Seamus  Quitzon

Seamus Quitzon

1599281944

Connection Pooling in Java

Connection pooling means a pool of Connection Objects. Connection pooling is based on an object pool design pattern. Object pooling design pattern is used when the cost (time & resources like CPU, Network, and IO) of creating new objects is higher. As per the Object pooling design pattern, the application creates an object in advance and place them in Pool or Container. Whenever our application requires such objects, it acquires them from the pool rather than creating a new one.

An application that uses a connection pooling strategy has already DB connection objects which can be reused. So, when there is a need to interact with the database, the application obtains connection instances from Pool. Connection pooling improves application performance that interacts with the database.

Connection Pooling
Connection Pooling

We can create our own implementations of Connection pooling. Any connection pooling framework needs to do three tasks.

  • Creating Connection Objects
  • Manage usage of created Objects and validate them
  • Release/Destroy Objects

With Java, we have great set of libraries which are readily available. We only need to configure few properties to use them.

Connection Pooling in Java Application

Let’s have a look at below libraries:

  • Apache Commons DBCP 2
  • HikariCP
  • C3P0

Let’s have a look at below examples of them one by one. For demo purpose we will use MySQL database and Eclipse IDE. We will also create simple Java Project based on maven using JDK 1.8.

Database Scripts

create database empdb;

use empdb;

create table tblemployee(
                    empId integer AUTO_INCREMENT primary key,
                    empName varchar(64),
                    dob date,
                    designation varchar(64)
);

insert into  tblemployee(empId,empName,dob,designation) values (default,'Adam','1998-08-15','Manager');
insert into  tblemployee(empId,empName,dob,designation) values (default,'Smith','2001-01-11','Clerk');
insert into  tblemployee(empId,empName,dob,designation) values (default,'James','1996-03-13','Officer');

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Connection Pooling in Java
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1600135200

How to Install OpenJDK 11 on CentOS 8

What is OpenJDK?

OpenJDk or Open Java Development Kit is a free, open-source framework of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (or Java SE). It contains the virtual machine, the Java Class Library, and the Java compiler. The difference between the Oracle OpenJDK and Oracle JDK is that OpenJDK is a source code reference point for the open-source model. Simultaneously, the Oracle JDK is a continuation or advanced model of the OpenJDK, which is not open source and requires a license to use.

In this article, we will be installing OpenJDK on Centos 8.

#tutorials #alternatives #centos #centos 8 #configuration #dnf #frameworks #java #java development kit #java ee #java environment variables #java framework #java jdk #java jre #java platform #java sdk #java se #jdk #jre #open java development kit #open source #openjdk #openjdk 11 #openjdk 8 #openjdk runtime environment

PostgreSQL Connection Pooling: Part 4 – PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II

In our previous posts in this series, we spoke at length about using PgBouncer  and Pgpool-II , the connection pool architecture and pros and cons of leveraging one for your PostgreSQL deployment. In our final post, we will put them head-to-head in a detailed feature comparison and compare the results of PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II performance for your PostgreSQL hosting !

The bottom line – Pgpool-II is a great tool if you need load-balancing and high availability. Connection pooling is almost a bonus you get alongside. PgBouncer does only one thing, but does it really well. If the objective is to limit the number of connections and reduce resource consumption, PgBouncer wins hands down.

It is also perfectly fine to use both PgBouncer and Pgpool-II in a chain – you can have a PgBouncer to provide connection pooling, which talks to a Pgpool-II instance that provides high availability and load balancing. This gives you the best of both worlds!

Using PgBouncer with Pgpool-II - Connection Pooling Diagram

PostgreSQL Connection Pooling: Part 4 – PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II

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Performance Testing

While PgBouncer may seem to be the better option in theory, theory can often be misleading. So, we pitted the two connection poolers head-to-head, using the standard pgbench tool, to see which one provides better transactions per second throughput through a benchmark test. For good measure, we ran the same tests without a connection pooler too.

Testing Conditions

All of the PostgreSQL benchmark tests were run under the following conditions:

  1. Initialized pgbench using a scale factor of 100.
  2. Disabled auto-vacuuming on the PostgreSQL instance to prevent interference.
  3. No other workload was working at the time.
  4. Used the default pgbench script to run the tests.
  5. Used default settings for both PgBouncer and Pgpool-II, except max_children*. All PostgreSQL limits were also set to their defaults.
  6. All tests ran as a single thread, on a single-CPU, 2-core machine, for a duration of 5 minutes.
  7. Forced pgbench to create a new connection for each transaction using the -C option. This emulates modern web application workloads and is the whole reason to use a pooler!

We ran each iteration for 5 minutes to ensure any noise averaged out. Here is how the middleware was installed:

  • For PgBouncer, we installed it on the same box as the PostgreSQL server(s). This is the configuration we use in our managed PostgreSQL clusters. Since PgBouncer is a very light-weight process, installing it on the box has no impact on overall performance.
  • For Pgpool-II, we tested both when the Pgpool-II instance was installed on the same machine as PostgreSQL (on box column), and when it was installed on a different machine (off box column). As expected, the performance is much better when Pgpool-II is off the box as it doesn’t have to compete with the PostgreSQL server for resources.

Throughput Benchmark

Here are the transactions per second (TPS) results for each scenario across a range of number of clients:

#database #developer #performance #postgresql #connection control #connection pooler #connection pooler performance #connection queue #high availability #load balancing #number of connections #performance testing #pgbench #pgbouncer #pgbouncer and pgpool-ii #pgbouncer vs pgpool #pgpool-ii #pooling modes #postgresql connection pooling #postgresql limits #resource consumption #throughput benchmark #transactions per second #without pooling

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1620458875

Going Beyond Java 8: Local Variable Type Inference (var) - DZone Java

According to some surveys, such as JetBrains’s great survey, Java 8 is currently the most used version of Java, despite being a 2014 release.

What you are reading is one in a series of articles titled ‘Going beyond Java 8,’ inspired by the contents of my book, Java for Aliens. These articles will guide you step-by-step through the most important features introduced to the language, starting from version 9. The aim is to make you aware of how important it is to move forward from Java 8, explaining the enormous advantages that the latest versions of the language offer.

In this article, we will talk about the most important new feature introduced with Java 10. Officially called local variable type inference, this feature is better known as the **introduction of the word **var. Despite the complicated name, it is actually quite a simple feature to use. However, some observations need to be made before we can see the impact that the introduction of the word var has on other pre-existing characteristics.

#java #java 11 #java 10 #java 12 #var #java 14 #java 13 #java 15 #verbosity

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1620462686

Spring Boot and Java 16 Records

In this article, we will discuss Java 16’s newest feature, Records. Then we will apply this knowledge and use it in conjunction with a Spring Boot application.

On March 16th, 2021, Java 16 was GA. With this new release, tons of new exciting features have been added. Check out the release notes to know more about these changes in detail. This article’s focus will be on Java Records, which got delivered with JEP 395. Records were first introduced in JDK 14 as a preview feature proposed by JEP 359, and with JDK 15, they remained in preview with JEP 384. However, with JDK 16, Records are no longer in preview.

I have picked Records because they are definitely the most favored feature added in Java 16, according to this Twitter poll by Java Champion Mala Gupta.

I also conducted a similar survey, but it was focused on features from Java 8 onwards. The results were not unexpected, as Java 8 is still widely used. Very unfortunate, though, as tons of new features and improvements are added to newer Java versions. But in terms of features, Java 8 was definitely a game-changer from a developer perspective.

So let’s discuss what the fuss is about Java Records.

#java #springboot #java programming #records #java tutorials #java programmer #java records #java 16

Seamus  Quitzon

Seamus Quitzon

1602637135

Learning by Doing: How to Learn Java Basics by Building Your Own Project

Java is not the hardest language to start with. So, it becomes way popular among novice developers joining the ranks of Java coders every single day. If you are reading this blog post, you might be interested in learning Java.

Java is widely used across industry, and especially in the area of Enterprise software, which results in many high paying job opportunities and makes this programming language a common language for newbies. A general promotion of it within colleges and other institutions providing a formal Computer Science education also contributes to its popularity.

However, these are not the only advantages of Java — among other things, it allows you to adopt good practices and makes it way easier to learn other languages in the future. And with no doubt, you can easily learn it if you’re following the right approach. In this post, I am going to share some of them with you.

The Importance of Practice in Programming

Beyond all doubt, practice is important and valuable. But, before we get to the advantages of hands-on experience, I want to draw your attention to one essential thing I often tell my students.

New programmers who are just learning and start implementing things, without being supervised, often end up adapting bad practices. To avoid that, especially when you are making your first steps in programming, I recommend looking for a person who will supervise you and teach you. A strong mentorship with someone engaged in a serious project, as well as communication within the community in the form of sharing code and asking for feedback, is worth the effort. Similarly, when you are applying for your first job, you want to be looking for a company with a strong team and a good leader who would be keen on investing into your learning.

Now, let’s return to practical experience. Learning by doing is different from learning by passively consuming the information. To make sure we can use all the newly acquired technology, we should put our skills to test and write tons of code. The benefits of hands-on experience are almost endless.

Efficiency and Productivity

By practicing, you get a clear understanding of what programming is. Consequently, you start doing better with each new hands-on task, complete it faster, and thus become more productive.

Even if you are not working on real-world projects yet, it’s important to get used to having deadlines. They are inextricably linked to the programming process. My recommendation is to set up your own deadlines while practicing stage and follow them as closely as possible.

#java #learn java #java code #learn java in easy way #learn java course #learn java development