettyprinted.com/l/8O8

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#flask #server

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Server-Side Sessions in Flask with Flask-Session

LaravelS: Glue for using Swoole in Laravel Or Lumen

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

 _                               _  _____ 
| |                             | |/ ____|
| |     __ _ _ __ __ ___   _____| | (___  
| |    / _` | '__/ _` \ \ / / _ \ |\___ \ 
| |___| (_| | | | (_| |\ V /  __/ |____) |
|______\__,_|_|  \__,_| \_/ \___|_|_____/ 

中文文档

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
  • Http
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

  1. Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.
// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],
  1. Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.
// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test

Alternatives

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Gitee

Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s 
License: MIT License

#php #laravel #http 

Daniel  Hughes

Daniel Hughes

1649214000

LaravelS: Glue for using Swoole in Laravel Or Lumen.

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

中文文档

Table of Contents

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5292,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestUdpSocket::class,
    ],
],
  • Http
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5293,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestHttp::class,
    ],
],
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5294,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol'      => true,
            'open_websocket_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestWebSocket::class,
    ],
],

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

  1. Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.
// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],
  1. Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.
// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Route::get('/debug-memory-leak', function () {
    global $previous;
    $current = memory_get_usage();
    $stats = [
        'prev_mem' => $previous,
        'curr_mem' => $current,
        'diff_mem' => $current - $previous,
    ];
    $previous = $current;
    return $stats;
});

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test


Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s
License: MIT License

#laravel #php 

Veronica  Roob

Veronica Roob

1648869960

LaravelS: An Out-Of-The-Box Adapter Between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen

 _                               _  _____ 
| |                             | |/ ____|
| |     __ _ _ __ __ ___   _____| | (___  
| |    / _` | '__/ _` \ \ / / _ \ |\___ \ 
| |___| (_| | | | (_| |\ V /  __/ |____) |
|______\__,_|_|  \__,_| \_/ \___|_|_____/ 
                                           

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

中文文档

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
  • Http
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.

// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],

Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.

// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test

Alternatives

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License

MIT

Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s
License: MIT License

#php #laravel 

Zachary Palmer

Zachary Palmer

1555901576

CSS Flexbox Tutorial | Build a Chat Application

Creating the conversation sidebar and main chat section

In this article we are going to focus on building a basic sidebar, and the main chat window inside our chat shell. See below.

Chat shell with a fixed width sidebar and expanded chat window

This is the second article in this series. You can check out the previous article for setting up the shell OR you can just check out the chat-shell branch from the following repository.

https://github.com/lyraddigital/flexbox-chat-app.git

Open up the chat.html file. You should have the following HTML.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <title>Chat App</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen" href="css/chat.css" />
</head>
<body>
    <div id="chat-container">
    </div>
</body>
</html>

Now inside of the chat-container div add the following HTML.

<div id="side-bar">
</div>
<div id="chat-window">
</div>

Now let’s also add the following CSS under the #chat-container selector in the chat.css file.

#side-bar {
    background: #0048AA;
    border-radius: 10px 0 0 10px;
}
#chat-window {
    background: #999;
    border-radius: 0 10px 10px 0;
}

Now reload the page. You should see the following:-

So what happened? Where is our sidebar and where is our chat window? I expected to see a blue side bar and a grey chat window, but it’s no where to be found. Well it’s all good. This is because we have no content inside of either element, so it can be 0 pixels wide.

Sizing Flex Items

So now that we know that our items are 0 pixels wide, let’s attempt to size them. We’ll attempt to try this first using explicit widths.

Add the following width property to the #side-bar rule, then reload the page.

width: 275px;

Hmm. Same result. It’s still a blank shell. Oh wait I have to make sure the height is 100% too. So we better do that too. Once again add the following property to the #side-bar rule, then reload the page.

height: 100%;

So now we have our sidebar that has grown to be exactly 275 pixels wide, and is 100% high. So that’s it. We’re done right? Wrong. Let me ask you a question. How big is the chat window? Let’s test that by adding some text to it. Try this yourself just add some text. You should see something similar to this.

So as you can see the chat window is only as big as the text that’s inside of it, and it is not next to the side bar. And this makes sense because up until now the chat shell is not a flex container, and just a regular block level element.

So let’s make our chat shell a flex container. Set the following display property for the #chat-window selector. Then reload the page.

display: flex;

So as you can see by the above illustration, we can see it’s now next to the side bar, and not below it. But as you can see currently it’s only as wide as the text that’s inside of it.

But we want it to take up the remaining space of the chat shell. Well we know how to do this, as we did it in the previous article. Set the flex-grow property to 1 on the #chat-window selector. Basically copy and paste the property below and reload the page.

flex-grow: 1;

So now we have the chat window taking up the remaining space of the chat shell. Next, let’s remove the background property, and also remove all text inside the chat-window div if any still exists. You should now see the result below.

But are we done? Technically yes, but before we move on, let’s improve things a little bit.

Understanding the default alignment

If you remember, before we had defined our chat shell to be a flex container, we had to make sure we set the height of the side bar to be 100%. Otherwise it was 0 pixels high, and as a result nothing was displayed. With that said, try removing the height property from the #side-bar selector and see what happens when you reload the page. Yes that’s right, it still works. The height of the sidebar is still 100% high.

So what happened here? Why do we no longer have to worry about setting the height to 100%? Well this is one of the cool things Flexbox gives you for free. By default every flex item will stretch vertically to fill in the entire height of the flex container. We can in fact change this behaviour, and we will see how this is done in a future article.

Setting the size of the side bar properly

So another feature of Flexbox is being able to set the size of a flex item by using the flex-basis property. The flex-basis property allows you to specify an initial size of a flex item, before any growing or shrinking takes place. We’ll understand more about this in an upcoming article.

For now I just want you to understand one important thing. And that is using width to specify the size of the sidebar is not a good idea. Let’s see why.

Say that potentially, if the screen is mobile we want the side bar to now appear across the top of the chat shell, acting like a top bar instead. We can do this by changing the direction flex items can flex inside a flex container. For example, add the following CSS to the #chat-container selector. Then reload the page.

flex-direction: column;

So as you can see we are back to a blank shell. So firstly let’s understand what we actually did here. By setting the flex-direction property to column, we changed the direction of how the flex items flex. By default flex items will flex from left to right. However when we set flex-direction to column, it changes this behaviour forcing flex items to flex from top to bottom instead. On top of this, when the direction of flex changes, the sizing and alignment of flex items changes as well.

When flexing from left to right, we get a height of 100% for free as already mentioned, and then we made sure the side bar was set to be 275 pixels wide, by setting the width property.

However now that we a flexing from top to bottom, the width of the flex item by default would be 100% wide, and you would need to specify the height instead. So try this. Add the following property to the #side-bar selector to set the height of the side bar. Then reload the page.

height: 275px;

Now we are seeing the side bar again, as we gave it a fixed height too. But we still have that fixed width. That’s not what we wanted. We want the side bar (ie our new top bar) here to now be 100% wide. Comment out the width for a moment and reload the page again.

So now we were able to move our side bar so it appears on top instead, acting like a top bar. Which as previously mentioned might be suited for mobile device widths. But to do this we had to swap the value of width to be the value of height. Wouldn’t it be great if this size was preserved regardless of which direction our items are flexing.

Try this, remove all widths and height properties from the #side-bar selector and write the following instead. Then reload the page.

flex-basis: 275px;

As you can see we get the same result. Now remove the flex-direction property from the #chat-container selector. Then once again reload the page.

Once again we are back to our final output. But now we also have the flexibility to easily change the side bar to be a top bar if we need to, by just changing the direction items can flow. Regardless of the direction of flex, the size of our side bar / top bar is preserved.

Conclusion

Ok so once again we didn’t build much, but we did cover a lot of concepts about Flexbox around sizing. 

#css #programming #webdev 

Server-Side Sessions in Flask with Flask-Session

In this video I will show you how to use Flask-Session to enable server-side sessions in your Flask apps.

Get the code here: https://prettyprinted.com/l/8O8

Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-QDfvrRIDB6F0bIO4I4HkQ

#flask #server