Dylan North

Dylan North


TensorFlow.js Crash Course – Machine Learning For The Web – Getting Started

TensorFlow.js Crash Course – Machine Learning For The Web - Welcome to the first episode of the TensorFlow.js Crash Course for absolute beginners…

In this first part of the series you’ll learn:

  • What TensorFlow.js is
  • How TensorFlow.js is added to your web application
  • How TensorFlow.js can be used to add machine learning capabilities to your web application

What is TensorFlow.js

TensorFlow.js is a JavaScript library which makes it possible to add machine learning capabilities to any web application. With TensorFlow.js you can develop machine learning scenarios from scratch. You can use the APIs to build and train models right in the browser or in your Node.js server application. Furthermore you can use TensorFlow.js to run existing models in your JavaScript environment.

You can even use TensorFlow.js to retrain pre-existing machine learning models with data which is available client-side in the browser. E.g. you can use image data from your web cam.

The project’s website can be found at https://js.tensorflow.org/:

TensorFlow.js Fundamentals

Before getting started with practical example let’s take a look at the main building blocks in TensorFlow.


Tensors are the central unit of data in TensorFlow. A tensor contains a set of numeric values and can be of any shape: one or more dimensional. When you’re creating a new Tensor you need to define the shape as well. You can do that by using the tensor function and defining the shape by passing in a second argument like you can see in the following:

const t1 = tf.tensor([1,2,3,4,2,4,6,8]), [2,4]);

This is defining a tensor of a shape with two rows and four columns. The resulting tensor looks like the following:



It’s also possible to let TensorFlow infer the shape of the tensor:

const t2 = tf.tensor([[1,2,3,4],[2,4,6,8]]);

The result would be the same as before.

Furthermore you can use the following functions to enhance code readability:

  • tf.scalar: Tensor with just one value
  • tf.tensor1d: Tensor with one dimensions
  • tf.tensor2d: Tensor with two dimensions
  • tf.tensor3d: Tensor with three dimensions
  • tf.tensor4d: Tensor with four dimensions

If you would like to create a tensor with all values set to 0 you can use the tf.zeros function, as you can see in the following:

const t_zeros = tf.zeros([2,3]);

This line of code is creating the following tensor:



In TensorFlow.js all tensors are immutable. That means that a tensor once created, cannot be changed afterwards. If you perform an operation which is changing values of a tensor, always a new tensor with the resulting value is created and returned.


By using TensorFlow operations you can manipulate data of a tensor. Because of the immutability of tensor operations are always returning a new tensor with the resulting values.

TensorFlow.js offers many useful operations like square, add, sub and mul. Applying an operation is straight forward as you can see in the following:

const t3 = tf.tensor2d([1,2], [3, 4]);

const t3_squared = t3.square();

After having executed this code the new tensor contains the following values:

[[1, 4 ],

[9, 16]]

Models And Layers

Models and Layers are the two most important building blocks when it comes to deep learning. Each model is build up of one or more layers. TensorFlow is supporting different types of layers. For different machine learning tasks you need to use and combine different types of layers. For the moment it’s sufficient to understand that layers are used to build up neural networks (models) which can be trained with data and then used to predict further values based on the trained information.

Setting Up The Project

Let’s start by taking a look at a real world example. In the first step we need to set up the project. Create a new empty directory:

$ mkdir tfjs01

Change into that newly created project folder:

$ cd tfjs01

Inside the folder we’re now ready to create a package.json file, so that we’re able to manage dependencies by using the Node.js Package Manager:

$ npm init -y

Because we’ll be installing the dependencies (e.g. the Tensorflow.js library) locally in our project folder we need to use a module bundler for our web application. To keep things as easy as possible we’re going to use the Parcel web application bundler because Parcel is working with zero configuration. Let’s install the Parcel bundler by executing the following command in the project directory:

$ npm install -g parcel-bundler

Next, let’s create two new empty files for our implementation:

$ touch index.html index.js

Finally let’s add the Bootstrap library as a dependency because we will be using some Bootstrap CSS classes for our user interface elements:

$ npm install bootstrap

In index.html let’s insert the following code of a basic HTML page:

    <div class="container">
        <h1>Welcome to TensorFlow.js</h1>
        <div id="output"></div>

    <script src="./index.js"></script>

In addition add the following code to index.js:

import 'bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css'; 
document.getElementById('output').innerText = "Hello World";

Ee’re writing the text Hello World to the element with ID output to see a first result on the screen and get the confirmation that the JS code is being processed correctly.

Finally let’s start the build process and the development web server by using the parcelcommand in the following way:

$ parcel index.html

You now should be able to open the website via URL http://localhost:1234 in your browser. The result should correspond to what you can see in the following screenshot:

Adding TensorFlow.js

To add Tensorflow.js to our project we again make use of NPM and execute the following command in the project directory:

$ npm install @tensorflow/tfjs

This is downloading the library and installing it into the node_modules folder. Having executed this command successfully we’re now ready to import the Tensorflow.js libraray in index.js by adding the following import statement on top of the file:

import * as tf from '@tensorflow/tfjs';

As we’re importing TensorFlow.js as tf we now have access to the TensorFlow.js API by using the tf object within our code.

Defining The Model

Now that TensorFlow.js is available let’s start with a first simple machine learning exercise. The machine learning szenario the following sample application should cover is based on the formula Y=2X-1, a linear regression.

This function is returning the value Y for a given X. If you plot the points (X,Y) you will get a straight line like you can see in the following:

The machine learning exercise we’d like to implement in the following will use input data (X,Y) from this function and train a model with these value pairs. The model will not know the function itself and we’ll use the trained model to predict Y values based on X value inputs. The expectation is that the Y-results which are returned from the model are close to the exact values which would be returned by the function.

Let’s create a very simple neural network to perform the interference. This model needs to deal with just one input value and one output value:

// Define a machine learning model for linear regression 
const model = tf.sequential(); 
model.add(tf.layers.dense({units: 1, inputShape: [1]}));

First we’re creating a new model instance by calling tf.sequential method. We’re getting returned a new sequential model. A sequential model is any model where the outputs of one layer are the inputs to the next layer, i.e. the model topology is a simple ‘stack’ of layers, with no branching or skipping.

Having created that model we’re ready to add a first layer by calling model.add. A new layer is passed into the add method by calling tf.layers.dense. This is creating a dense layer. In a dense layer, every node in the layer is connected to every node in the preceding layer. For our simple example it’s sufficient to only add one dense layer with an input and output shape of one to the neural network.

In the next step we need to specify the loss and the optimizer function for the model.

// Specify loss and optimizer for model 
model.compile({loss: 'meanSquaredError', optimizer: 'sgd'});

This is done by passing a configuration object to the call of the compile method of the model instance. The configuration object contains two properties:

  • loss: Here we’re using the meanSquaredError loss function. In general a loss function is used to map values of one or more variables onto a real number that represents some “costs” associated with the value. If the model is trained it tries to minimize the result of the loss function. The mean squared error of an estimator measures the average of the squares of the errors — that is, the average squared difference between the estimated values and what is estimated.
  • optimizer: The optimizer function to use. For our linear regression machine learning task we’re using the sgd function. Sgd stands for* Stochastic Gradient Descent* and it an optimizer function which is suitable for linear regression tasks like in our case.

Now that model is configured and the next task to perform is the training of the model with values.

Training The Model

To train the model with value pairs from the function Y=2X-1 we’re defining two tensors with shape 6,1. The first tensor xs is containing the x values and the second tensor ys is containing the corresponding y values:

// Prepare training data 
const xs = tf.tensor2d([-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4], [6, 1]); 
const ys = tf.tensor2d([-3, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7], [6, 1]);

Now let’s train the model by passing the two tensors to the call of the model.fit method.

// Train the model 
model.fit(xs, ys, {epochs: 500}).then(() => { 

As the third parameter we’re passing over an object which contains a property named epochs which is set to the value 500. The number which is assigned here is specifying how many times TensorFlow.js is going through your training set.

The result of the fit method is a promise so that we’re able to register a callback function which is activated when the training is concluded.


Now let’s perform the final step inside this callback function and predict a y value based on a given x value:

// Train the model 
model.fit(xs, ys, {epochs: 500}).then(() => { 
 // Use model to predict values 
 model.predict(tf.tensor2d([5], [1,1])).print(); 

The prediction is done using the model.predict method. This method is expecting to receive the input value as a parameter in the form of a tensor. In this specific case we’re creating a tensor with just one value (5) inside and pass it over to predict. By calling the print function we’re making sure that the resulting value is printed to the console as you can see in the following:

The output shows that the predicted value is 8.9962864 and that is very close to 9 which would be the Y value of function Y=2X-1 if x is set to 5.

Optimizing The User Interface

The example which has been implemented is using a fixed input value for prediction (5) and outputting the result to the browser console. Let’s introduce a more sophisticated user interface which gives the user the possibility to enter the value which should be used for prediction. In index.html add the following code:

    <div class="container" style="padding-top: 20px">
        <div class="card">
            <div class="card-header">
                <strong>TensorFlow.js Demo - Linear Regression</strong>
            <div class="card-body">
                <label>Input Value:</label> <input type="text" id="inputValue" class="form-control"><br>
                <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary" id="predictButton" disabled>Model is being trained, please wait ...</button><br><br>
                <h4>Result: </span></h4>
                <h5><span class="badge badge-secondary" id="output"></span></h5>

    <script src="./index.js"></script>

Here we’re making use of various Bootstrap CSS classes, adding input and button elements to the page and defining an area which is used for outputting the result.

We need to make a few changes in index.js too:

import * as tf from '@tensorflow/tfjs';
import 'bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css';

// Define a machine learning model for linear regression
const model = tf.sequential();
model.add(tf.layers.dense({units: 1, inputShape: [1]}));

// Specify loss and optimizer for model
model.compile({loss: 'meanSquaredError', optimizer: 'sgd'});

// Prepare training data
const xs = tf.tensor2d([-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4], [6, 1]);
const ys = tf.tensor2d([-3, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7], [6,1]);

// Train the model and set predict button to active
model.fit(xs, ys, {epochs: 500}).then(() => {
    // Use model to predict values
    document.getElementById('predictButton').disabled = false;
    document.getElementById('predictButton').innerText = "Predict";

// Register click event handler for predict button
document.getElementById('predictButton').addEventListener('click', (el, ev) => {
    let val = document.getElementById('inputValue').value;
    document.getElementById('output').innerText = model.predict(tf.tensor2d([val], [1,1]));

An event handler for the click event of the predict button is registered. Inside this function the value of the input element is read and the model.predict method is called. The result which is returned by this method is inserted in the element with id output.

The result should now look like the following:

The user is now able to input the value (x) for which is the Y value should be predicted.

The prediction is done when the Predict button is clicked:

The result is then showed directly on the website.

What’s Next

In this first episode of this series you’ve learned the basics of Tensorflow.js and by using that library we’ve implemented a first simple machine learning example based on linear regression. Now you should have a basic understanding of the main Tensorflow.js building blocks.

In the next part we’ll again focus on a practical machine learning example and dive deeper into JavaScript-based machine learning with TensorFlow.js.

#machine-learning #tensorflow

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Buddha Community

TensorFlow.js Crash Course – Machine Learning For The Web – Getting Started

Ananya Gupta


Pros and Cons of Machine Learning Language

Amid all the promotion around Big Data, we continue hearing the expression “AI”. In addition to the fact that it offers a profitable vocation, it vows to tackle issues and advantage organizations by making expectations and helping them settle on better choices. In this blog, we will gain proficiency with the Advantages and Disadvantages of Machine Learning. As we will attempt to comprehend where to utilize it and where not to utilize Machine learning.

In this article, we discuss the Pros and Cons of Machine Learning.
Each coin has two faces, each face has its property and highlights. It’s an ideal opportunity to reveal the essence of ML. An extremely integral asset that holds the possibility to reform how things work.

Pros of Machine learning

  1. **Effectively recognizes patterns and examples **

AI can survey enormous volumes of information and find explicit patterns and examples that would not be evident to people. For example, for an online business site like Amazon, it serves to comprehend the perusing practices and buy chronicles of its clients to help oblige the correct items, arrangements, and updates pertinent to them. It utilizes the outcomes to uncover important promotions to them.

**Do you know the Applications of Machine Learning? **

  1. No human mediation required (mechanization)

With ML, you don’t have to keep an eye on the venture at all times. Since it implies enabling machines to learn, it lets them make forecasts and improve the calculations all alone. A typical case of this is hostile to infection programming projects; they figure out how to channel new dangers as they are perceived. ML is additionally acceptable at perceiving spam.

  1. **Constant Improvement **

As ML calculations gain understanding, they continue improving in precision and productivity. This lets them settle on better choices. Let’s assume you have to make a climate figure model. As the measure of information you have continues developing, your calculations figure out how to make increasingly exact expectations quicker.

  1. **Taking care of multi-dimensional and multi-assortment information **

AI calculations are acceptable at taking care of information that is multi-dimensional and multi-assortment, and they can do this in unique or unsure conditions. Key Difference Between Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

  1. **Wide Applications **

You could be an e-posterior or a social insurance supplier and make ML work for you. Where it applies, it holds the ability to help convey a considerably more close to home understanding to clients while additionally focusing on the correct clients.

**Cons of Machine Learning **

With every one of those points of interest to its effectiveness and ubiquity, Machine Learning isn’t great. The accompanying components serve to confine it:

1.** Information Acquisition**

AI requires monstrous informational indexes to prepare on, and these ought to be comprehensive/fair-minded, and of good quality. There can likewise be times where they should trust that new information will be created.

  1. **Time and Resources **

ML needs sufficient opportunity to allow the calculations to learn and grow enough to satisfy their motivation with a lot of precision and pertinence. It additionally needs monstrous assets to work. This can mean extra necessities of PC power for you.
Likewise, see the eventual fate of Machine Learning **

  1. **Understanding of Results **

Another significant test is the capacity to precisely decipher results produced by the calculations. You should likewise cautiously pick the calculations for your motivation.

  1. High mistake weakness

AI is self-governing yet exceptionally powerless to mistakes. Assume you train a calculation with informational indexes sufficiently little to not be comprehensive. You end up with one-sided expectations originating from a one-sided preparing set. This prompts unessential promotions being shown to clients. On account of ML, such botches can set off a chain of mistakes that can go undetected for extensive periods. What’s more, when they do get saw, it takes very some effort to perceive the wellspring of the issue, and significantly longer to address it.

**Conclusion: **

Subsequently, we have considered the Pros and Cons of Machine Learning. Likewise, this blog causes a person to comprehend why one needs to pick AI. While Machine Learning can be unimaginably ground-breaking when utilized in the correct manners and in the correct spots (where gigantic preparing informational indexes are accessible), it unquestionably isn’t for everybody. You may likewise prefer to peruse Deep Learning Vs Machine Learning.

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sophia tondon

sophia tondon


5 Latest Technology Trends of Machine Learning for 2021

Check out the 5 latest technologies of machine learning trends to boost business growth in 2021 by considering the best version of digital development tools. It is the right time to accelerate user experience by bringing advancement in their lifestyle.

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Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Python Packages in SQL Server – Get Started with SQL Server Machine Learning Services


When installing Machine Learning Services in SQL Server by default few Python Packages are installed. In this article, we will have a look on how to get those installed python package information.

Python Packages

When we choose Python as Machine Learning Service during installation, the following packages are installed in SQL Server,

  • revoscalepy – This Microsoft Python package is used for remote compute contexts, streaming, parallel execution of rx functions for data import and transformation, modeling, visualization, and analysis.
  • microsoftml – This is another Microsoft Python package which adds machine learning algorithms in Python.
  • Anaconda 4.2 – Anaconda is an opensource Python package

#machine learning #sql server #executing python in sql server #machine learning using python #machine learning with sql server #ml in sql server using python #python in sql server ml #python packages #python packages for machine learning services #sql server machine learning services

Nora Joy


Hire Machine Learning Developers in India

Hire machine learning developers in India ,DxMinds Technologies is the best product engineering company in India making innovative solutions using Machine learning and deep learning. We are among the best to hire machine learning experts in India work in different industry domains like Healthcare retail, banking and finance ,oil and gas, ecommerce, telecommunication ,FMCG, fashion etc.
Product Engineering & Development
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Hire machine learning developers in India ,DxMinds Technologies is the best product engineering company in India making innovative solutions using Machine learning and deep learning. We are among the best to hire machine learning experts in India work in different industry domains like Healthcare retail, banking and finance ,oil and gas, ecommerce, telecommunication ,FMCG, fashion etc.


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Maintenance / Support / Sustenance

Integration / Data Management

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Applications of machine learning in different industry domains

Machine learning applications are a staple of modern business in this digital age as they allow them to perform tasks on a scale and scope previously impossible to accomplish.Businesses from different domains realize the importance of incorporating machine learning in business processes.Today this trending technology transforming almost every single industry ,business from different industry domains hire dedicated machine learning developers for skyrocket the business growth.Following are the applications of machine learning in different industry domains.

Transportation industry

Machine learning is one of the technologies that have already begun their promising marks in the transportation industry.Autonomous Vehicles,Smartphone Apps,Traffic Management Solutions,Law Enforcement,Passenger Transportation etc are the applications of AI and ML in the transportation industry.Following challenges in the transportation industry can be solved by machine learning and Artificial Intelligence.

  • ML and AI can offer high security in the transportation industry.
  • It offers high reliability of their services or vehicles.
  • The adoption of this technology in the transportation industry can increase the efficiency of the service.
  • In the transportation industry ML helps scientists and engineers come up with far more environmentally sustainable methods for powering and operating vehicles and machinery for travel and transport.

Healthcare industry

Technology-enabled smart healthcare is the latest trend in the healthcare industry. Different areas of healthcare, such as patient care, medical records, billing, alternative models of staffing, IP capitalization, smart healthcare, and administrative and supply cost reduction. Hire dedicated machine learning developers for any of the following applications.

  • Identifying Diseases and Diagnosis
  • Drug Discovery and Manufacturing
  • Medical Imaging Diagnosis
  • Personalized Medicine
  • Machine Learning-based Behavioral Modification
  • Smart Health Records
  • Clinical Trial and Research
  • Better Radiotherapy
  • Crowdsourced Data Collection
  • Outbreak Prediction

Finance industry**

In financial industries organizations like banks, fintech, regulators and insurance are Adopting machine learning to improve their facilities.Following are the use cases of machine learning in finance.

  • Fraud prevention
  • Risk management
  • Investment predictions
  • Customer service
  • Digital assistants
  • Marketing
  • Network security
  • Loan underwriting
  • Algorithmic trading
  • Process automation
  • Document interpretation
  • Content creation
  • Trade settlements
  • Money-laundering prevention
  • Custom machine learning solutions

Education industry

Education industry is one of the industries which is investing in machine learning as it offers more efficient and easierlearning.AdaptiveLearning,IncreasingEfficiency,Learning Analytics,Predictive Analytics,Personalized Learning,Evaluating Assessments etc are the applications of machine learning in the education industry.

Outsource your machine learning solution to India,India is the best outsourcing destination offering best in class high performing tasks at an affordable price.Business** hire dedicated machine learning developers in India for making your machine learning app idea into reality.
Future of machine learning

Continuous technological advances are bound to hit the field of machine learning, which will shape the future of machine learning as an intensively evolving language.

  • Improved Unsupervised Algorithms
  • Increased Adoption of Quantum Computing
  • Enhanced Personalization
  • Improved Cognitive Services
  • Rise of Robots

Today most of the business from different industries are hire machine learning developers in India and achieve their business goals. This technology may have multiple applications, and, interestingly, it hasn’t even started yet but having taken such a massive leap, it also opens up so many possibilities in the existing business models in such a short period of time. There is no question that the increase of machine learning also brings the demand for mobile apps, so most companies and agencies employ Android developers and hire iOS developers to incorporate machine learning features into them.

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