Beginner's Guide to Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

There are many ways that a system or machine can be taught to ‘learn’ and derive meaning from data. Machine learning is a branch of computer science that focuses on using data and algorithms to make machines intelligent and make the machine simulate how humans learn and how a human brain works, gradually improving its accuracy to provide more efficient results.

Read more: https://analyticsindiamag.com/beginners-guide-to-generative-adversarial-networks-gans/

#gans #computervision #tutorial

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Beginner's Guide to Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)
Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea

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Paper Reading on Generative Adversarial Nets

Generative Adversarial Nets

The main idea is to develop a generative model via an adversarial process. We will discuss what is an adversarial process later. GAN consists of two model. The one is generative model G and the other is discriminative model D. The purpose of a generative model is to generate the closest data as possible for give some input. The purpose of a discriminative model between two classes 0 and 1. 0 meaning the class belongs to Generative output and 1 meaning the class belongs to the true input sample from the original data.

This architecture corresponds to the minmax two-player game. One tries to create conflict over the other. Such networks are called adversarial networks. In the process of creating conflicts, both of them learn to be better and stronger than each other. When the discriminator makes an output of value ½ or 0.5, it implies that the discriminator is not able to distinguish whether the value came from the generator output or the original sample.

Here, the G and D are defined by the multilayered perceptron such that the entire system can be trained with back propagation. The training of the discriminator and generator are done separately.

According to the paper, the generative model can be thought of as analogous to a team of counterfeiters who are trying to produce a fake currency and use them without getting caught.

While, the discriminative model can be thought of as analogous to the Police who are trying to detect the fake currency. Here, both the teams try to improve their methods until the currencies are indistinguishable from the original currency.

Adversarial Networks

Straight from the paper,

To learn the generator’s distribution Pg over data x, we define a prior on input noise variables Pz(z), then represent a mapping to data space as G(z; θg ).

where G is a differentiable function represented by a multilayer perceptron with parameters θ g .

We also define a second multilayer perceptron D(x; θd ) that outputs a single scalar.

Where D(x) represents the probability that x came from the data rather than Pg.

The architecture of GAN can be explained from the following figure.

Image for post

#generative-adversarial #discriminator #adversarial-network #deep-learning #neural-networks

Angela  Dickens

Angela Dickens

1595047860

Attention in GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks)

In 2017, the paper “Attention is all you need”shocked the land of NLP (Natural Language Processing). It was shocking not only because it has a good paper title, but also because it introduced to the world a new model architecture called “Transformer”, which proved to perform much better than the traditional RNN type of networks and paved its way to the state of the art NLP model “BERT”.

This stone cast in the pond of NLP has created ripples in the pond of GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks). Many have been inspired by this and attempt to garner the magic power of attention. But when I first started reading papers about using attention in GANs, it appeared to me there are so many different meanings behind the same “attention” word. In case you are as confused as I was, let me be at your service and shed some light on what people really mean when they say they use “attention” in GANs.

Meaning 1: Self-attention

Self-attention in GANs is very similar to the mechanism in the NLP Transformer model. Basically, it addresses the difficulty of the AI model in understanding long-range dependency.

In NLP, the problem arises when there is a long sentence. Take the example of this Oscar Wilde’s quote _“To __live _is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all.” The two words in bold (“live” and “exist”) have a relationship, but they are placed far apart from each other which makes it hard for the RNN type of AI model to capture the relationship.

It is almost the same in GANs, most of GANs use CNN structure which is good at capturing local features and may overlook the long-range dependency when it is outside of its receptive field. As a result, it is easy for GANs to generate realistic-looking furs on dogs, but it may make a mistake by generating a dog with 5 legs.

Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Networks(SAGAN) adds a self-attention module to guide the model to look at features at distant portions of the image. In the pictures below, the picture on the left is the generated image, with some sample locations labeled with color dots. The other images showing the corresponding attention map of the locations. I find the most interesting one is the 5th image with the cyan dot. It shows that when the model generates the left ear of the dog, it not only looks at the local region around the left ear but also looks at the right ear.

Image for post

Visualization of the attention map for the color labeled locations. source

If you are interested in the technical details of SAGAN, other than reading the paper, I also recommend this post.

Meaning 2: Attention in the discriminator

GANs consist of a generator and a discriminator. In the GANs world, they are like two gods eternally at war, where the generator god tirelessly creates, and the discriminator god stands at the side and criticizes how bad these creations are. It may sound like the discriminator is the bad god, but that is not true. It is through these criticisms that the generator god knows how to improve.

If these “criticisms” from discriminator are so helpful, why not we pay more attention to them? Let’s see how this paper “U-GAT-IT: Unsupervised Generative Attentional Networks with Adaptive Layer-Instance Normalization for Image-to-Image Translation_” _does this.

The project U-GAT-IT tackles a difficult task — converts a human photo into a Japanese anime image. It is difficult because an anime character’s face is vastly different from a real person’s face. Take an example of the pair images below. The anime character on the right is deemed as a good conversion from the person on the left. But is we put ourselves in the computer’s shoes for a moment, we will see that the eyes, nose, and mouth in the two images are very different, the structure and proportion of the face also changes a lot. It is very hard for a computer to know what features to preserve and what to modify.

#machine-learning #gans #neural-networks #deep-learning #generative-model #deep learning

How To Create User-Generated Content? [A Simple Guide To Grow Your Brand]

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In this digital world, online businesses aspire to catch the attention of users in a modern and smarter way. To achieve it, they need to traverse through new approaches. Here comes to spotlight is the user-generated content or UGC.

What is user-generated content?
“ It is the content by users for users.”

Generally, the UGC is the unbiased content created and published by the brand users, social media followers, fans, and influencers that highlight their experiences with the products or services. User-generated content has superseded other marketing trends and fallen into the advertising feeds of brands. Today, more than 86 percent of companies use user-generated content as part of their marketing strategy.

In this article, we have explained the ten best ideas to create wonderful user-generated content for your brand. Let’s start without any further ado.

  1. Content From Social Media Platforms
    In the year 2020, there are 3.81 million people actively using social media around the globe. That is the reason social media content matters. Whenever users look at the content on social media that is posted by an individual, then they may be influenced by their content. Perhaps, it can be used to gain more customers or followers on your social media platforms.

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Generally, social media platforms help the brand to generate content for your users. Any user content that promotes your brand on the social media platform is the user-generated content for your business. When users create and share content on social media, they get 28% higher engagement than a standard company post.

Furthermore, you can embed your social media feed on your website also. you can use the Social Stream Designer WordPress plugin that will integrate various social media feeds from different social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and many more. With this plugin, you can create a responsive wall on your WordPress website or blog in a few minutes. In addition to this, the plugin also provides more than 40 customization options to make your social stream feeds more attractive.

  1. Consumer Survey
    The customer survey provides powerful insights you need to make a better decision for your business. Moreover, it is great user-generated content that is useful for identifying unhappy consumers and those who like your product or service.

In general, surveys can be used to figure out attitudes, reactions, to evaluate customer satisfaction, estimate their opinions about different problems. Another benefit of customer surveys is that collecting outcomes can be quick. Within a few minutes, you can design and load a customer feedback survey and send it to your customers for their response. From the customer survey data, you can find your strengths, weaknesses, and get the right way to improve them to gain more customers.

  1. Run Contests
    A contest is a wonderful way to increase awareness about a product or service. Contest not just helps you to enhance the volume of user-generated content submissions, but they also help increase their quality. However, when you create a contest, it is important to keep things as simple as possible.

Additionally, it is the best way to convert your brand leads to valuable customers. The key to running a successful contest is to make sure that the reward is fair enough to motivate your participation. If the product is relevant to your participant, then chances are they were looking for it in the first place, and giving it to them for free just made you move forward ahead of your competitors. They will most likely purchase more if your product or service satisfies them.

Furthermore, running contests also improve the customer-brand relationship and allows more people to participate in it. It will drive a real result for your online business. If your WordPress website has Google Analytics, then track contest page visits, referral traffic, other website traffic, and many more.

  1. Review And Testimonials
    Customer reviews are a popular user-generated content strategy. One research found that around 68% of customers must see at least four reviews before trusting a brand. And, approximately 40 percent of consumers will stop using a business after they read negative reviews.

The business reviews help your consumers to make a buying decision without any hurdle. While you may decide to remove all the negative reviews about your business, those are still valuable user-generated content that provides honest opinions from real users. Customer feedback can help you with what needs to be improved with your products or services. This thing is not only beneficial to the next customer but your business as a whole.

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Reviews are powerful as the platform they are built upon. That is the reason it is important to gather reviews from third-party review websites like Google review, Facebook review, and many more, or direct reviews on a website. It is the most vital form of feedback that can help brands grow globally and motivate audience interactions.

However, you can also invite your customers to share their unique or successful testimonials. It is a great way to display your products while inspiring others to purchase from your website.

  1. Video Content
    A great video is a video that is enjoyed by visitors. These different types of videos, such as 360-degree product videos, product demo videos, animated videos, and corporate videos. The Facebook study has demonstrated that users spend 3x more time watching live videos than normal videos. With the live video, you can get more user-created content.

Moreover, Instagram videos create around 3x more comments rather than Instagram photo posts. Instagram videos generally include short videos posted by real customers on Instagram with the tag of a particular brand. Brands can repost the stories as user-generated content to engage more audiences and create valid promotions on social media.

Similarly, imagine you are browsing a YouTube channel, and you look at a brand being supported by some authentic customers through a small video. So, it will catch your attention. With the videos, they can tell you about the branded products, especially the unboxing videos displaying all the inside products and how well it works for them. That type of video is enough to create a sense of desire in the consumers.

Continue Reading

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amelia jones

1591340335

How To Take Help Of Referencing Generator

APA Referencing Generator

Many students use APA style as the key citation style in their assignment in university or college. Although, many people find it quite difficult to write the reference of the source. You ought to miss the names and dates of authors. Hence, APA referencing generator is important for reducing the burden of students. They can now feel quite easy to do the assignments on time.

The functioning of APA referencing generator

If you are struggling hard to write the APA referencing then you can take the help of APA referencing generator. It will create an excellent list. You are required to enter the information about the source. Just ensure that the text is credible and original. If you will copy references then it is a copyright violation.

You can use a referencing generator in just a click. It will generate the right references for all the sources. You are required to organize in alphabetical order. The generator will make sure that you will get good grades.

How to use APA referencing generator?

Select what is required to be cited such as journal, book, film, and others. You can choose the type of required citations list and enter all the required fields. The fields are dates, author name, title, editor name, and editions, name of publishers, chapter number, page numbers, and title of journals. You can click for reference to be generated and you will get the desired result.

Chicago Referencing Generator

Do you require the citation style? You can rely on Chicago Referencing Generator and will ensure that you will get the right citation in just a click. The generator is created to provide solutions to students to cite their research paper in Chicago style. It has proved to be the quickest and best citation generator on the market. The generator helps to sort the homework issues in few seconds. It also saves a lot of time and energy.

This tool helps researchers, professional writers, and students to manage and generate text citation essays. It will help to write Chicago style in a fast and easy way. It also provides details and directions for formatting and cites resources.

So, you must stop wasting the time and can go for Chicago Referencing Generator or APA referencing generator. These citation generators will help to solve the problem of citation issues. You can easily create citations by using endnotes and footnotes.

So, you can generate bibliographies, references, in-text citations, and title pages. These are fully automatic referencing style. You are just required to enter certain details about the citation and you will get the citation in the proper and required format.

So, if you are feeling any problem in doing assignment then you can take the help of assignment help.
If you require help for Assignment then livewebtutors is the right place for you. If you see our prices, you will observe that they are actually very affordable. Also, you can always expect a discount. Our team is capable and versatile enough to offer you exactly what you need, the best services for the prices you can afford.

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